World War 1

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World War 1

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World War 1

  1. 1. World War I “The Great War” --the war to end all wars-- 1914-1918 #22
  2. 2. All Quiet on the Western Front -US History HonorsErich Maria Remarque - Author Book – 1929 Banned & Burned in NAZI Germany Motion Pictures 1930/1977/NOW
  3. 3. War Is HELL !!
  4. 4. German Soldier at Verdun
  5. 5. WW I – More people died in one battle than in our entire Civil War
  6. 6. Four Main Causes of WW I 1) Nationalism – Strong feelings people have for their own country Americans feeling when watching Olympics: Michael Phelps wins Gold “Extreme Pride for your own country” Europe was a small place with many Developed & Competing Countries
  7. 7. Aggressive Nationalism
  8. 8. 2) Imperialism – The struggle or competition for colonies around the world
  9. 9. 3) International Rivalries The nations of Europe wanted to weaken their rivals and strengthen alliances • Many countries in a small location • Build Armies for Defense & Strength • This leads to a great “Arms Race” Example 1) Germany’s new navy challenged Britain's long standing naval supremacy 2) Germany’s disciplined army scared its neighbors France & Russia
  10. 10. The Dreadnought Battleship -the most powerful war machine on earth • Br. Started building & Gr. quickly followed • Started the “Arms Race”
  11. 11. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 94 130 154 268 289 398 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73%
  12. 12. 4) System of Alliances • • Attempt by each country to gain security through alliances tried to find – “Balance of Power” Many Alliances were done in secrecy - other countries didn’t know what side you were on “entangling alliances” Two Main Alliances 1) Triple Entente – GB,FR,Russia (Allies) 2) Central Powers – GR, A-H,Otoman Empire
  13. 13. The Major Players: 1914-17 Central Powers: Allied Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Franz Josef [A-H] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Enver Pasha [O.E/Turkey]
  14. 14. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe Russia A-H Ottomans All wanted control
  15. 15. The “Spark” That Starts the Great War
  16. 16. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family – Heir to throne in A-H
  17. 17. The Assassination/ Sarajevo
  18. 18. The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Serbian Nationalist Wanted to free the Slavic people in A-H -Liberate the Balkans
  19. 19. Who’s To Blame?
  20. 20. Chain of Events Take Place • • • • • A-H declares war on Serbia/ July 28, 1914 Russia comes to the aid of Serbia Germany declares war on Russia & Fr. Britain stays neutral until Gr. Attacks Fr. Italy is drawn in by Allies – land from A-H The USA - Neutral
  21. 21. European Countries Mobilize for War German Women Factory Workers
  22. 22. French Women Factory Workers
  23. 23. Soldiers Mobilized 14 12 Millions 10 8 6 4 2 0 France Germany Russia Britain
  24. 24. New French Recruits
  25. 25. The Schlieffen Plan GR. Attacks Fr. Through Belgium
  26. 26. Two Front War Develops in Europe 1) Eastern Front Gr. & A-H push deep into Russia - then slows 2) Western Front Gr. Attacks France through Belgium 1st Battle of the Marne - Allies stop the Gr. Offensive just outside of Paris as the attack bogs down Trench War – Stalemate (attack-retreat)
  27. 27. No Man’s Land / “Going Over the Top”
  28. 28. German trenches
  29. 29. Major Trench Battles in WWI 1) Battle of Verdun (Feb-July 1916) A sacred place for the French “Battle of Attrition” 1 million men – killed/wounded/missing 2) Battle of the Somme (July-Nov 1916) started to take pressure off of Verdun 60,000 Br. Casualties in one day 1 million killed
  30. 30. Somme Battlefield Map Verdun is slightly south
  31. 31. The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
  32. 32. Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
  33. 33. Trench with French soldiers
  34. 34. Dead French soldiers in the Argonne German remains at Verdun
  35. 35. The Western Front
  36. 36. The Central Powers end up Fighting a Two Front War
  37. 37. Europe in 1914
  38. 38. Fighting Took place in the Colonies too - Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
  39. 39. T. E. Lawrence (of Arabia) & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
  40. 40. Sacrifices in War
  41. 41. Development of Pilates • Joseph Pilates – Born in Germany • Wanted to help injured soldiers regain confidence & control of their lives after suffering debilitating injuries on the Front • This became the core strengthening workout used today
  42. 42. The Shell-Shattered Area of Chateau Wood, Flanders
  43. 43. Scene in the trenches
  44. 44. Looking out from the entrance of a A A A Captured Pill-Box on the Shell Ravaged Battlefield
  45. 45. Weapons of War The Great War saw destruction on the field of battle like never before 1) Old-Fashioned Strategies 2) New Technologies
  46. 46. German U-Boats
  47. 47. Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
  48. 48. Poison Gas Attacks
  49. 49. The three main types of Poison Gas Chlorine - a greenish, yellow heavier than air gas which in its pure form is an oxidizing agent. This means that it will react in the presence of water to cause a chemical burning effect on organic matter. Phosgene - a colorless, odorless, heavier than air gas formed by heating carbon tetrachloride. It is highly poisonous in that it will preferentially replace oxygen in the cells and quickly causes an oxygen debt within the body, unconsciousness and death. Mustard gas - gas with a distinctive mustard smell, it causes blistering and huge sores on any exposed tissue, internal or external.
  50. 50. Effects of Mustard Gas
  51. 51. Gas attack seen from an airplane
  52. 52. Gas masks for man and horse demonstrated by American soldier
  53. 53. Russians fighting while under gas attack
  54. 54. Machine Guns shoot thousands of bullets per minute
  55. 55. German machine gun trench
  56. 56. Barbed Wire
  57. 57. Flamethrowers
  58. 58. Phosphorus Grenade Exploding
  59. 59. Periscope Rifle
  60. 60. Krupp 420mm howitzer
  61. 61. Krupp railroad gun “Big Bertha” -named after his wife / hard to locate on rail / could shoot over 60 miles from behind German Lines
  62. 62. British Mark I tank
  63. 63. French Renault Tank
  64. 64. The Zeppelin
  65. 65. The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
  66. 66. Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
  67. 67. The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The {Red Baron}”]
  68. 68. Looking for the “Red Baron”
  69. 69. 'Who are they? What are they?' asked Sam shuddering, turning to Frodo. 'I don't know,' said Frodo in a dreamlike voice. 'But I have seen them too. In the pools when the candles were lit. They lie in all the pools, pale faces, deep under the dark water. I saw them: grim faces and evil, and noble faces and sad. Many faces proud and fair. But all foul, all rotting, all dead. A fell light is in them.' Frodo hid his eyes in his hands. 'I know not who they are…' "Yes, yes,' said Gollum. 'All dead, all rotten…There was a great battle long ago....‘ - J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings
  70. 70. The Cause of the First World War & Map - Homework • Answer the 10 Questions on sheet of paper • Include the 6 Questions from the WWI Map Due ______________
  71. 71. WW I – Film – NOT THIS YEAR Identify the following from the film : 1. Otto Dix 2. “The Furnace”- The Battle of Verdun 3. Pals 4. The Battle of the Somme 5. Motion Picture – The Battle of the Somme

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