World War 1
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World War 1

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World War 1

World War 1

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    World War 1 World War 1 Presentation Transcript

    • World War I “The Great War” --the war to end all wars-- 1914-1918 #22
    • All Quiet on the Western Front -US History HonorsErich Maria Remarque - Author Book – 1929 Banned & Burned in NAZI Germany Motion Pictures 1930/1977/NOW
    • War Is HELL !!
    • German Soldier at Verdun
    • WW I – More people died in one battle than in our entire Civil War
    • Four Main Causes of WW I 1) Nationalism – Strong feelings people have for their own country Americans feeling when watching Olympics: Michael Phelps wins Gold “Extreme Pride for your own country” Europe was a small place with many Developed & Competing Countries
    • Aggressive Nationalism
    • 2) Imperialism – The struggle or competition for colonies around the world
    • 3) International Rivalries The nations of Europe wanted to weaken their rivals and strengthen alliances • Many countries in a small location • Build Armies for Defense & Strength • This leads to a great “Arms Race” Example 1) Germany’s new navy challenged Britain's long standing naval supremacy 2) Germany’s disciplined army scared its neighbors France & Russia
    • The Dreadnought Battleship -the most powerful war machine on earth • Br. Started building & Gr. quickly followed • Started the “Arms Race”
    • Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 94 130 154 268 289 398 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73%
    • 4) System of Alliances • • Attempt by each country to gain security through alliances tried to find – “Balance of Power” Many Alliances were done in secrecy - other countries didn’t know what side you were on “entangling alliances” Two Main Alliances 1) Triple Entente – GB,FR,Russia (Allies) 2) Central Powers – GR, A-H,Otoman Empire
    • The Major Players: 1914-17 Central Powers: Allied Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Franz Josef [A-H] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Enver Pasha [O.E/Turkey]
    • Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe Russia A-H Ottomans All wanted control
    • The “Spark” That Starts the Great War
    • Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family – Heir to throne in A-H
    • The Assassination/ Sarajevo
    • The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Serbian Nationalist Wanted to free the Slavic people in A-H -Liberate the Balkans
    • Who’s To Blame?
    • Chain of Events Take Place • • • • • A-H declares war on Serbia/ July 28, 1914 Russia comes to the aid of Serbia Germany declares war on Russia & Fr. Britain stays neutral until Gr. Attacks Fr. Italy is drawn in by Allies – land from A-H The USA - Neutral
    • European Countries Mobilize for War German Women Factory Workers
    • French Women Factory Workers
    • Soldiers Mobilized 14 12 Millions 10 8 6 4 2 0 France Germany Russia Britain
    • New French Recruits
    • The Schlieffen Plan GR. Attacks Fr. Through Belgium
    • Two Front War Develops in Europe 1) Eastern Front Gr. & A-H push deep into Russia - then slows 2) Western Front Gr. Attacks France through Belgium 1st Battle of the Marne - Allies stop the Gr. Offensive just outside of Paris as the attack bogs down Trench War – Stalemate (attack-retreat)
    • No Man’s Land / “Going Over the Top”
    • German trenches
    • Major Trench Battles in WWI 1) Battle of Verdun (Feb-July 1916) A sacred place for the French “Battle of Attrition” 1 million men – killed/wounded/missing 2) Battle of the Somme (July-Nov 1916) started to take pressure off of Verdun 60,000 Br. Casualties in one day 1 million killed
    • Somme Battlefield Map Verdun is slightly south
    • The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
    • Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
    • Trench with French soldiers
    • Dead French soldiers in the Argonne German remains at Verdun
    • The Western Front
    • The Central Powers end up Fighting a Two Front War
    • Europe in 1914
    • Fighting Took place in the Colonies too - Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
    • T. E. Lawrence (of Arabia) & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
    • Sacrifices in War
    • Development of Pilates • Joseph Pilates – Born in Germany • Wanted to help injured soldiers regain confidence & control of their lives after suffering debilitating injuries on the Front • This became the core strengthening workout used today
    • The Shell-Shattered Area of Chateau Wood, Flanders
    • Scene in the trenches
    • Looking out from the entrance of a A A A Captured Pill-Box on the Shell Ravaged Battlefield
    • Weapons of War The Great War saw destruction on the field of battle like never before 1) Old-Fashioned Strategies 2) New Technologies
    • German U-Boats
    • Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
    • Poison Gas Attacks
    • The three main types of Poison Gas Chlorine - a greenish, yellow heavier than air gas which in its pure form is an oxidizing agent. This means that it will react in the presence of water to cause a chemical burning effect on organic matter. Phosgene - a colorless, odorless, heavier than air gas formed by heating carbon tetrachloride. It is highly poisonous in that it will preferentially replace oxygen in the cells and quickly causes an oxygen debt within the body, unconsciousness and death. Mustard gas - gas with a distinctive mustard smell, it causes blistering and huge sores on any exposed tissue, internal or external.
    • Effects of Mustard Gas
    • Gas attack seen from an airplane
    • Gas masks for man and horse demonstrated by American soldier
    • Russians fighting while under gas attack
    • Machine Guns shoot thousands of bullets per minute
    • German machine gun trench
    • Barbed Wire
    • Flamethrowers
    • Phosphorus Grenade Exploding
    • Periscope Rifle
    • Krupp 420mm howitzer
    • Krupp railroad gun “Big Bertha” -named after his wife / hard to locate on rail / could shoot over 60 miles from behind German Lines
    • British Mark I tank
    • French Renault Tank
    • The Zeppelin
    • The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
    • Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
    • The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The {Red Baron}”]
    • Looking for the “Red Baron”
    • 'Who are they? What are they?' asked Sam shuddering, turning to Frodo. 'I don't know,' said Frodo in a dreamlike voice. 'But I have seen them too. In the pools when the candles were lit. They lie in all the pools, pale faces, deep under the dark water. I saw them: grim faces and evil, and noble faces and sad. Many faces proud and fair. But all foul, all rotting, all dead. A fell light is in them.' Frodo hid his eyes in his hands. 'I know not who they are…' "Yes, yes,' said Gollum. 'All dead, all rotten…There was a great battle long ago....‘ - J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings
    • The Cause of the First World War & Map - Homework • Answer the 10 Questions on sheet of paper • Include the 6 Questions from the WWI Map Due ______________
    • WW I – Film – NOT THIS YEAR Identify the following from the film : 1. Otto Dix 2. “The Furnace”- The Battle of Verdun 3. Pals 4. The Battle of the Somme 5. Motion Picture – The Battle of the Somme