International weather symbols for WMO and ICAO. NASA space apps hackathon task
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International weather symbols for WMO and ICAO. NASA space apps hackathon task

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Brief history of weather codes and symbols that are internationally agreed across all countries (well actually 189). These are used by professional meteorologists, and have precise semantics. they are ...

Brief history of weather codes and symbols that are internationally agreed across all countries (well actually 189). These are used by professional meteorologists, and have precise semantics. they are robust and ergonomic against bad reproduction in low light levels.

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  • Rear Admiral Robert FitzRoy, invented the term ‘Weather Forecasting’, founded the Met Office, believed forecasting the weather was possible.
  • Admiral Beaufort Head of Hydrography, Established a standard weather recording code also established a telegraph across Ireland to relay weather observations
  • Converted from effects on a specific ship, a Royal Naval frigate, to effect on the sea
  • Evolved steadily from 1806 to 1832
  • An early collation of (international) daily weather reports
  • One of the earliest daily weather maps issued by the British Met Office. Can still use now – isobars, isotherms for scalars, also vectors
  • GTS Global Telecoms System used to transmit warnings, observations, forecasts, admin, seismic messages, etc
  • WMO, ICAO, IOC All predate XML, much more compact, WMO is working on automatic conversion to and from XML. The traditional alphanumeric codes (Synop, etc) being phased out.
  • Two WMO modern data formats, GRIB for gridded data on a regular grid, BUFR for point or line data. ‘ Table driven’ means extra parameters, precision, range, map projections, coordinate systems, etc can be added to tables, without changing software. WMO has the expert teams and procedures to maintain and document these ‘data dictionaries’.
  • Observations plotted and analysed (interpolated so contour lines can be drawn)
  • Plotted and analysed chart with Fronts added
  • Plotted and analysed chart with fronts overlaid on satellite image of clouds. Used to track progress of reality against forecast, for QA
  • Analysis/interpolation trusted, so obsersvations suppressed
  • Upper air chart overlaying pressure contours, isotherms and wind arrows, highlighting advection of heat
  • Upper air chart overlaying pressure contours, isolines of relative hunidity and wind arrows, highlighting advection of moisture
  • A few following slides stored here just in case they come in handy for answering questions
  • Screen shot

International weather symbols for WMO and ICAO. NASA space apps hackathon task International weather symbols for WMO and ICAO. NASA space apps hackathon task Presentation Transcript

  • Weather SymbolsChris Little, Met Office, Co-chair OGC Met. & Oceanography Domain WG© Crown copyright Met Office
  • Why me?Co-Chair of OGC Met Ocean Domain Working Group (with Marie-Françoise Voidrot, Météo-France)WMO Regional Association VI Co-Rapporteur for Information Systems & Services (with Leonid Bezruk, Russia)WMO Focal Point for RTH Exeter & GISC ExeterBeen around a long time(I am partly to blame for GRIB, BUFR & CREX and even some weather symbols)
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • Beaufort Wind Speed Scale: Sea Speed km/hr knots Term Sea 0 Calm Calm Calm Sea like mirror 1 2-5 1-3 Light Air Ripples with appearance of scales: no foam crest 2 6-11 4-6 Light Breeze Small wavelets; crests of glassy appearance, not breaking 3 12-18 7-10 Gentle Breeze Large wavelets; crests begin to break; scattered whitecaps. 4 19-30 11-16 Moderate Breeze Small waves, becoming longer; numerous whitecaps. 5 31-39 17-21 Fresh Breeze Moderate waves, taking longer form; many whitecaps; some spray 6 40-50 22-27 Strong Breeze Larger waves forming; whitecaps everywhere; more spray. 7 51-61 28-33 Near Gale Sea heaps up; white foam from breaking waves begins to be blown in streaks. 8 62-74 34-40 Gale Moderately high waves of greater length; edges of crests begin to break into spindrift; foam is blown in well-marked streaks. 9 75-87 41-47 Strong Gale High waves; sea begins to roll; dense streaks of foam; spray may reduce visibility. 10 88-102 48-55 Storm Very high waves with overhanging crests; sea takes white appearance as foam is blown in very dense streaks; rolling is heavy and visibility is reduced© Crown copyright Met Office
  • Beaufort’s Weather Code 1820-1825 version b. Blue sky c. Clear, transparent atmosphere ci. Cirrus clouds cl. Cloudy cu.Cumulus clouds d. Mist (damp air) Dk Dark weather but atmosphere clear f. Foggy f: Dense Fog g. Gloomy weather h. Haze© Crown copyright Met Office
  • Daily Weather reports© Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • WMO Data Formats SYNOP: Standard meteorological hourly surface weather reports SMUK01 EGRR AAXX 08214 03148 46/// /0507 11034 21039 92050= AAXX 08214 03204 42575 72425 10055 20006 39918 49937 58006 878// 92050 333 55300 20140 82822 85631 87642 91038 90710 91138= SIGMET: Aviation ad hoc significant weather report WSBY31 UMMS 090205 UMMV SIGMET 1 VALID 090200/090600 UMMS-UMMV MINSK FIR SEV ICE (FZRA) FCST E OF E026 BLW FL100 MOV NE 30KMH NC= METAR: Aviation standard half hourly weather reports EGBB 091320Z 25011KT CAVOK 06/01 Q1011= EGCC 091320Z 26012KT 9999 FEW022 06/01 Q1010 NOSIG= TAF: Aviation Terminal Aerodrome Forecast ESKN 091130Z 0912/1012 21007KT 9999 SCT020 PROB30 0922/1005 BKN012 BECMG 1007/1009 24016G26KT= ESMS 091130Z 0912/1012 20010KT 1200 BR BKN002 PROB40 0913/1012 9999 BKN016= ESSA 091210Z 0912/1012 20010KT 9999 FEW012 BKN025 TEMPO 0912/0915 BKN012 PROB40 0922/1006 BKN008 BECMG 1001/1003 20017G28KT= CREX: modernised, table-driven data format KULC02 RJTD 070244 CREX++ T000101 A008 D07043++ 47 646 TATENO 3606 14013 00031 2011 01 07 02 44 003 125 00 00 0343 190++ 7777 BUFR, GRIB are binary, table driven, formats for massive data volumes, not suitable© Crown copyright for human inspection Met Office
  • WMO binary, table-driven, formats GRIB, BUFR© Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • Where are they defined?• http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/DPFS/documents/485_Vo• Are there any in WikiMedia or WikiCommons? • About 150, put up by NOAA, a Czech and a German • E.g. • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Symbol_code_ww_05.svg• Resources? • http://external.opengeospatial.org/twiki_public/MetOceanDWG/Fea • Mainly low res, crude vector representations • http://external.opengeospatial.org/twiki_public/MetOceanDWG/WM
  • What to do?• Put all WMO weather symbols on WikiPedia/Media/Commons • As SVG • With PNG fall backs • With some semantic info to relate back to strict WMO definitions• Build some SKOS conceptual models if you want • Probably need to ask an old style meteorologists to get concept hierarchies correct enough• Start on intelligent apps to display correct symbols
  • Questions and answers© Crown copyright Met Office
  • WMO considering CAP Common Alerting Protocol • Developed by OASIS • XML Based • Version 1.0 -> 1.1 -> 1.2 -> 2.0 • Version 1.2 = ITU X.1303 + Amendment • Not much exposure outside N America • Altitude measured in Feet by default! • Support for multiple languages • Geospatial stuff (points, boxes, polygons) now better • WMO Second workshop in Geneva, 2011© Crown copyright Met Office
  • Other Stuff• WOW: Met Office ‘Crowd sourcing’ of weather obs http:// www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/wow.html • Met Office stores and shares, and Quality Controls • No OGC standards, only WMO data formats• DataPoint XML marked up point data, current and forecast. See Jeremy
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • © Crown copyright Met Office
  • Demo links: GISCs, DCPCsUK Met Office user portal http://wis.metoffice.gov.uk/openwis-user-portal/srv/en/main.home Search and find, then self registration for deliveryMétéo-France user portal http://wisp.meteo.fr:8080/openwis-user-portal/srv/en/main.homeDWD Deutscher Wetter Dienst http://gisc.dwd.deCMA China Meteorological Administration 中国气象局 http://wisportal.cma.gov.cn/wis/JMA Japan Meteorological Agency 気象庁 http://www.wis-jma.go.jp/cms/EUMETSAT EO Portal http://www.eumetsat.int/Home/Main/DataProducts/ProductNavigator/index.htmNorway IPY © Crown copyright Met Office