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  • 1. Learning Outcomes: Motivation Describe the five levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory Outline the three areas of Alderfer’s ERG model Contrast McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Describe the impact of the three needs of the McClelland Theory Explain the Goal-setting Theory for motivation Explain the relationship between the three contingencies of Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Gain a greater understanding of one’s own motivational needs through self assessment Copyright 2006 Vandeveer, Chapter 5 Menefee, Sinclair 1 Motivation Motivation is the willingness of a person to exert high levels of effort to satisfy some individual need or want. The effort is a measure of intensity. Need – Some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer, Chapter 5 Menefee, Sinclair 2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs e ds r Ne de Or er gh Hi Self-actualization Ego or Esteem Needs ds ee Social/Belonging Needs rN de Or we r Safety/Security NeedsLo Physical Needs Copyright 2006 Vandeveer, Chapter 5 Menefee, Sinclair 3 1
  • 2. Behavioral Models of Motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Motivation as a means of satisfying human needs Five types of needs: Physiological: food, water, sleep, exercise, etc. Safety: security, shelter, normalcy in daily life Love and belongingness: affection and acceptance as part of a family or a group Esteem or status: respect from others; need to feel competent, confident, important, and appreciated; self-respect Self-actualization: the need to realize one’s own potential, to achieve dreams & ambitions; hunger for knowledge and understanding; to do things for the sake of doing them Copyright 2006 Vandeveer, Chapter 5 Menefee, Sinclair 4 Alderfer’s ERG Theory of MotivationAll needs are Existenceoperative atone time Relatedness Growth Copyright 2006 Vandeveer, Chapter 5 Menefee, Sinclair 5 McGregor’s Theory X & Y Theory X Theory Y Managers are pessimistic Managers are more about workers’ optimistic about workers’ capabilities. capabilities. Managers believe people Managers believe people dislike work, seek to enjoy work, willingly avoid responsibility, and accept responsibility, are not ambitious. exercise self-control, Employees must be have the capacity to closely supervised. innovate, and work is as natural as play. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer, Chapter 5 Menefee, Sinclair 6 2
  • 3. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer,Chapter 5 Menefee, Sinclair 7 McClelland’s Needs Theory The need for Achievement: is the drive to accomplish challenging goals. The need for Power: is the desire to control others; to influence others’ behavior according to one’s wishes. The need for Affiliation: is the desire for close relationships with others. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer,Chapter 5 Menefee, Sinclair 8 Goal Setting Theory A goal is what a person tries to attain, accomplish, or achieve. Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended. A specific hard goal that is understood and accepted by the individual acts as an internal stimulus. Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of “do your best.” The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus. Feedback is critical and acts to guide behavior. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer,Chapter 5 Menefee, Sinclair 9 3
  • 4. Expectancy Theory The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. The theory focuses on three relationships: effort-performance relationship. performance-reward relationship. reward-personal goals relationship. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer,Chapter 5 Menefee, Sinclair 10 Expectancy Theory Effort-performance relationship: the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. Performance-reward relationship: the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome. Reward-personal goals relationship: the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer,Chapter 5 Menefee, Sinclair 11 Summary Motivation is what makes people go and it is a reaction of some internal stimuli. Motivation towards better performance depends on the satisfaction of needs. Needs are felt and their intensity varies from one person to another, from time to time, and so does the extent to which they are motivating. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer,Chapter 5 Menefee, Sinclair 12 4