Decomposing applications for deployability and scalability (cfopentour india)

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30 minute version of the talk given in Bangalore and India in Sept 2012

30 minute version of the talk given in Bangalore and India in Sept 2012

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  • 1. Decomposing applications fordeployability and scalability Chris Richardson Author of POJOs in Action Founder of the original CloudFoundry.com @crichardson crichardson@vmware.com http://plainoldobjects.com/ 1
  • 2. Presentation goal How decomposing applications improves deployability and scalability 2
  • 3. vmc push About-Chris Developer Advocate for CloudFoundry.comSignup at http://cloudfoundry.com cfopentour2012 3
  • 4. Agenda§The (sometimes evil) monolith§Decomposing applications into services§How do services communicate? 4
  • 5. Let’s imagine you are building an e-commerce application 5
  • 6. Traditional web application architecture WAR StoreFrontUI Accounting Service MySQL Browser Apache InventoryService Database Shipping ServiceSimple to Tomcat develop test deploy scale 6
  • 7. But there are problems with a monolithic architecture 7
  • 8. Users expect a rich, dynamicand interactive experience h oug en ood ’tg HTTP Request isn ure ect Java Web Browser it HTML/Javascript Application Ia rch ty le U s Old Real-time web ≅ NodeJS 8
  • 9. Obstacle to frequent deployments§Need to redeploy everything to change one component§Interrupts long running background (e.g. Quartz) jobs§Increases risk of failure Fear of change§Updates will happen less often§e.g. Makes A/B testing UI really difficult 9
  • 10. Overloads your IDE and container Slows down development 10
  • 11. Obstacle to scaling development Accounting team E-commerce Engineering application Shipping team 11
  • 12. Obstacle to scaling development WAR UI team StoreFrontUI Accounting team Accounting Inventory team InventoryService Shipping team Shipping 12
  • 13. Obstacle to scaling development Lots of coordination and communication required 13
  • 14. Requires long-term commitment to a technology stack 14
  • 15. Agenda§The (sometimes evil) monolith§Decomposing applications into services§How do services communicate? 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. The scale cubeY axis -functionaldecompositionScale by im ingsplitting g s on r ila tin itidifferent things lit art p gs y ata th ale - d sp i s ax in b Z X axis - horizontal Sc duplication 17
  • 18. Y-axis scaling - application level WAR StoreFrontUI Accounting Service InventoryService Shipping Service 18
  • 19. Y-axis scaling - application level accounting web application Accounting Service Store front web application inventory web application InventoryService StoreFrontUI shipping web application Shipping Service Apply X axis cloning and/or Z axis partitioning to each service 19
  • 20. Partitioning strategies§Partition by verb, e.g. shipping service§Partition by noun, e.g. inventory service§Single Responsibility Principle§Unix utilities - do one focussed thing well Something of an art 20
  • 21. Real world examples http://techblog.netflix.com/ Between 100-150 services are accessed to build a page. http://highscalability.com/amazon-architecture http://www.addsimplicity.com/downloads/ eBaySDForum2006-11-29.pdf http://queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=1394128 21
  • 22. There are drawbacks 22
  • 23. Complexity See Steve Yegge’s GooglePlatforms Rant re Amazon.com 23
  • 24. Multiple databases =Transaction management challenges 24
  • 25. When to use it? In the beginning: •You don’t need it •It will slow you down Later on: •You need it •Refactoring is painful 25
  • 26. But there are many benefits§Scales development: develop, deploy and scale each service independently§Update UI independently§Improves fault isolation§Eliminates long-term commitment to a single technology stack Modular, polyglot, multi- framework applications 26
  • 27. Two levels of architecture System-levelServicesInter-service glue: interfaces and communication mechanismsSlow changing Service-levelInternal architecture of each serviceEach service could use a different technology stackPick the best tool for the jobRapidly evolving 27
  • 28. If services are small...§Regularly rewrite using a better technology stack§Adapt system to changing requirements and better technology without a total rewrite§Pick the best developers rather than best <pick a language> developers polyglot culture Fred George “Developer Anarchy” 28
  • 29. The human body as a system 29
  • 30. 50 to 70 billion of your cells die each day 30
  • 31. Yet you (the system) remain you 31
  • 32. Can we build software systems with these characteristics? http://dreamsongs.com/Files/ DesignBeyondHumanAbilitiesSimp.pdf http://dreamsongs.com/Files/WhitherSoftware.pdf 32
  • 33. Agenda§The (sometimes evil) monolith§Decomposing applications into services§How do services communicate? 33
  • 34. Inter-service communication options§Synchronous HTTP asynchronous AMQP§Formats: JSON, XML, Protocol Buffers, Thrift, ...§Even via the database Asynchronous is preferred JSON is fashionable but binary format is more efficient 34
  • 35. Asynchronous message-based communication wgrus-billing.war Accounting Servicewgrus-store.war wgrus-inventory.war RabbitMQ StoreFrontUI (Message InventoryService MySQL Broker) wgrus-shipping.war ShippingService 35
  • 36. Benefits§Decouples caller from server§Caller unaware of server’s coordinates (URL)§Message broker buffers message when server isdown/slow 36
  • 37. Drawbacks§Additional complexity of message broker§RPC using messaging is more complex 37
  • 38. Writing code that calls services 38
  • 39. The need for parallelism Service B b = serviceB() Call in parallel c = serviceC() Service A Service C d = serviceD(b, c) Service D 39
  • 40. Java Futures are a greatconcurrency abstraction http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Futures_and_promises 40
  • 41. Akka’s composablefutures are even better 41
  • 42. Using Akka futuresdef callB() : Future[...] = ...def callC() : Future[...] = ...def callD() : Future[...] = ... Two calls execute in parallelval future = for { (b, c) <- callB() zip callC(); d <- callD(b, c) And then invokes D } yield dval result = Await.result(future, 1 second) http://doc.akka.io/docs/akka/2.0.1/scala/futures.html Get the result of D 42
  • 43. Spring Integration§Implements EAI patterns§Provides the building blocks for a pipes and filters architecture§Enables development of application components that are •loosely coupled •insulated from messaging infrastructure§Messaging defined declaratively 43
  • 44. Handling failure Service A Service B Errors happen in distributed systems 44
  • 45. About Netflix > 1B API calls/day 1 API call average 6 service calls Fault tolerance is essential http://techblog.netflix.com/2012/02/fault-tolerance-in-high-volume.html 45
  • 46. Use timeouts and retries Never wait forever Errors can be transient retry http://techblog.netflix.com/2012/02/fault-tolerance-in-high-volume.html 46
  • 47. Use per-dependency bounded thread pool Service A Runnable 1 Task 1 Runnable 2 Task 2 Service B Runnable ... Task ... bounded queue bounded thread pool Fails fast if Limits number ofservice is slow or down outstanding requests http://techblog.netflix.com/2012/02/fault-tolerance-in-high-volume.html 47
  • 48. Use a circuit breakerHigh error rate stop calling temporarily Down wait for it to come back up Slow gives it a chance to recover http://techblog.netflix.com/2012/02/fault-tolerance-in-high-volume.html 48
  • 49. On failure Return cached dataAvoidFailing Return default data Fail fast http://techblog.netflix.com/2012/02/fault-tolerance-in-high-volume.html 49
  • 50. Summary 50
  • 51. Monolithic applications aresimple to develop and deploy BUT have significant drawbacks 51
  • 52. Apply the scale cube §Modular, polyglot, and scalable applications §Services developed,Y axis -functionaldecomposition ng deployed and scaled independently i on iti rt pa ta da is- ax Z X axis - horizontal duplication 52
  • 53. @crichardson crichardson@vmware.com http://slideshare.net/chris.e.richardson/ Questions?www.cloudfoundry.com promo code: cfopentour2012