Classical China


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Classical China

  1. 1. CHINA By: Chris Griffith
  2. 2. About China <ul><li>China is a tight knit society with strong values and beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese are an innovative people who brought about many crucial technologies </li></ul><ul><li>China is one of the oldest, continuous societies </li></ul><ul><li>Over time it increased in size by conquering the surrounding lands </li></ul>Zhou Dynasty 1027-256 BCE Qin Dynasty 221 - 207 BCE Han Dynasty 206 BCE - 220 CE
  3. 3. Government <ul><li>Classical China had a monarchal system with families of kings called dynasties </li></ul><ul><li>These dynasties flowed in a circular pattern known as a dynasty cycle </li></ul><ul><li>In a dynastic cycle, a new dynasty starts when a new ruler overtakes the old one </li></ul>You can see this chart more clearly at
  4. 4. Zhou (1027-256 BCE) <ul><li>The Zhou government was a feudal monarchy with many vassals, or rulers of portions of land who served the king </li></ul><ul><li>The Zhou conquered additional land know as the “Middle Kingdom” </li></ul><ul><li>The Zhou came up with the idea of a “Mandate from Heaven”, which they and all future dynasties used to justify their rule </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou Dynasty was a time of great philosophical advancement </li></ul><ul><li>One Great Philosopher of the Zhou dynasty was Confucius or Master K’ung </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His teachings are the main focus of Confucianism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The latter part of the Zhou Dynasty is divided into the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period </li></ul>
  5. 5. Qin (221-207 BCE) <ul><li>The Qin Dynasty ended the Warring States Period by conquering all the other states </li></ul><ul><li>This was the first time China was organized into one body </li></ul><ul><li>The Qin had a Legalist government, which meant they followed rules strictly, that was run by an Emperor (Shi huangdi) </li></ul><ul><li>They imposed high taxes and mandatory public works </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the commanderies had a civil governor, a military commander, and an imperial inspector, and they reported to the emperor </li></ul><ul><li>The commanderies were divided into smaller units known as counties </li></ul><ul><li>The Qin built the first Great Wall of China, which was expanded and improved by later dynasties </li></ul>This was the Great Wall of China during the Qin dynasty
  6. 6. Han ( 206 BCE – 220 CE ) <ul><li>The Han kept most of the governmental practices of the Qin, but added Confucian beliefs to their rule </li></ul><ul><li>The Han dynasty was a period of large expansion by military force </li></ul><ul><li>This expansion move China’s boundaries toward inner Asia, this created the opportunity for the Silk Road to develop </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Han rule, education became very important and many important history books, textbooks and encyclopedias were written </li></ul><ul><li>During the Han many of China’s important technologies were invented </li></ul><ul><li>Crop rotation was developed and practiced from 85 BCE onwards </li></ul>
  7. 7. Art and Culture <ul><li>Chinese art had many impressive forms, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ornate carvings in jade, ivory, and wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazing bronze workings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectacular temples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborate works of silk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Chinese art deals with the beauty of the natural world </li></ul><ul><li>China had its own rich culture which was spread and enhanced by the Silk Road </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Silk Road stretched from China to the Mediterranean through India and Mesopotamia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This trade route brought many other societies’ culture into China and the Chinese culture throughout the ancient world </li></ul></ul>A bronze horse from the Han dynasty This jade carving was a pendant from the Zhou dynasty
  8. 8. Social System <ul><li>The social hierarchy in China consisted of three levels, gentry, peasants, and merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Along with this hierarchy was the idea that men held a higher status than women </li></ul>
  9. 9. Religion/Philosophy <ul><li>Classical China did not have a unified belief system </li></ul><ul><li>Two major philosophies in China were Confucianism and Daoism </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism was a school of though based on the teachings of Confucius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It taught people to act in accordance with the five major relationships, 4 of which dealt with a superior and a subject, and respectful subservience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Daoism was a more spiritual philosophy based on the idea of the “Dao” or “way” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It taught specific ways to follow the “Dao” and ultimately become one with the “Dao” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Along with these most Chinese practice ancestral worship </li></ul>Yin Yang a Daoist symbol of the harmony of opposites An important symbol of Confucianism
  10. 10. Economics <ul><li>The main source of income was agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Most farming was of wheat, barley, millet, rice and beans </li></ul><ul><li>There was a large economic gap between the wealthy bureaucrats and the peasant farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Most of China’s population worked as peasant farmers </li></ul><ul><li>The next largest group were merchants who sold goods domestically throughout China </li></ul><ul><li>Another source of economic gain was the trade China had with other countries along the Silk Road </li></ul>
  11. 11. Science <ul><li>Chinese science dealt with a wide range of subjects including astronomy, chemistry, botany, and zoology </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese were advanced in astronomy and created a lunar calendar and clocks based on astronomical movements </li></ul><ul><li>Important technologies: the first books made of wood or bamboo, paper made from wood pulp, the rudder for use on ships, the fishing reel, and the wheelbarrow </li></ul><ul><li>In the field of medicine, physicians developed acupuncture and made use of certain plants as herbal remedies </li></ul>This is a chart of where the Chinese would place the needles when performing acupuncture
  12. 12. Works Cited <ul><li>Stearns, Peter, Michael Adas, Stuart Schwartz, and Marc Gilbert. World Civilizations: The Global Experience . AP Edition DBQ Update Fourth Edition. Pearson Education, 2006. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Dynastic China.&quot; Regents Prep . 2009. Web. 28 Sep 2009. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Chapter 2: Classical Civilization: China.&quot; Pearson Education. 2008. Pearson Longman, Web. 28 Sep 2009. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Map of Ancient China.&quot; China Highlights. 2007. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Religious symbols.&quot; Wikimedia Commons. 02 May 2009. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Qin Dynasty.&quot; Minnesota State University Mankato. 2002. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Zhou Dynasty.&quot; Minnesota State University Mankato. 2002. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Han Dynasty.&quot; Minnesota State University Mankato. 2002. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Acupuncture.&quot; Hazel Priestley Acupuncture. 2008. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Clothing and Ornaments .&quot; Cultural China. 2007. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ancient China.&quot; Buzzle. 2009. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <>. </li></ul>