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International Congress (LA BCI- Chile) .

International Congress (LA BCI- Chile) .
Presentation on the findings of classroom research into the relevance of strategy-use in reading and listening from the learners' viewpoint.

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  • I decided to investigate the relevance of strategy-use from the learner’s view point, because after teaching a lesson on reading skills, in which I guided the students to use the appropriate strategies, I applied a questionnaire about the utility of those strategies for that lesson and some students said they hadn’t been useful at all. It was my hypotheses that learners were not evaluating the utility of those strategies appropriately because they were not aware of the strategies they were using. Today I’m going to argue that raising students awareness of strategies won’t necessarily change the relevance of strategy-use in reading and listening from their point of view.
  • In order to test my hypotheses, I got two ALTE 2 teenager groups and planned a series of reading and listening lessons in which they were guided to use direct strategies ( as for example guessing intelligently, getting the idea quickly, taking notes etc).With the control group, I would just teach the lesson up to this part, but with the experimental group, I would have a raising awareness part.
  • Today, I will show you three lessons. A sample for a typical listening lesson and a sample for a typical reading lesson.The third lesson was common for both groups and its objective was to compare both groups opinion about the relevance of strategy-use.
  • I elicited from them what we had done and this is what I got. Talked about different kinds of parties, shared experiences about good/bad parties.(This activity aimed at setting the topic, activating they background knowledge about parties, relating it to their life etc.)
  • The students could relate different strategies to different activities. From my point of view, they were able to relate the appropriate strategy to a specific activity because they understood why to use those strategies and how they can help the task achievement. However ,again, to my mind the students used the strategies according to whether or not they needed them. They chose the ones that were necessary for them. Understanding the rationale behind the use of strategies and how the strategies can help task achievement was not the reason which made the students use the strategies.
  • The students from the experimental group did not attach importance to the strategies just because they had their awareness raised about how, when and why to use those strategies. Different students attached importance to different strategies according to their needs at that specific moment. However, because of the raising awareness process, they became more conscious of their own potential as learners. They saw themselves as part of the process when they could not accomplish a listening or reading task successfully, thus they could think of solutions to overcome the difficulties found. They were more mature and independent learners. The students from the control group were not so conscious of what hindered them from accomplishing the tasks efficiently. They were not equipped with the knowledge to spot what really went wrong, thus they couldn’t try and find efficient solutions for the problem. They didn’t recognize themselves as part of the problem being no source of possible solutions. Nevertheless, the fact that they didn’t go through the raising awareness process did not impede them from using, recognizing and attaching importance to some strategies. The students did a Reading test taken from PET exam. On average students from the experimental group scored higher than the students from the control group. All of a total of 35 questions, the control group scored 25 on average and the experimental group scored 30.

C:\users\chris\documents\activstudio3\chris cultura\labci presentation\labci_presentation_final_yellow C:\users\chris\documents\activstudio3\chris cultura\labci presentation\labci_presentation_final_yellow Presentation Transcript

  • The relevance of strategy-use in reading and listening from the learners' viewpoint. Santiago, July 14 Christiane R. Cacciari São Paulo, Brazil X TH LABCI CONFERENCE 
  • ALTE 2 TEENAGERS CONTROL 15 STUDENTS EXPERIMENTAL 15 STUDENTS PART 1: skills + strategies PART 2: raising awareness
  • Sample 1 Objective Raising awareness: Elicitation + Investigation + Feedback Reflection: Sample 2 Objective Raising awareness: Elicitation + Investigation + Feedback Reflection: Final Lesson Objective Raising awareness: 2 experiences: Investigation and Reflection Comparing and contrasting groups : Experimental group and control group Conclusions View slide
  • Objective (SAMPLE 1- LESSON ON LISTENING)
    • To initiate the process of drawing my
    • students attention to opportunities to use strategies when reading and
    • listening, and systematise the strategy use with the group.
    • Part 1
    • Opportunity
    • Listening skills
    • (strategies +comprehension part)
    • Pre teaching vocabulary, activating schemata.
    • Pre listening.
    • Listening for gist.
    • Listening for details .
    Part 2 Raising awareness Elicitation + Investigation + Feedback View slide
  • Part 2 – Raising awareness (SAMPLE 1)
    • Elicitation
    • Talked about different kinds of parties, shared experiences about good/bad parties.
    • Discussed and agreed on the ingredients for a good party.
    • Listened to 3 people talking about the same topic. (The first time to get the main idea and the second time for details)
    • Investigation ( Via questionnaire about strategies.)
    • True or false?
    • Talking about the topic that I was going to listen to made me feel comfortable when listening to the passage.
    • The first time I listened to the CD, I tried to understand the general ideas. I did not pay too much attention to the details.
    • The second time I listened to the CD, I paid attention to details. Taking notes helped me to organise the answers and remember what had been said.
    • Investigation ( Via questionnaire about strategies.)
    • True or false?
    • Talking about the topic that I was going to listen to made me feel comfortable when listening to the passage.
    • The first time I listened to the CD , I tried to understand the general ideas. I did not pay too much attention to the details.
    • The second time I listened to the CD , I paid attention to details. Taking notes helped me to organise the answers and remember what had been said.
    • Results:
    • 13 out of 13 answered true for sentences 1 and 3.
    • 6 out of 13 answered false for sentence 2.
    • 1 student said he tries to translate everything right from the first time he listens to a passage.
    • Another said it was impossible not to pay attention to details although it was easier the second time.
    • Two students said they got the details the first time they listened to the CD.
    Part 2 – Raising awareness (SAMPLE 1)
    • Feedback-
    • Talked to the students about strategy use.
    • Pointed out the moments they had used different strategies throughout the lesson.
    • Briefly discussed their answers.
    • They agreed on the importance of strategies but were not sure about the listening for gist effe c tiveness. (as they could understand almost everything from the beginning there was no need to listen just to get the main idea).
    • Copied a short list of the strategies discussed:
    • Using the knowledge of the world.
    • Using the knowledge of the language.
    • Getting the idea quickly. (listening for gist)
    • Getting the details.
    • Taking notes.
    Part 2 – Raising awareness (SAMPLE 1)
    • Some students are more skilled at listening than others.
    • Listening just to get the main idea is not relevant since they are able to have a more detailed comprehension of the passage from the first time.
    • They are rather self - confident and do not get anxious before a listening exercise.
    • Ability to understand a good range of vocabulary. (their answers to the comprehension questions were precise and detailed from the first time they listened to the passage)
    Reflection: (SAMPLE 1) For those who found the linguistic challenge considerable, the use of strategies proved profitable, while for those who found the task more manageable, the use of strategies were not seen as been so useful.
  • To promote the use of strategies (guessing,summarizing, skimming and scanning, using backgroung knowledge) and to make students aware of moments in which they applied those strategies throughout the lesson.
    • Part 1
    • Opportunity
    • Reading skills
    • (strategies+reading skills)
    • Pre reading –inferring/ guessing from linguistic and visual clues
    • While reading –skimming/scanning/inferring.
    • Post reading –summarizing.
    Part 2 Raising awareness Elicitation + Investigation + Feedback Objective ( SAMPLE 2 – LESSON ON READING )
  • Part 2 – Raising awareness (SAMPLE 2)
    • Elicitation
    • Talking about the topic before reading the text.
    • Relating it to my life.
    • Reading the first time to get the author’s opinion.
    • Matching the lists (pictures) to the people mentioned in the text.
    • Reading a part of the text and creating a title for this .
    • Telling my group what I ’ve read.
    • Investigation
    • list of activities done + list with strategies.
    • matching activity.
    • ticking strategies used.
    Part 2 – Raising awareness (SAMPLE 2) Summarizing. Telling my group what I’ve read. Summarizing/Getting the details/Getting the main idea. Reading a passage and creating a title for this. Guessing/ Inferring/Reading for details. Matching the lists(pictures) to the people mentioned in the text. Getting the main idea. Reading the first time to get the author’s opinion. Activating background knowledge. Relating it to my life. Activating my background knowledge. Getting prepared for what I will listen or read. Talking about the topic before reading the text0
  • The students ticked the strategies they thought they really had used. Part 2 – Raising awareness (SAMPLE 2) N of students who used them Strategies 03 Knowledge of the language 03 Guessing vocabulary Others 13 Summarizing 12 Activating background knowledge 14 Getting the main idea 13 Getting the details 11 Guessing / Inferring
  • Part 2 – Raising awareness (SAMPLE 2)
    • Feedback
    • compared and discussed how efficient the strategies were.
    • copied the list of strategies in their notebooks adding some (guessing and inferring and summarizing) to the ones they already had (using my knowledge of the world and the language, getting the idea quickly, getting the details, taking notes).
    • Ability to relate different strategies to different activities.
    • Understood why to use those strategies and how they can help the task achievement.
    • Used the strategies according to whether or not they needed them.
    • Understanding the rationale behind the use of strategies and how the strategies can help task achievement was not the reason which made the students use the strategies.
    Reflection: (SAMPLE 2)
  • Objective (final lesson) P rovide students with two different listening experiences. Lead them to reflect about the differences between those experiences. Finally , state the relevance of strategies use when doing the listening activities.
  • Situation 1+ questionnaire Listen to a person. Answer T or F for statements 1 to 4. Situation 2 + questionnaire Pre listening – inferring and guessing / using knowledge of the world to understand. While listening- listening for gist / listening for details.
    • The picture helped me to predict the context of the listening passage.
    • Talking about workplaces I know prepared me for the activity. (I had an idea of what I was going to listen to)
    • I didn’t have to understand everything to answer the first question.
    • The second time I listened to the passage I focused my attention on specific details.
    • Taking notes helped me during the activity.
    Part 2 – Raising awareness (final lesson) How did you feel doing this activity? Why? Which statements did you get right/wrong? What helped you? What hindered the answers?
  • How am I feeling in relation to the learning tasks? What helped/hindered me from getting the answers? More comfortable because the first activity contextualized the second passage. 11 The prediction, the context, paying attention to the key words helped me get the answers right. 10 More relaxed and comfortable, the speaker spoke more clearly . 13 The first activity prepared me because of the similar context .14 It was easier and there was a picture .1 The key words helped me get the right answers .12 Raising awareness Confused due to lack of context. 12 Reasons why they didn’t get the answers : Lack of concentration. 13 Difficulty to distinguish ‘ can ’ from ‘ can’t ’/ ‘ are ’ from ‘ aren’t ’. 12 Misinterpretation of a piece of information. 06 Reasons why they got them right : More concentration . 06 Prediction from the context . 01 Strategies learned (first I got the general idea, then I paid attention to the details. 01 Confused due to the speed of the speaker . 15 Reasons why they didn’t get the answers : Lack of concentration .4 The sentences were not in order .13 Difficulty to distinguish ‘ can ’ from ‘ can’t ’ .7 Reasons why they got them right : From the context I inferred the answer .3 Key words : 4 Understood the words :12
  • The relevance of strategy-use in the student’s point of view. 2.Talking about workplaces I know prepared me for the activity. (I had an idea of what I was going to listen to) Yes – 11 No – 4 Yes – 14 No – 1 3.I didn’t have to understand everything to answer the first question. Yes – 13 No – 2 Yes – 5 No – 10 4.The second time I listened to the passage I focused my attention on specific details. Yes – 13 No – 2 Yes – 10 No – 4 5.Taking notes helped me during the activity. Yes – 5 No – 10 Yes – 3 No 11 (I didn’t take notes) (I didn’t take notes) 1.The picture helped me to predict the context of the listening passage. Yes – 9 No – 6 Yes – 13 No - 2 Experimental group Control group
    • Experimental group
    • More conscious - helped/ hindered
    • More precise analyses and evaluation – performance
    • Most of them recognized the importance of strategy use.
    • A few students claimed not to use strategies as listening/reading for gist and details since they can always understand what they read or listen to.
    • Control group
    • Not so conscious –helped/hindered.
    • Attributed their difficulty partly to the speed of the speaker.
    • Were able to recognize some strategies we always use in class (paying attention to key words)
    • Recognized the importance of strategy use.
    Comparing and contrasting.
    • Raising students awareness of strategy didn’t guarantee strategy-use.
    • What lead students to use the strategies were their needs at those specific moments.
    • Students who went through the raising awareness process:
    • Were more conscious of their poptential;
    • Saw themselves as part of the process;
    • Were more mature and independent learners.
    • Students from the control group:
    • Were not so conscious of their own learning process
    • Didn’t see themselves as source of possible solutions for their difficulties.
    • Used, recognized and attached importance to some strategies.
    Summing up.
    • Students from the experimental group scored higher than the control group on a reading test taken from PET exam.
  • Thank you. Christiane Cacciari chrisrc@ uol.com.br