Aims and objectives of session. Aim--- To increase your knowledge and awareness of infection risks and to develop skills to minimise these risks. Objectives--- 1 Knowledge of where micro-organisms reside and how they spread. 2 Learn practices to reduce the risk of cross infection. 3 Knowledge of the term “Universal precautions”
How infections are spread. In any situation where large numbers of people live and work together the chances of an infection being acquired and passed on can be high. It may be spread by direct or indirect contact, For example --flu, chicken pox. It can also be spread by hands, air or even equipment . Infection control is an important part of care practice and is the responsibility of everyone.
Personal hygiene. The most important person in this organisation is YOU. You get it right and both you and the organisation will meet all the legal requirements. You get it wrong and someone could become ill: That someone could be YOU.
Personal Hygiene What should you do about your own personal hygiene? In order to help prevent the spread of infection? Think about it...
Personal hygiene A.Fingernails--- Clean and short without nail polish. B.Make up and jewellery---kept to a minimum, no large earrings or stoned jewellery. C.Hair---long hair should be tied back, Hair cleaned regularly. D.P.P.E.---Use /worn as appropriate. E.Cuts, wounds ect---Cover with a waterproff dressing at least 48 hours
Personal hygiene F.Shoes--- must protect your feet by covering both your toes and your heels. G.Uniforms should be cleaned regularly preferably every day. H.Hand creams should be used at the end of each shift. I.Smoking--- Ensure that you wash your hands thoroughly before resuming work.
INFECTION CONTROL <ul><li>Infection control is an essential component of care and one which has too often been undervalued </li></ul><ul><li>Patients and their families are concerned about whether we as carers are getting the basics right </li></ul><ul><li>That is --- Nutrition, dignity, respect and hygiene. </li></ul>
Infection control <ul><li>Every health worker plays a vital part in helping to minimise the risk of cross infection </li></ul><ul><li>For example by making certain that hands are properly washed, the clinical environment is as clean as possible, ensuring knowledge and skills are continually updated and by educating patients and visitors. </li></ul>
Infection control <ul><li>Standard precautions underpin routine safe practice, protecting both staff and clients from infection. </li></ul><ul><li>By applying standard precautions at all times and to all patients, best practice becomes second nature and the risks of infection are minimised. </li></ul><ul><li>They include— </li></ul>
Infection control <ul><li>1—Achieving optimum hand hygiene. </li></ul><ul><li>2 – Using personal protective equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>3 – Safe handling and disposal of clinical waste and bodily fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>4 – Achieving and maintaining a clean clinical environment. </li></ul><ul><li>5 – Good communication, with other health care workers, patients and visitors </li></ul><ul><li>6 – Training and education. </li></ul>
ABOUT INFECTION CONTROL <ul><li>Infections are caused by germs such as bacteria, fungi or viruses entering the body. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be minor and stay in one area, like a boil, or they can spread through out the body, like flu. </li></ul><ul><li>Often infections are easily dealt with, but some times they can cause serious problems. </li></ul>
So what can we do about infections? <ul><li>(Discuss with each other ways to help prevent or reduce the likely hood of infections) </li></ul>
The chain of infection. Source of infection Method of spreading Person at risk Point of entry Breaking this chain by removing any part of it will control or stop the spread of infection
Hand washing <ul><li>Regular careful hand washing is vital if you are looking after yourself or some one else. </li></ul><ul><li>Hand hygiene is the one most important single activity that can be used to help reduce the spread of infection and disease, yet evidence suggests that many health care workers do not wash their hands as often as they need to or use the correct technique, which means that areas of the hands can be missed. </li></ul>
WHEN TO WASH YOUR HANDS! <ul><li>If your hands look dirty </li></ul><ul><li>Before and after any activity that could of dirtied your hands, even if they look clean, such as after going to the toilet and before and after preparing food. </li></ul><ul><li>Before and after every activity or procedure involving contact with a patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Before dealing with any equipment </li></ul><ul><li>If you are caring for more than one person, wash your hands in between looking after each person. </li></ul>
HOW TO WASH YOUR HANDS <ul><li>Cover any cuts or grazes with a waterproof plaster. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your fingernails short, clean and free from nail polish. </li></ul><ul><li>Take off your watch and any jewellery such as bracelets or rings. (Wedding rings can be covered with a waterproof plaster.) </li></ul><ul><li>Wet your hands under luke-warm running water. </li></ul>
How to wash your hands <ul><li>If your hands look dirty, use a liquid soap or anti-germ solution and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the hand wash you are using covers all the surfaces of your hands. </li></ul><ul><li>Rub your hands together vigorously for at least 10 to 20 seconds, remembering the tips of your fingers, your thumbs and the areas between the fingers. </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse your hands with warm water and dry them with good quality paper towels that are both absorbent and soft. </li></ul>
How to wash your hands <ul><li>If your hands look clean, use an alcohol based hand rub, if supplied. </li></ul><ul><li>Rub in the hand rub until it has evaporated and your hands are dry. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a moisturising hand cream regularly to prevent dry and cracked hands. </li></ul><ul><li>And please tell a co-worker if a particular soap or product used to help wash your hands irritates your skin. </li></ul>
USING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Protective equipment should be provided for your use. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not only used to help protect you from infection but also to help prevent the client/patient that you are assisting from infection as well </li></ul><ul><li>There are different types of “protective equipment“ but the most frequent types are gloves and aprons </li></ul>
Gloves.. <ul><li>You should be provided with gloves. They will act as an additional barrier, but you should still wash your hands before and after you use them </li></ul><ul><li>If you are sensitive to rubber, or experience a skin reaction using gloves, tell your co-worker/nurse in charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to change your gloves not only between different clients but also between different procedures with your clients. </li></ul>
Aprons… <ul><li>These should be worn whenever there is a risk of contaminating your clothing with either blood or body fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>Or when a client has a known infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Just like gloves, you should remove the apron and discard it as soon as your intended task is completed and then once again wash your hands. </li></ul>