• Macroscopic haematuria is exceptionally (=
rarely) lethal (1 personal case)
• Catheterisation is to be avoided at all cost
unless the patient is in retention
• It is OK to discharge the patient and send a
referral to the urologists (provided the
patient is stable and does not need blood
• Visible Haematuria (VH). Referred to as ‘macroscopic haematuria’ or
Urine is coloured pink or red (or, on occasion like cola in acute
glomerulonephritis). Requires consideration of rare causes of
discoloured urine (myoglobinuria, haemoglobinuria, beeturia, drug
discoloration – rifampicin, doxorubicin)
• Non-Visible Haematuria (NVH). Otherwise referred to as
‘microscopic haematuria’ or ‘dipstick positive haematuria’.
• Symptomatic Non-Visible Haematuria (s-NVH). LUTS (Lower
Urinary Tract infections eg dysuria, urgency). Flank Pain.
• Asymptomatic Non-Visible Haematuria (a-NVH). Incidental
detection in the absence
of LUTS or upper urinary tract symptoms.
Definition of Positivity
• Urine dipstick of a fresh voided urine sample, containing no preservative,
is a sensitive means of detecting haematuria.
• Community based urine samples sent for microscopy have a significant
false negative rate; Routine microscopy for confirmation of dipstick
haematuria is not necessary.
• Whilst the sensitivity of urine dipsticks may vary from one manufacturer
to another, significant haematuria is considered to be 1+ or greater. Trace
haematuria should be considered negative.
• There is no distinction in significance between non-haemolysed and
haemolysed dipstick-positive haematuria. 1+ positive for either should be
considered of equal significance.
What is significant haematuria?
• Any single episode ofVH or Any single episode of s-NVH (in absence of UTI
or other transient causes).
• Persistent a-NVH (in absence of UTI or other transient causes). Persistence
is defined as 2 out of 3 dipsticks positive for NVH.
• Transient causes that need to be excluded are: Urinary tract infection (UTI),
Exercice induced Haematuria, Menstruation
• The presence of haematuria (VH or NVH) should not be attributed to anti-
coagulant or anti-platelet therapy and patients should be evaluated
regardless of these medications.
• Exclude UTI and/or other transient cause.
• Plasma creatinine/eGFR.
• Measure proteinuria on a random sample. Send urine for
protein:creatinine ratio (PCR) or albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) on a
• Blood pressure
• All patients with visible haematuria.
• BUT patients <40 yrs with cola-coloured urine and an inter-current upper
respiratory tract infection will have an acute glomerulonephritis, and a
nephrology referral may be considered more appropriate.
• All patients with s-NVH (any age).
• All patients with a-NVH aged ≥40 yrs.
• For patients who have had a urological cause excluded, or have not met the
referral criteria for a urological assessment ,
• If there is concurrent: declining GFR, Stage 4 or 5CKD, significant
proteinuria, Hypertension and <40y years old, visible haematuria with
intercurrent upper respiratory tract infection
• If criteria not met, patient should be followed in primary care
Long term monitoring
• Patients should be monitored for the development of:
• voiding LUTS
• visible haematuria
• significant or increasing proteinuria
• progressive renal impairment (falling eGFR)
14 negative (1 on Warfarin)
7 stones (5 kidney 2 ureteric)
5 UTI (from which 2 urethritis and 1 prostatitis)
2 filling defects (1 negative URS 1 pending)
1 Berger’s Disease
1 post radiation cystitis
70.8 % are explained
5 kidney stone
3 interstitial cystitis
2 referred to nephrology
1 malignant retroperitoneal fibrosis
1 Urethral Caroncula
1 CT pending
65.7% are explained
TAKE HOME MESSAGETAKE HOME MESSAGE
Regardless of haematuria type, TCC
accounts for 10%
Delaying diagnosis because patient has only
has one episode of macroscopic haematuria
can have dramatic consequences