Lobbying the German Cultural Policy: Towards a research agenda

1,038 views
971 views

Published on

Christopher Buschow - Lobbying the German Cultural Policy: Towards a research agenda

Preliminary draft
3rd Vienna Music Business Research Days
Young Scholars’ Workshop, June 29, 2012, Vienna/Austria 

Published in: Education, News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,038
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lobbying the German Cultural Policy: Towards a research agenda

  1. 1. LOBBYING THE GERMANCULTURAL POLICY:TOWARDS A RESEARCH AGENDAChristopher Buschow, Hanover University of Music, Drama and MediaPreliminary draft3rd Vienna Music Business Research DaysYoung Scholars’ Workshop, June 29, 2012, Vienna/Austria
  2. 2. Agenda1. The basic conditions of German cultural non-profit organizations2. Mapping the research field: The strategy of lobbying the German cultural policy3. Towards a research agenda4. Summary and outlookBuschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 2
  3. 3. Agenda1. The basic conditions of German cultural non-profit organizations2. Mapping the research field: The strategy of lobbying the German cultural policy3. Towards a research agenda4. Summary and outlookBuschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 3
  4. 4. “Organizations matter” – even (or especially?) in culture Production Allocation Perception Use Source: Winter (2006)Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 4
  5. 5. “Organizations matter” – even (or especially?) in culture Production Allocation Perception Use technological forces, production forces, market forces and social forces Source: Winter (2006)Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 5
  6. 6. “Organizations matter” – even (or especially?) in culture Production Allocation Perception Use technological forces, production forces, market forces and social forces “struggle for legitimacy” Source: Winter (2006)Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 6
  7. 7. Are cultural managers prepared for such challenges? Picture: By Harald Groven [& Jackie Gilbert], CC share-alike-licence (CC BY-SA 2.0), http://bit.ly/NqlMY1Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 7
  8. 8. Agenda1. The basic conditions of German cultural non-profit organizations2. Mapping the research field: The strategy of lobbying the German cultural policy3. Towards a research agenda4. Summary and outlookBuschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 8
  9. 9. The strategy of lobbying the German cultural policy Source: Hart & Milstein (2003: 57)Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 9
  10. 10. The strategy of lobbying the German cultural policy “professional cultural management cannot do without lobbying” (Ghusain 2011, own translation) Source: Hart & Milstein (2003: 57)Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 10
  11. 11. Basic conditions of German cultural policy Cultural policy “deals with the priorities in distribution, regulation, and allocation of resources, honor, and opportunities” (Erdman 1983: 247) German objectives (and dominant logics) of cultural policy  Since 1970s: social democratic oriented “new cultural policy”  Missionary principles: “culture for everybody” and “there’s never enough culture”  Financial budgets were raised significantly, number of state-funded non-profit organizations increased continuously  Needs of the audience did not play a major role  Birgit Mandel (2012): “producers’ paradigm”Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 11
  12. 12. Mandel (2012): „The producers paradigm“ The “freedom of the arts” is defined as the exemption from the demand on the market. The director (German: “Intendant”) is the sole decider. He or she defines, what counts as culture and, thus, is financially supported. The bourgeois elites are closely connected to cultural organizations. They are the relevant customers. Culture value creation focuses mainly on them. These groups refer to arts and culture as an advanced “merit” good that is regarded as constitutive for the continuity of higher cultures. Quality-newspapers feuilletons put the brakes on aesthetic development. Just like the bourgeois elites, feuilleton writers (often part of this ‘class’) want to maintain the status quo of culture and arts.Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 12
  13. 13. Agenda1. The basic conditions of German cultural non-profit organizations2. Mapping the research field: The strategy of lobbying the German cultural policy3. Towards a research agenda4. Summary and outlookBuschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 13
  14. 14. What activities does lobbying include here? Target Politics, governmental PublicStrategy actors, lawStory linesArgumentative resources http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.deBuschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy 14
  15. 15. What activities does lobbying include here? Target Politics, governmental PublicStrategy actors, law  Concepts of culture  Cultural goods as “merit” goods  Concepts of culture  “Spillover effects”  Freedom of the artsStory lines  Federalism  Efficiency of the system  Efficiency of the system  …  …  “Old boy networks”  Directors (and artists) as powerful  Newspapers feuilletons representatives and speakers  Public-relation campaignsArgumentative resources  Associations and industry networks,  Demonstrations trade unions  …  … http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.deBuschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy 15
  16. 16. What activities does lobbying include here? Target Politics, governmental PublicStrategy actors, law  Concepts of culture  Cultural goods as “merit” goods  Concepts of culture  “Spillover effects”  Freedom of the artsStory lines  Federalism  Efficiency of the system  Efficiency of the system  …  …  “Old boy networks”  Directors (and artists) as powerful  Newspapers feuilletons representatives and speakers  Public-relation campaignsArgumentative resources  Associations and industry networks,  Demonstrations trade unions  …  … http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.deBuschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy 16
  17. 17. Cultural goods as “merit” goods Musgrave (1959) called those private goods “merit” which are provided by the state for political reasons (e.g., unrestricted availability)  His argument is that the preferences of the market participants (customers / individuals) with regard to such goods are “disturbed”.  Therefore, the state has to intervene because the market is not able to provide these goods. Cultural organizations are commonly used as examples for merit interventions. Cultural organizations’ operationalizations of “merit” have to be investigated  Presenting culture as a merit good is helpful in terms of legitimation and funding  Connected to culture’s decoupling from the marketBuschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 17
  18. 18. “Old boy networks” Austria: “informal deal of culture and politics” (Wimmer 2011: 324; my translation) Example: federalism of the German cultural policy  leads to political and administrative decisions on a regional and/or local level  culture and arts are often seen as a locational advantage  Politicians and administrative decision-makers are in a regular dialogue with directors and artist from cultural organizations  To avoid critical feedback (and, losing voters!), politicians rather found new cultural organizations than close or merge them Example: Newspapers feuilletonsBuschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 18
  19. 19. “Closing music schools is a risk to domestic security.” Otto Schily, Federal Minister of the Interior of Germany from 1998 to 2005 (Picture: © SPD-Bundestagsfraktion)Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 19
  20. 20. Organizational tensions within the lobbying processes Organizations are not regarded as “black boxes” whose inner tensions and micro-politics are hidden These intraorganizational phenomena are the main topic of investigation Artists are – like journalists – a specific type of employee. They follow different rationalities that need not match with managements’ rationalities This can lead to conflicts not only in organizational development projects (Winter & Buschow 2012), but also in lobbying situations. If the cultural organizations’ interests underlined in politics and in the public differ from the interest of artists, internal tensions may erupt. Such tensions can hinder successful lobbying activities. Therefore, they are a particularly exciting research field.Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 20
  21. 21. Agenda1. The basic conditions of German cultural non-profit organizations2. Mapping the research field: The strategy of lobbying the German cultural policy3. Towards a research agenda4. Summary and outlookBuschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 21
  22. 22. Summary If the role of organizations is examined more clearly we may see how and why “organizations matter” “[W]e know very little about the channels of influence and the efficacy of lobbying for the arts… […] although, it is often argued that lobbying activities are widespread in the arts, there is a lack of rigorous analysis investigating this phenomenon” (Mazza 2011: 364).Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 22
  23. 23. References (1)Baron, D. P. (1996). Business and its environment (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Benkler, Y. (2006). The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Haven: Yale University.Buschow, C. (2012). Strategische Institutionalisierung durch Medienorganisationen. Der Fall des Leistungsschutzrechtes. Köln: Herbert von Halem.Buschow, C., Dürrenberg, C., & Winter, C. (2011). Change Management in Tageszeitungsredaktionen. In J. Wolling, A. Will & C. Schumann (Eds.), Medieninnovationen. Wie Medienentwicklungen die Kommunikation in der Gesellschaft verändern (pp. 195-210). Konstanz: UVK.Buschow, C. & Winter, C. (2012). Strategische Institutionalisierung als Wertbeitrag für Medienunternehmungen. In T. Döbler, C. Kolo & L. Rademacher (Eds.), Wertschöpfung durch Medien im Wandel (in preparation). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Cavendish, E. A. (1986). Public Provision of the Performing Arts: A Case Study of the Federal Theatre Project in Connecticut. In P. J. DiMaggio (Ed.). Nonprofit Enterprise in the Arts. Studies in Mission and Constraint (pp. 140-158). New York, Oxford: Oxford University.Deutscher Bundestag (Ed.) (2007). Schlussbericht der Enquete-Kommission „Kultur in Deutschland“. Drucksache 16/7000. Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag. Retrieved from http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/16/070/1607000.pdf [31.05.2012].DiMaggio, P. J. (Ed.) (1986a). Nonprofit Enterprise in the Arts. Studies in Mission and Constraint. New York, Oxford: Oxford University.DiMaggio, P. J. (1986b). Introduction. In P. J. DiMaggio (Ed.). Nonprofit Enterprise in the Arts. Studies in Mission and Constraint (pp. 3-14). New York, Oxford: Oxford University.Erdman, J. L. (1983). Who Should Speak for the Performing Arts? The Case of the Delhi Dancers. Pacific Affairs, 56(2), 247-269.Falck, O., Fritsch, M. & Heblich, S. (2010). The Phantom of the Opera: Cultural Amenities, Human Capital, and Regional Economic Growth. Discussion Paper No. 5065, July 2010. Bonn: Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit. Retrieved from: http://ftp.iza.org/dp5065.pdf [16.02.2011].Ghusain, Al. M. (2011). Lobbying für die Kultur. Einfluss nehmen, gestalten und ausbauen. Retrieved from http://www.kulturmanagement- portal.de/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_details&Itemid=&gid=55 [28.05.2012].Grampp, W. D. (1989). Rent-seeking in arts policy. Public Choice, 60(2), 113-121.Hall, J. Y. (2005). Lobbying for Arts and Culture: From the Culture Wars to the Rise of New Issues. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society, 35(3), 227-238.Hart, S. L. & Milstein, M. B. (2003). Creating sustainable value. Academy of Management Executive, 17(2), 56-67.Haselbach, D., Klein, A., Knüsel, P. & Opitz, S. (2012). Der Kulturinfarkt: Von Allem zu viel und überall das Gleiche. Eine Polemik über Kulturpolitik, Kulturstaat, Kultursubvention. Munich: Knaus.Heinze, T. (2005). Kultursponsoring, Museumsmarketing, Kulturtourismus. Ein Leitfaden für Kulturmanager (2. Ed.). Wiesbaden: VS.Küpper, W. & Ortmann, G. (Eds.) (1988). Mikropolitik. Rationalität, Macht und Spiele in Organisationen. Opladen: Westdeutscher.Lissek-Schütz, E. (1999). Kulturfinanzierung in privater Hand – das Beispiel USA. In T. Heinze (Ed.), Kulturfinanzierung. Sponsoring – Fundraising – Public- Private-Partnership (pp. 217-245). Münster: LIT.Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 23
  24. 24. References (2)Lull, J. (2007). Culture-on-demand. Communication in a crisis world. Oxford et al.: Blackwell Publishing.Mandel, B. (2012). Audience Development als Teil von Kulturmanagement-Forschung. Ziele, Fragestellungen, Methoden, Forschungsergebnisse und Konsequenzen für die Disziplin und Profession Kulturmanagement. Paper presented at the 6th Annual Meeting of the German „Fachverband für Kulturmanagement“, Lüneburg, 12-14, January 2012.Mazza, I. (2011). Public choice. In R. Towse (Ed.), A Handbook of Cultural Economics (2. Ed., pp. 362-369). Cheltenham, Northampton: Elgar.Musgrave, R.A. (1957). A Multiple Theory of Budget Determination. FinanzArchiv, New Series 25(1), 333-343.Pinnock, A. (2007). The Gramppian Hills: An Empirical Test for Rent-Seeking Behaviour in the Arts. Cultural Trends, 16(3), 277-294.Reus, G. (2010). Berichter oder Richter? Eine Langzeitanalyse nimmt das Feuilleton in der Tagespresse in den Blick - und zeigt Entwicklungsperspektiven auf. JournalistikJournal, 13(1), 18-19.Reus, G. & Harden, L. (2005). Politische „Kultur“. Eine Längsschnittanalyse des Zeitungsfeuilletons von 1983 bis 2003. Publizistik, 50(2), 153-172.Saxer, U. (1993). Medienwandel – Journalismuswandel. Publizistik, 38(2), 292-304.Tröndle, M. (2008). Man muss das Konzert verändern, um es zu erhalten: eine Forschungsskizze zur Musikvermittlung. In B. Mandel (Ed.), Audience Development, Kulturmanagement, kulturelle Bildung: Konzeptionen und Handlungsfelder der Kulturvermittlung (=Kulturelle Bildung Vol. 5, pp. 133- 143). München: Kopäd.Tschmuck, P. (2011). EU Copyright Term Extension in Sound Recordings to 70 Years – An Economic Assessment. Retrieved from http://musicbusinessresearch.wordpress.com/2011/09/15/eu-copyright-term-extension-in-sound-recordings-to-70-years-%E2%80%93-an-economic- assessment/ [31.05.2012].Wimmer, M. (2011). Lobbyismus für Kultur in der Politik. Oder: Warum es so schwer ist, Kulturpolitik in Österreich auf demokratische Füße zu stellen. In T. Köhler & C. Mertens (Eds.), Jahrbuch für politische Beratung 2010/2011 – Eine klassische Alternative (pp. 321-340). Wien, Weimar, Köln: Böhlau.Winter, C. (2008). The TIMES Convergence of Mediality of Communication as Change in Cultural Solidarity: Convergent Mobile Telephones and Laptops and New Flows, Networks and Connectivity. In A. Hepp, F. Krotz, S. Moores, & C. Winter (Eds.), Connectivity, Networks and Flows: Conceptualizing Contemporary (pp. 69-92). Cresskill: Hampton Press.Winter, C. (2011). Von der Push- zur Pull-Kultur. In C. Holst, K. Janner & A. Kopp (Eds.), Social Media im Kulturmanagement: Wie Online- Geschäftsmodelle und das mobile Web das Kulturmanagement revolutionieren (pp. 149-190). Frechen: mitp.Winter, C. (2012). Die On-Demand-Kultur und ihre Prosumenten. Paper presented at the 6th Annual Meeting of the German „Fachverband für Kulturmanagement“, Lüneburg, 12-14, January 2012.Winter, C. & Buschow, C. (2012). Der Kulturmanager als Change Manager - Qualifikationsanforderungen in turbulenten Zeiten. In G. Birnkraut & K. Wolf (Eds.), Kulturmanagement konkret 2011. Interdisziplinäre Positionen und Perspektiven/An Anatomy of Arts Management. Interdisciplinary Positions and Perspectives (Band 5, pp. 11-33). Hamburg: Institut für Kulturkonzepte.Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de 24
  25. 25. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FORYOUR ATTENTION!
  26. 26. Christopher Buschow, M.A. Research Assistant Department of Journalism and Communication Research Hanover University of Music, Drama and Media Expo-Plaza 12 D-30539 Hanover Tel.: +49 (0) 511 3100-473 Fax: +49 (0) 511 3100-400 E-Mail: christopher.buschow@ijk.hmtm-hannover.de WWW: http://www.ijk.hmtm-hannover.de/en/Buschow -- Lobbying the German Cultural Policy

×