Classical China
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    Classical China Classical China Presentation Transcript

    • CHINA By: Chris Griffith
    • About China
      • China is a tight knit society with strong values and beliefs
      • The Chinese are an innovative people who brought about many crucial technologies
      • China is one of the oldest, continuous societies
      • Over time it increased in size by conquering the surrounding lands
      Zhou Dynasty 1027-256 BCE Qin Dynasty 221 - 207 BCE Han Dynasty 206 BCE - 220 CE
    • Government
      • Classical China had a monarchal system with families of kings called dynasties
      • These dynasties flowed in a circular pattern known as a dynasty cycle
      • In a dynastic cycle, a new dynasty starts when a new ruler overtakes the old one
      You can see this chart more clearly at http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/goldenages/china.cfm
    • Zhou (1027-256 BCE)
      • The Zhou government was a feudal monarchy with many vassals, or rulers of portions of land who served the king
      • The Zhou conquered additional land know as the “Middle Kingdom”
      • The Zhou came up with the idea of a “Mandate from Heaven”, which they and all future dynasties used to justify their rule
      • Zhou Dynasty was a time of great philosophical advancement
      • One Great Philosopher of the Zhou dynasty was Confucius or Master K’ung
        • His teachings are the main focus of Confucianism
      • The latter part of the Zhou Dynasty is divided into the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period
    • Qin (221-207 BCE)
      • The Qin Dynasty ended the Warring States Period by conquering all the other states
      • This was the first time China was organized into one body
      • The Qin had a Legalist government, which meant they followed rules strictly, that was run by an Emperor (Shi huangdi)
      • They imposed high taxes and mandatory public works
      • Each of the commanderies had a civil governor, a military commander, and an imperial inspector, and they reported to the emperor
      • The commanderies were divided into smaller units known as counties
      • The Qin built the first Great Wall of China, which was expanded and improved by later dynasties
      This was the Great Wall of China during the Qin dynasty
    • Han ( 206 BCE – 220 CE )
      • The Han kept most of the governmental practices of the Qin, but added Confucian beliefs to their rule
      • The Han dynasty was a period of large expansion by military force
      • This expansion move China’s boundaries toward inner Asia, this created the opportunity for the Silk Road to develop
      • Under the Han rule, education became very important and many important history books, textbooks and encyclopedias were written
      • During the Han many of China’s important technologies were invented
      • Crop rotation was developed and practiced from 85 BCE onwards
    • Art and Culture
      • Chinese art had many impressive forms, including:
        • Ornate carvings in jade, ivory, and wood
        • Amazing bronze workings
        • Spectacular temples
        • Elaborate works of silk
      • Most Chinese art deals with the beauty of the natural world
      • China had its own rich culture which was spread and enhanced by the Silk Road
        • The Silk Road stretched from China to the Mediterranean through India and Mesopotamia
        • This trade route brought many other societies’ culture into China and the Chinese culture throughout the ancient world
      A bronze horse from the Han dynasty This jade carving was a pendant from the Zhou dynasty
    • Social System
      • The social hierarchy in China consisted of three levels, gentry, peasants, and merchants
      • Along with this hierarchy was the idea that men held a higher status than women
    • Religion/Philosophy
      • Classical China did not have a unified belief system
      • Two major philosophies in China were Confucianism and Daoism
      • Confucianism was a school of though based on the teachings of Confucius
        • It taught people to act in accordance with the five major relationships, 4 of which dealt with a superior and a subject, and respectful subservience
      • Daoism was a more spiritual philosophy based on the idea of the “Dao” or “way”
        • It taught specific ways to follow the “Dao” and ultimately become one with the “Dao”
      • Along with these most Chinese practice ancestral worship
      Yin Yang a Daoist symbol of the harmony of opposites An important symbol of Confucianism
    • Economics
      • The main source of income was agriculture
      • Most farming was of wheat, barley, millet, rice and beans
      • There was a large economic gap between the wealthy bureaucrats and the peasant farmers
      • Most of China’s population worked as peasant farmers
      • The next largest group were merchants who sold goods domestically throughout China
      • Another source of economic gain was the trade China had with other countries along the Silk Road
    • Science
      • Chinese science dealt with a wide range of subjects including astronomy, chemistry, botany, and zoology
      • The Chinese were advanced in astronomy and created a lunar calendar and clocks based on astronomical movements
      • Important technologies: the first books made of wood or bamboo, paper made from wood pulp, the rudder for use on ships, the fishing reel, and the wheelbarrow
      • In the field of medicine, physicians developed acupuncture and made use of certain plants as herbal remedies
      This is a chart of where the Chinese would place the needles when performing acupuncture
    • Works Cited
      • Stearns, Peter, Michael Adas, Stuart Schwartz, and Marc Gilbert. World Civilizations: The Global Experience . AP Edition DBQ Update Fourth Edition. Pearson Education, 2006. Print.
      • &quot;Dynastic China.&quot; Regents Prep . 2009. Web. 28 Sep 2009. <http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/goldenages/china.cfm>.
      • &quot;Chapter 2: Classical Civilization: China.&quot; Pearson Education. 2008. Pearson Longman, Web. 28 Sep 2009. <http://wps.ablongman.com/long_stearns_wcap_4/18/4646/1189489.cw/index.html>.
      • &quot;Map of Ancient China.&quot; China Highlights. 2007. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://www.chinahighlights.com/map/ancient-china-map/>.
      • &quot;Religious symbols.&quot; Wikimedia Commons. 02 May 2009. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Religious_symbols>.
      • &quot;Qin Dynasty.&quot; Minnesota State University Mankato. 2002. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/early_imperial_china/qin.html>.
      • “ Zhou Dynasty.&quot; Minnesota State University Mankato. 2002. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/ancient_china/zhou.html>.
      • “ Han Dynasty.&quot; Minnesota State University Mankato. 2002. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/early_imperial_china/han.html>.
      • &quot;Acupuncture.&quot; Hazel Priestley Acupuncture. 2008. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://hazelacupuncture.co.uk/acupuncture.html>.
      • &quot;Clothing and Ornaments .&quot; Cultural China. 2007. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://traditions.cultural-china.com/en/15T1477T2337.html>.
      • &quot;Ancient China.&quot; Buzzle. 2009. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ancient-china.html>.