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    0756631734 dk motivate_people 0756631734 dk motivate_people Document Transcript

    • MotivatePeople
    • MotivatePeopleGet the best fromyourself and othersGavin inGham
    • LONDON, NEW YORK, MUNICH, MELBOURNE, DELHI ContentsProduced for Dorling Kindersley 1 How to Beby terry jeavons&company a MotivatorProject Editor Fiona BiggsProject Art Editor Terry Jeavons 14 Discover What’s ImportantDesigner JC Lanaway 16 Know Your ValuesSenior Editor Simon Tuite 18 Learn to Motivate YourselfEditor Tom BroderSenior Art Editor Sara Robin 20 Change Your Internal StateDTP Designer Traci Salter 22 Focus Your MindProduction Controller Stuart Masheter 26 Challenge Your BeliefsExecutive Managing Editor Adèle HaywardManaging Art Editor Nick Harris 28 Create a Motivational MindsetArt Director Peter LuffPublisher Corinne Roberts 2 Structure SuccessSpecial Photography Mike Hemsley 34 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 36 Use the Motivational TheoriesFirst published in 2007 by Dorling Kindersley Limited80 Strand, London, WC2R 0RL 38 Achieve High PerformanceThe Penguin Group2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1 44 The Structure of SuccessCopyright © 2007 Dorling Kindersley LimitedText copyright © 2007 Gavin Ingham 48 Set the Right GoalsAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmittedin any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without theprior written permission of the copyright owner.A CIP catalogue record for this book is availablefrom the British LibraryISBN-978-1-40531-751-1ED250Printed and bound in China by Leo Paper Group
    • 3 Manage with 102 Use Motivational FiltersMotivation 104 Consider Motivational Factors54 Get the Right People on 106 Get Associated with Board Success58 Training and Development 108 Use Imagery to Boost64 Run Motivational Motivation Meetings 110 How Time Affects68 Reward Excellence Motivation 112 Anchor Positive States4 Listen to Learn 116 Model Peak Performance76 Be a Good Coach 118 Index78 GROW Your Talent 120 Acknowledgments80 Motivate with Questions84 Listen to Understand86 Be Present When Listening88 Give Good Feedback90 Praise Your Team5 Sustain Motivation96 Build Rapport98 Know How People Communicate100 Walk a Mile in Their Shoes
    • IntroductionWhether you are a team leader, a manager, or co-worker,the ability to motivate people is fundamental to yourability to achieve your business and personal goals.Helping yourself and others to get and stay motivatedis an important tool for any successful person. What motivates one person will not be what motivatesanother, and, for this reason, many managers do not havethe ability or the skills to build a motivated team. Motivate People will help you to The best motivators unlock strategies and are those who techniques that will allow help people to help you to motivate others themselves both in the short and thelong term. Aimed primarily at people who work, it will alsobe an important resource for those who want to know moreabout their motivation in their life outside work. Why is one individual motivated by a certain task whenanother person isn’t? How is it that one person can controlemotions better than another? What can you do to removeblocks to personal motivation? By following the advice givenhere you will discover what’s really important to people andwill be able to use it to motivate them consistently.  m o t i vAt e p e o p l e
    • Learn how to set goals that stretch your teams and createand maintain structures that help you to stay on track andkeep your teams motivated. Work/life balance, training anddevelopment, and personal growth are all important factors.You will need to discover how to attract motivated peopleinto your organization, how to look after them and ensurethat they feel valued, and how to reward them, create long-term motivation, and inspire loyalty. People are more motivated when they feel that they areunderstood. You need to really understand the people onyour teams and to listen for the meaning behind what theyare saying. By focusing on core coaching and managementskills you will be able to achievetheir consistent motivation. if people understand whatcauses them to feel motivatedand what doesn’t they will beencouraged to take responsibilityfor their own motivation. if youwant to motivate yourself or helpothers to become motivated, thisbook will be essential reading. introduction 
    • Self-AssessmentThis assessment is designed to get you thinking abouthow you motivate people, and may lead to new insights.Whether you are an experienced motivator, or just startingout, you will get the most from this assessment if you do ittwice, once before you read the book, and again after youhave finished the book and, crucially, done the exercises. Before After1 Why do you get demotivated? A People and circumstances upset or annoy me. B I am not getting the results that I would like. C I am not taking responsibility for my own motivation.2 Why do you think the motivation of your team is not always as high as you would like it be? A My team members are basically lazy and don’t care about their work enough. B Everyone has bad days and it can’t be helped. C I haven’t taken the time to fully understand them and help them to be more consistently motivated.3 How focused are you when you are listening to someone speak? A I always do at least two things at a time, so I will be writing or sorting papers while I listen. B I listen for as long as is necessary for me to give relevant advice and ideas. C I focus my full attention on the individual with the sole intention of understanding what is being said.4 Why do you believe that people should be motivated at work? A They would get disciplined if they weren’t. B That’s what you have to do to get on in life. C Work is an opportunity to achieve your personal goals and aspirations.  m o T i vaT e p e o p l e
    • Before After5 How are mistakes viewed in your business? A They are something to be avoided. We don’t come to work to make mistakes. B They are tolerated in junior staff but more experienced people really shouldn’t be making mistakes. C As a learning experience. You can’t make progress unless you make a few mistakes.6 What do the members of your team think about feedback? A They avoid feedback and become defensive when they are given any. B They listen politely but rarely act on it. C They welcome it because it gives them encouragement and guidance and allows them to see how they are progressing.7 What do you base your day-to-day motivational approach upon? A How I feel on the day and what sort of approach I think my team deserves. B The way my boss used to motivate/manage me. C A considered system of motivation that I have tailored carefully to suit my teams.8 How do you view goal setting? A I don’t set goals – it’s too much effort and I don’t think it achieves anything. B I set some verbal goals for some activities. C I have well-formed goals, which are written down and which I review regularly. How do you go about finding the right people for your teams? A I rely mainly on luck and gut instinct. B It’s usuallly a process of trial and error. C I’ve put in place a formalized approach to recruitment that ensures consistency of approach and selection.10 What do you think about training and coaching? A Training is a waste of time and does not reflect the issues/challenges that my team faces in the real world. B Training should be done when you have a need or something specific for which people require training, for example a new computer system. C It’s an essential part of staff motivation and should be consistent, regular, and developmental. SELF-ASSESSMENT 
    • Before After11 Why do you hold regular meetings? A I don’t hold regular meetings. B To tell people how they have performed, keep them on the straight and narrow, and give necessary discipline and orders. C To educate, motivate, and inspire; to keep people informed about progress and objectives; to share company news; to allow them to share on the challenges/issues/problems they face; to get them involved through shared ideas and training.12 How do you view staff rewards? A I don’t believe that people should be rewarded for the job they’re paid to do. B I think that rewards can be given occasionally to reward exceptional behaviour. C I know what my team members value and I give them regular encouragement through rewards and praise.13 I am the manager of my team because: A I am the most qualified and I know best. B I have been around longest and I have consistently achieved the best results. C I am good at understanding people and helping them to motivate themselves.14 When things go wrong around here: A Everyone looks for someone to blame. B We analyze the situation carefully before someone takes responsibility. C We focus on the outcome we want and put our energy into achieving that result.Final Scores A B C Before After10 m o t i vat e p e o p l e
    • AnalysisMostly AsThese answers suggest that you don’t take responsibility for motivation –either your own or that of others. You generally see yourself as right anddon’t take the time to understand others. You don’t plan or prepareenough for challenges and issues. To change things, follow the advice inthe book and do the exercises. Starting with small, achievable steps, youshould soon have some evidence of positive results. Use these earlysuccesses to encourage yourself to get even better results.Mostly BsYou’re probably not a bad motivator. You no doubt get some good resultsfrom your team and your B answers are pretty normal. You do, however,feel frustrated at times that the motivational levels in your team are notconsistent. As you read the book pay close attention to areas where youthink you can benefit most. Do the exercises and think about them inrelation to your experiences. What are some key things you can do toachieve more Cs in your next assessment?Mostly CsYou demonstrate a balanced approach to motivation. You take responsibilityfor your own success and have a good understanding of how to get thebest out of others. However, don’t become complacent. Read the bookcarefully, do the exercises, and look for complementary ideas and strategiesthat will help you to become an even better motivator. The best motivatorsare always open to learning as they believe that they can always improve.ConclusionIf this is the first time that you have done this self-assessment, bear inmind the analysis when you read the book. Pay special attention to theareas highlighted by your responses, as well as the tips and techniques –these will help you to reduce the number of A responses next timeand achieve a more balanced mixture of Bs and Cs. After you havecompleted the book and put the techniques into practice, do theassessment again. Giving honest answers will enable you to get a directmeasure of your progress – you should be able to see a big improvement.Most of all have fun with this test. It is a tool to help you develop, notsomething to browbeat yourself with. S E L F - A S S E S S M E N T 11
    • How to Be a Motivator 1To be a great motivator you need tounderstand yourself and others. Becomingmore aware of why you do what you do andlearning to control your emotions will helpyou to get better results. The techniques inthis chapter can be used both on yourselfand with the members of your team. Youwill learn how to:• Discover what’s important to you and others• Take responsibility for your emotional state• Direct your mind to become more focused and solution oriented• Uncover limiting beliefs and create the mindset of a motivator.
    • Discover What’s ImportantGood motivators know what motivates people. If you donot know what people value then you will find that youwill not be able to motivate them at all.Let Your Values Dictate What is ImportantWhat you value determines what life means to you. Whenpeople become detached from their values they becomeunmotivated. Because of a general lack of awareness ofwhat is important, detachment and demotivation are verycommon. For example many people watch a great deal oftelevision every day, but this is unlikely to be because theyconsider the programmes they watch to be high priorities.Helping people to get reconnected and properly alignedwith their own values is a powerful management tool.Identify what Motivates PeopleIt is always a mistake to assume that what is important toyou is important to others. Many managers try to motivatepeople with promises of financial reward and promotion.This may be because these are thefactors that motivate the managers. Find the MotivatorsWhen asked, few staff place these People who do the sametwo motivators at the top of their job or who have the same interests may have verylists, preferring instead more different motivators. It isintangible motivators such as feeling up to you to discover whatvalued and being listened to. these motivators are.
    • ! think SMART One of the most powerful motivational activities is keeping your own log book. Most successful people keep a written record of what they do. A log book will help you to capture thoughts and aspirations, record successes and key learning points, and outline your goals and ambitions. You will be able to monitor your progress and assess how successfully you are running your life.What Motivates You?Spend a few minutes thinking about your life so far. Thinkabout some of the activities that really excited you atdifferent stages in your life and development. These shouldbe things that really mattered to you at the time and gaveyou a great sense of satisfaction. Make a list of theseactivities and then answer the following questions:• Which of these activities has given you the greatest sense of satisfaction? 5FIX• What abilities or skills do you minute most like using?• Why do you like using these abilities and skills so much? Establish what really• What patterns do you notice motivates you in in your list of things that different areas. mattered to you? Take one area (work)Now describe yourself when you and ask, “What isengaged in these activities. important to me• What do you see, hear, feel, about (work)?” and think? Describe what you Write a one-line are doing, who you’re with, response to this: “I and the way in which people want to be recognized respond to you. The more you for my contribution to do this exercise the more the team.” powerful it will become. D I S CO V E R W H AT ’ S I M P O R TA N T 15
    • Know Your ValuesIf you are living a balanced life you will be able to givesufficient attention to every area. Learning to balanceyour priorities will help you to motivate yourself andthe members of your team.Determine Your Prioritiesbefore you can work on balancing priorities it is importantthat you understand what those priorities are. examine thediagram on the facing page and write each of the eightareas of the wheel of life on to separate stick-on notes.Consider each area in turn and decide which one is leastimportant. throw away the note that has that area writtenon it. Continue to discard those areas that are leastimportant until only two notes remain. which two areasof your life remain? most people have one or both ofLoving relationships and health and Fitness. very fewpeople retain either money or work. Sometimes the most obvious motivators are not whatinspire people to act. as a motivator you need to be awareof this and discover people’s real motivators – if you fail tomotivate the whole person you will fail as a motivator.Case study: Living Up to Your Own ValuesClaire, a recently promoted under- • By understanding what wasperforming sales manager, was important to her Claire realizedconstantly stressed and under that she had sought promotionpressure. She was failing to hit to make her family and friendstargets and her work problems proud of her.were beginning to affect her • She learned that she preferredrelationship with her partner. After the challenge and focus of herworking on the Wheel of Life she old sales role.decided to move back into a senior • By moving back into her old jobsales role and quickly regained her she was able to feel fulfilled andmotivation and sense of purpose. her values were met.16 h o w t o b e a m ot i vato r
    • Use the Wheel Of LifeBy visualizing your values as a wheel you can see theimpact of an imbalance on your sense of self and,consequently, your motivation. Health and fitness Your Family Your immediate physical energy and vitality family and other relatives Wellbeing Your personal Loving relationships Your sense of peace friends and partner Career/Work Your day-to- Social relaxation/pastimes/ day occupation hobbies Finance Your salary/ Personal development/ savings/investments Growth self-improvement Personal development Growth Health and Social 10 fitness 8 6 4 2 Loving Wellbeing relationships Family Career/Work FinanceGive yourself a score from 1–10 for Reflect on your wheel. What areas doeach area of your life, where you need to work on? What do you1 = least amount of fulfilment and want the wheel to look like in a year,10 = most amount of fulfilment. in five years, and in ten years? K n o w Yo u r Va l u e s 17
    • Learn to Motivate YourselfMotivation is about having the right attitude at theright time. It enables you to access your skills andperform the task in hand effectively and efficiently.Control Your EmotionsGood motivators teach the members of their team how tobe more aware of their attitudes and how to control them.This in turn has an impact on the behaviours that thesepeople exhibit. In order to teach others how to controltheir emotions you must be able to control your own.Access Your Personal MotivationMost people view motivation as something that isdetermined by external events and circumstances and isout of their control. They are motivated from the outsidein. If you feel demotivated and lack confidence you areunlikely to make a good presentation, whereas if you areconfident and motivated you will probably make anexcellent one. A poor presentation will affect the way youfeel about yourself and will determine your subsequentbehaviour, increasing the likelihood of another poor result. ! think SMART While skills are essential for success, unless the people on your team are in the right state of mind, they will not be able to access their skills effectively. List ten attributes, such as confidence and focus, that the members of your team display collectively on a day when everything is going well. Most teams produce a list that is more about attitudes than skills. Whenever they are having a bad day and are feeling unmotivated, encourage them by showing them their list of attributes and reminding them of just how good they are.18 H O W T O B E A M OT I VATO R
    • Know Your Motivators Motivated from Is affected by Results the outside in external events fluctuate Motivated from Controls personal Results are the inside out state consistentMotivate Yourself from check the motivatorsthe Inside Out When you analyze someone’s performance, it is importanttop performers know that their to know whether that personmental state or motivation is an is motivated from the insideinternal representation of how out or the outside in, as this will affect their results.they view things. to be a goodmotivator you need to understand how to motivateyourself, regardless of external circumstances, and youmust then teach your teams how to do this too.Watch Their LanguagePeople often give an indication as to whether they takeresponsibility for their own motivation or allow themselvesto be affected by external events. this will be evident intheir response to events – self-motivated people will talkabout what they can do to improve a situation, while thoseaffected by external events will blame those events. Positive Responses to External EventsHIGH Impact NeGatIve Impact I was angry It annoyed me I need to learn from this It’s not my fault How can I motivate myself? The weather’s getting me down I need to prioritize my workload It’s all getting on top of me We need to create a positive The working environment here working environment is very demotivating l e a r n to m ot i vat e yo u r s e l f 19
    • Change Your Internal StateBecoming more aware of your emotions in the momentis key to improving motivation. Once you have realizedthat your attitude is not supporting you, you need to beable to change it quickly and effectively.Change Your Physiology to Change Your Statewhen you meet someone you can usually tell how heis feeling even before he tells you. this is because youunconsciously notice his physiology. Your physiology isyour physical being: the way you stand, sit, move, breathe,and so on. every emotional state has a certain physiologyattached to it. Someone who is depressed would have avery different physiology from someone who is motivated.he would probably be slouching, breathing slowly, lookingdown – and he certainly wouldn’t be smiling. Someonewho is motivated would be sitting up straight, breathingenergetically, with his eyes focused and his head up – andhe would probably be smiling. You can change yourphysiology by controlling your posture, changing yourexpression, or altering your breathing. this will enableyou to change your mental state almost instantly. TECHNIQUES to practise If you are feeling • Hold up your head and demotivated, this will pull back your shoulders. affect not only your work • Think of a time when you but also the motivation of were really motivated and your team. imagine yourself in that Whenever this happens you will motivated state. have to act quickly to increase • Make this picture of yourself your motivation – use this brighter and more defined. technique when the need arises. • Step into the picture and • Stand up and take a few slow, allow yourself to experience deep breaths. a feeling of total motivation.20 h o w t o b e a m ot i vato r
    • Change Your Mental Focus Improve Your Focus Learning to focus whileMental focus is the general term performing any activity willused to describe a person’s thought train you to access a stateprocesses. These processes fit into of motivation.two general areas – your self-talkand the mental images that you are constantly forming inyour head. The combination of these two, along with yourparticular physiology, will determine your mental state atany given time.Talk to YourselfWhen any event or situation occurs you form a mentalpicture of the event (and maybe the outcome) in yourhead. You talk to yourself (in your head!) about theevent and your feelings about it. Two people in the samesituation will create entirely different representations ofthe same event, which means that their experience of theevent is not the same. By taking control of your picturesand your self-talk you can master your own motivation. ch a n g e Yo u r i n T e r n a l s TaT e 21
    • Focus Your MindThe power to focus is a rare skill. By developing yourability to focus you will be able to improve yourmotivation, your productivity, and your creativity.Use Your Focus to Stay MotivatedFocus is defined both as the centre of interest or activityand a state of clear definition. People who have clarityof focus know what they want and are able to remainmotivated regardless of external events or circumstances.everyone is capable of focusing perfectly. the problem isnot so much an inability to focus, more an inability tofocus on what you want. by taking control of your mentalfocus you will get more of the results that you want. byhelping others to focus you can improve their results, theirmorale, and, ultimately, their productivity.Seven-Day Mental Focus Planif you stop to think about it, you will probably notice how oftenyour focus strays. over a period of seven days, concentrate onraising your habitual levels of focus. before you start to workon any important task, ask yourself: what do i need to be focusing on? how can i really focus on this task? why is it important to me that i stay focused on this task?when you have completed the seven days, assess your abilityto focus. Notice how much better at focusing you have become.imagine what you could achieve in three months if you wereto use this strategy consistently. what would this mean foryour relationships, for your motivational abilities, and for thesuccess of your organization?22 h o w t o b e a m ot i vato r
    • Get Focused Good AverageNeeds Work! I am always 100 I sometimesI st ruggle to per cent focused lose focusfo cus I never lose my ently get I occasionally I frequ focus get distracted distracted I am a very I have average I think I am focused person d levels of focus unfocuse Other people say Other people say Other people that I am very that I have normal say that I am focused levels of focus easily distracted I start tasks on I miss some I never start time and keep schedules but things when I say to my schedules meet others I will and I don’t keep to schedules I know how to get I can focus myself I cannot focus focused and have if I try really hard myself consciously strategies for staying focusedImprove Your Focus Test Your Focus Look at these statements andAchieving clarity of focus will rate yourself by circling theusually require a good deal of answer that best matchespractice. You should try to work your situation. If you haveconsciously on improving clarity any areas that “need work” or are simply “average” youof focus when you are engaged in have a good opportunity totasks that don’t always hold your improve your focus.interest. For example, if you findthat the administrative aspect of your job fails to holdyour attention, try to clear your mind of other mattersand focus on the importance of what you are doing.check yourself periodically to establish if, and to whatextent, your ability to focus has improved – are there stillsome areas that need a bit more work? F o cu s Yo u r M i n d 23
    • Focus on Successby learning to focus on the solutions that you want youwill achieve better results. Good motivators focus ongetting the results that they want.they then choose an appropriateaction that will maximize thepossibility of achieving them. A change of focus oftenAct – Don’t React gets a bettermost people spend most of their resulttime and energy thinking aboutand acting upon problems,challenges, and issues – they reactto situations. by constantly focusing on problems theycompound the original difficulty and reinforce its negativeeffects. if you learn to change your focus so that you areconcentrating on the positive outcome of whatever activityyou are engaged in you will soon find that you are actuallyachieving the results that you want.Case study: Being Motivated to ChangeMary, a sales manager, held coaching session for herself. Thisregular team meetings but people helped her to change her behaviourwould turn up late and slouch in and run effective motivationaltheir chairs looking uninterested. meetings with the full involvementShe was soon expecting this of her team.behaviour even before she startedthe meetings and her approach • The coaching helped Marygradually became defensive and to focus on and visualize theauthoritarian. Her team did not format, content, and resultsrespond to this and the meetings of the meetings.became steadily more unproductive. • Because she began to take Mary realized that she would responsibility for the success ofhave to do something to overcome the meetings they soon becamethis problem and she arranged a more productive.24 h o w t o b e a m ot i vato r
    • The Six Steps to SuccessWhen motivating individuals you will always encounterchallenges and problems. Your focus will determine theway you act and the results that you get in these situations.This six-step strategy will help you to focus on success.1 Acknowledge the event. The first step to getting the results we want is to acknowledge that there has been a problem.2 consider your current response or reaction to the event. How do you think and feel about this event or challenge?3 What is the normal outcome of this situation? This is usually very easy to predict, as the same actions repeated in response to a similar event or situation will usually bring about similar results.4 What are the consequences of these results for you? What do they mean for your motivation? What do they Break the Chain mean for the motivation of your team? What will the Acknowledge a problem consequences be for your organization?5 What results would you like to achieve? You cannot do Assess your usual reaction anything about an event that has already happened, but you can focus on a different outcome to a similar event. Consider the normal result6 Plan your actions so that they drive you in the direction of the outcome that you want. choose carefully and take Visualize the desired new outcome some time to visualize yourself responding to a similar event in the future with your new, more resourceful actions, and Plan to achieve the new outcome getting your desired results. F o cu s Yo u r M i n d 25
    • Challenge Your BeliefsHaving the right mindset is essential to being a goodmotivator. Whether you have a fully supportive mindsetwill depend on your established beliefs about yourcurrent situation.Believe in YourselfIf a member of your team is feeling unmotivated it may bebecause of what he believes. Beliefs drive the way a personfeels and, therefore, the way he behaves, yet few peopleare aware of the impact that their beliefs can have on theirlives. Even fewer consciously choose their beliefs. Beliefscome from many different sources: family, history, friends,colleagues, culture, politics, education, training, managers,experience, religion, media, television, the Internet. Even ifwhat you believe isn’t true, that belief will still affect yourlife. The belief that your lack ofsuccess can be attributed to the Trust Yourself A trulyway your parents brought you up empowering belief may be a certainty that you grew upmay or may not be true, but it with, and will be a strongcould keep you from achieving motivator, giving you realthe success that you want. confidence in what you do.26 h o w T o B E a m oT I vaTo r
    • Empower YourselfMotivators must be able to distinguish between limitingbeliefs and empowering beliefs. Limiting beliefs are thosebeliefs that cause you to feel unresourceful in a situation.Empowering beliefs are those beliefs that cause you to feelresourceful in the same situation. If you fail to identify andhelp others to remove limiting beliefs, these beliefs willreinforce themselves and become self-fulfilling.Acknowledge Limiting BeliefsLimiting beliefs are the result of limiting decisions made atsome point in the past, often in early childhood before youhad fully developed the ability to make sense of what washappening in your life. If you were to review these pastevents with your adult resourcesand logical abilities you wouldprobably come to quite differentconclusions. It is important to Beliefs driveacknowledge limiting beliefs, the way awhatever their source, because person feelsyou can then take whatever and behavesfurther learning you need fromthem and let them go.Reinforce Your BeliefsTo help you to eradicate any limiting beliefs that you mayhave, try viewing them from a different perspective. Youcan do this by asking yourself the following questions:• Is this belief true?• Has there ever been a time when it wasn’t true?• Would someone else believe it to be true?• What evidence challenges this belief?• What is it costing me to believe this?• How will I benefit from letting this belief go now?TIP When someone feels unresourceful try to findout which of his beliefs makes him feel like that. cH a L L E n g E Yo u r B E L I E f s 27
    • Create a Motivational MindsetDeveloping a positive belief system for yourself is keyto being able to motivate others. Think of someone whohas motivated you in the past and ask yourself what hisbeliefs were and how they motivated him.Look to the Great MotivatorsGreat motivators help others to identify and build onpositive evidential references that will support empoweringbeliefs. highly motivated teams share references andevidence of their joint and individual successes, thusbuilding mutually supportive beliefs. if you were a greatmotivator what would you believe about your teammembers, your organization, your resources, your identity,your ability to motivate? Great motivators know thatindividuals have untapped potential and that they can bemore motivated and achieve more than they ever thoughtpossible. take responsibility for your own beliefs and stayfocused on references that support your aims and goals.Case study: Changing Your ApproachDavina had recently taken over Davina decided to change hera new team. One of the team approach to Josh, who began tomembers, Josh, was described as perform more effectively and witha lazy under-achiever. Davina soon renewed energy and self-esteem.noted Josh’s poor performance andbecame annoyed, excluding Josh • The coaching process showedfrom important projects. that Davina had failed to After speaking with her own recognize Josh’s good pointscoach about this issue, Davina because of the preconceptionssought coaching for Josh. The that she had inherited about him.coaching revealed that Josh • Davina’s willingness to revisebelieved that no-one noticed or her attitude gave Josh thebelieved in him. He always felt opportunity to perform as aunappreciated and worthless. valuable team member.28 h o w t o b e a m ot i vato r
    • Reinforce Your Beliefs Be Inspiring Try to emulate aWhen faced with challenges good role model. You will be an inspiring leader if you yourselfand problems, having a can take your inspiration fromsupportive belief system will someone whose qualities andhelp you to remain focused performance you admire.and motivated. If you are to beable to turn good ideas into empowering beliefs you mayneed to do some work on them.• Think of a situation that you find yourself in where you sometimes feel unmotivated.• Ask yourself, “What do I need to believe about myself/ this situation so that I can feel totally motivated?”• Write down up to five of these beliefs in your logbook. Post them on your computer.• Find evidence to support each of your new beliefs. Ask yourself, “What evidence supports this belief?”• Focus at least once a day on your new beliefs and the evidence that supports them. cr e AT e A m oT I vAT I o n A l m I n d s e T 29
    • Summary: Believing to Achieveto be a really good motivator you need to understandwhat motivates others. First of all, though, you need tobecome aware of what your own personal motivators are.Learn to focus on what you want, acknowledging anylimiting beliefs that may be holding you back fromachieving what you want in life. Believing in Yourself Find Out What Motivate Yourself1 Motivates You 2 Learn to control Identify common motivators your emotions Know what your Become aware of your own priorities in life are personal motivators Work out a way to balance Change your physiology to your priorities change your state of mind Use your values to direct Shift your mental focus your life30 h o w t o b e a m ot i vato r
    • Learn to Focus Develop the3 Your Mind 4 Right Mindset Know what you want Learn to believe in yourself Acknowledge limiting Test your focus beliefs that may be holding you back Take the lead from Focus on success the great motivators Change what you believeTake the six steps to success if necessary S u m m a ry: b e l i e v i n g to ach i e v e 31
    • Structure Success 2By studying motivational theories you canset yourself up for success, but obstacles willsometimes get in the way. You need to learnhow to set goals, deal with resistance, andimplement structures that will help you toachieve the motivational success that youneed. This chapter explains how to:• Apply the motivational theories of Maslow, Herzberg, Likert, and Vroom• Get leverage for the motivational change that lies ahead• Set goals that motivate, inspire, and stretch• Design and implement structures that support your goals.
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMany interesting theories of motivation have beendeveloped over the years. One of them is psychologistAbraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, which is usefulwhen working with individuals and teams.Meet Lower Level Needs FirstMaslow believed that people progress up the hierarchyof needs, starting with meeting physiological needs andending with self-actualization. Once a need is met you willno longer be motivated by this need and will move on tothe next motivator. conversely, you will not be motivatedby higher level needs until the lower ones are met.• Physiological needs – Having sufficient water, food, warmth, sex, exercise, and sleep.• Security requirements – Being safe from the dangers and difficulties of life. Not having to worry about survival risks such as accidents, attack, droughts, and ill health. Having security of employment and finance.• Social needs and belonging – Being close to those around you. Wanting to be well liked by them. Maslow’s Hierarchy People like to belong to groups – family, social, and geographic groups. SELF-• Esteem and personal ACTUALIZATION status – Having a good social standing in the ESTEEM AND PERSONAL STATUS perception of others. Needing to be well liked, highly regarded, SOCIAL NEEDS and appreciated.• Self-actualization – SECURITY Being the best that you can be and releasing your individual potential PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS purely for your own personal satisfaction.34 s t r u c t u r e s u cce s s
    • Be a Positive MotivatorHIGH Impact NeGatIve Impact Encouraging personal Ignoring individual’s development and growth development possibilities Teaching communication and Pushing people into situations confidence techniques for which they are not prepared Fostering team spirit Ignoring team dynamics Demonstrating organizational Hiring and firing at will instead stability and loyalty of instituting proper procedures Meeting people’s physical needs Cutting down on necessities to in the workplace save moneyBe CreativeMany managers use money to motivate people, throughcommission structures and bonus schemes. However, ifyour monetary needs are met and you do not link extramoney to the achievement of any higher needs, then itis unlikely that money alone will motivate you effectively.you may decide that the extra money is not worth theincreased effort required. in these circumstances amanager who wants to motivate you will need to becreative and focus on your higher level needs.Use the Hierarchy of Needsyou can understand a lot about a person by identifying hercurrent position in Maslow’s Hierarchy. Try thinking aboutyour team members, your friends, and your colleagues.How do you think their position in the hierarchy affectstheir motivation when carrying out day-to-day tasks? Howdo you think you could you use this knowledge to helpthem to become more motivated?TIP When working with teams, weigh up the needsof the individual in relation to the team, and tie theindividual’s motivating factors into those of the team. M a s lo w ’ s H i e r a r cH y o f N e e d s 35
    • Use the Motivational TheoriesOther theories that will make it easier for you to learnhow to motivate include Frederick Herzberg’s DualFactor Theory, Rensis Likert’s Sales Management Theory,and Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory.The Dual Factor Theorythis theory separates “hygiene” and “motivational”factors. the hygiene factors, which Herzberg considered asnecessary but not motivational, include physical workingconditions, security, interpersonal relationships, salary andbenefits, company procedures, status, and personalcircumstances. the motivational factors, which directlymotivate people to achieve more, include achievement,recognition, interest value, and responsibility.The Sales Management TheoriesLikert focused on the link between the behaviour of salesmanagers and that of their teams, discovering that:• High-performing sales teams invariably had managers who set themselves high performance goals.• Managers who encouraged group involvement and discussion in meetings achieved far better results from their teams than those who controlled and dominated.The Expectancy TheoryVroom showed that motivation depends on whetherpeople think their efforts are likely to achieve success ornot, using three criteria.1 Expectancy – the extent to which you think increasedeffort will result in increased performance.2 Instrumentality – How much you think that thisincreased performance will result in increased reward.3 Valence – How greatly you value the increased reward.TIP Encourage people to understand the linksbetween effort, results, and personal benefits.36 s t r u c t u r e s u cce s s
    • it is important to encourage people to understand the linksbetween effort and results and to show them clearly howthey will benefit from the results. they will be bettermotivated to work at their optimum levels if:• they think that increasing their efforts will result in improved performance• they think that they will be rewarded for the extra effort they put in to achieve that performance• they value that reward.the theory demonstrates the importance of knowing whatis and is not important to every member of your team. italso highlights the conscious choices that people will makein achieving their objective of maximizing pleasure andavoiding pain. helping the members of your team to linkpleasure to important tasks will result in their increasedmotivation and improved performance.Motivate Your Teamtake the lead from the great motivational thinkers and followthese guidelines to ensure that your team is well motivated. look after the physical comfort of your team in the workplace and ensure that hygiene factors are covered. reduce worries about job security and market vulnerability. Understand people’s individual motivators and their importance in getting the best out of your team. encourage the members of your team to see the link between their efforts and the results they achieve. Make sure that you clearly link results and reward. Create opportunities for personal, professional, and spiritual advancement, while, at the same time, encouraging people to take responsibility for their own success. Use inter-team meetings to encourage group belonging and foster improved team spirit. U s e t h e M ot i vat i o n a l t h e o r i e s 37
    • Achieve High PerformanceThe ability to learn, to understand, and to utilize newinformation, strategies, and behaviours is essential forcreating and sustaining motivation.Step Your Way to SuccessWhenever you learn anything new you progress throughfive steps. sometimes this progression happens so quicklyyou may be unaware of the process. At other times youwill be much more aware of the process and your ownfeelings surrounding it. understanding the steps will allowyou to understand and motivate people more effectively.there may seem to be an artificial barrier at step 2conscious incompetence. Make sure that beforeimplementing any new skill, strategy, or behaviour youdo a quick motivation “health check”, working out howcongruent you are with wanting to achieve this goal.Case study: Learning to AdvanceSeventeen-year-old Maya was keen able to drive quite proficientlyto learn to drive but was totally (conscious competence). Mayaunaware of how difficult this was passed her test and is now aactually going to be (unconscious confident driver.incompetence). Easing into thedriver’s seat she grasped the wheel, • By persisting in the face ofstarted the engine, depressed challenges and difficulties Mayathe clutch, put her foot on the was able to learn the new habitsaccelerator, and stalled the car. necessary for driving. Gradually, Maya realized that • She sometimes arrives at herlearning to drive was going to be a destination and doesn’tdifficult and challenging (conscious remember the details of drivingincompetence) task. After putting there (unconscious competence).in a lot of practice and effort she • If she focuses on advancing hereventually reached the point driving skills she will be able towhere, if she could maintain her pursue the state of mastery of theconcentration, she was actually driving process.38 s t r u c t u r e s u cce s s
    • Five Steps to High Performance Mastery Habit Practice Aware Step 5 Step 4 Unaware Step 3 Step 2 Beware of habit Step 1 becoming complacencyit is important to be aware that Achieve Masterypeople will progress through the If you are to achieve your optimum performancefive steps at different speeds – you will have to advanceeveryone’s journey towards the through these five steps.state of mastery will be different.• Step 1: Unconscious Incompetence – You are unaware of what you don’t know.• Step 2: Conscious Incompetence – You become aware of what you don’t know. You’re ignorant and you are aware of your ignorance.• Step 3: Conscious Competence – You become aware of how to do things properly. You have the ability to do something but you have to concentrate on it.• Step 4: Unconscious Competence – You are unaware of how you do the things you know how to do. You do things without even thinking about it.• Step 5: Mastery – This takes you a stage further than unconscious competence – the state of mastery has an additional, almost mystical quality. Ach i e v e h i g h P e r f o r m A n ce 39
    • Break Bad HabitsPeople spend a lot of time operating in an unconsciousstate, repeating the same mistakes and weaknesses. Ifyour team’s current habits and behaviours don’t supportyour objectives then you need to be able to break them.Operating out of habit has many advantages. You can:• Multitask• Operate fluidly and easily• Stay within your comfort zone• Remain stress free.However, reacting in a certain way to a certain stimulusmay be right in one situation but wrong in another. Thekey here is to step back periodically and check that yourbehaviours are getting you the results you want.Learn ContinuallyWhen you are learning a new skill or behaviour and youreach conscious incompetence, you may experiencefeelings of stress, frustration, challenge, pain, lack ofcontrol, discomfort, fear, and uncertainty. You can changeyour habitual behaviour by breaking through this barrier.What is required to do this is determination, persistenceand repeated practice of the new habit. ! think SMART The ability to change your behaviours rapidly is essential when motivating people. However, most things worth learning will feel challenging at first. Concentrate on becoming more aware of your habitual behaviours, emotions, and responses to people and situations. Decide how you can change these. Practise, practise, practise, and commit yourself to the change for a predefined period of time. Use these techniques in the workplace or at home to get more of the results that you want.40 S T R U C T U R E S U CCE S S
    • Assess Your HabitsThe HABIT model (Gavin Ingham 2002) can be used withteam members to help them to understand and changetheir underlying habits and behaviours. H  abitual behavioursWhat behaviours/habits/emotionsdo you exhibit? When do you exhibit Habitual H behavioursthem? how motivated are you? A  sk questionshow do these habits contribute toyour day-to-day motivation levels?Do these habits support you or limit A Ask questionsyou? Do they help or hinder you?Do they create results or failure? B  reak the habitif a habitual behaviour doesn’tsupport you, how can you stop B Break the habitdoing it right now? What is itcosting you to behave in this way?how will you benefit from changingthat behaviour now? I nstall new habits I Install new habitsDecide what the most appropriatehabit would be and commit to it fora period of time. T  est the new habitTake the new habit for a test run and T Test the new habittry it out, constantly refining andretuning it until you are satisfied.TIP Visualize yourself successfully completing thechange – this will be a powerful technique for keepingyou on track when breaking long-standing habits. Ach i e v e h i g h P e r f o r m A n ce 41
    • What Makes People Tick?It can be difficult to understand why two people doing thesame job, for the same pay, and in the same environmentwill perform so differently, but not everyone is motivated bythe same values, ambitions, and challenges. understandingmotivating factors will help you to adapt your approach tospecific team members. common motivators include:Personal development, career advancement, sociability,family, financial reward, lifestyle, security, and novelty. Personal Development People who are driven by a need for personal development enjoy work that they perceive to be stretching, and which allows them to acquire new skills. They may be very motivated by training opportunities and feel disenchanted with their job if they believe that they are not learning anything new.Career Advancement SociabilityLikely to be quite ambitious, career- Many people enjoy interacting withorientated people are enthusiastic co-workers and clients. These peopleabout roles that will benefit their quickly establish working relationshipscareer, but may neglect work that they and thrive on working in teams, butdon’t think will bring them recognition. may not work so well in solo roles.42 s t r u c t u r e s u cce s s
    • TECHNIQUES to practise Mastery is the state that • What will it be like when you top performers in all achieve a state of mastery? spheres strive for and What will you be doing/ regularly achieve. feeling/thinking? Who will be As a motivator you may find with you? When will this state this exercise useful when be useful to you? working with individuals, or • What do you think you need you can do it yourself to reach to learn that will help you to an understanding of what move towards that state of motivates you. Ask yourself: mastery right now?Build Your Personal DesireMany people are constantly in pursuit of that elusive extraedge of performance, that key that will unlock their supermotivation. Finding the right focus is essential if you are toachieve sustainable motivation in the long term. The keyto lasting persistence, determination, and self-belief ispersonal desire. When you can attach a strong personalmeaning to change, you don’t need to remind yourselfto be motivated or persistent – it happens automaticallyas you pursue your goals and ambitions.Be Clear About Your ReasonsSuccessful leaders and motivators know why change isimportant to their staff and they help them to be clearabout these reasons. Uncovering their own personalreasons for change is fundamental to helping people tomotivate themselves. Different people will have differentreasons for doing things and you must understand thesefully if you are to help all the members of your team tobe consistently motivated. If people are to change theyneed to be ready, willing, and able to do so. They needto recognize the importance of changing and to have astrong belief in their ability to do so. Ach I e v e h I g h P e r F o r M A n ce 43
    • The Structure of SuccessSuccess has structure. People work best in environmentswhere they know what is going to happen, when it isgoing to happen, and with whom it is going to happen.Plan AheadTeams and individuals work best when they know what todo. Without a proper structure, managers spend too muchtime dealing with problems and challenges and too littlefocusing their energies on leading and motivating. If amanager is always attending to the detail, how will theteam know what to do and how to react if an unexpectedsituation arises when the manager is not present? If theteam knows how the manager would deal with a situation,because she has established a proper structure withinwhich to operate, the team members will be more proactiveand productive, the organization will benefit in the longterm, and the manager’s reputation will be enhanced.Case study: Predefining ActivitySarah runs a small business with their own success and Sarah waseight team members. They all know able to continue with her clientwhat to do but take their daily visits without worrying that herdirection from Sarah. She visits staff would feel unmotivated.her important clients regularly butwhen she leaves the office the • By creating systems that theteam often under-perform, not team could follow Sarah was ablecompleting their activities to the to outline her expectations clearly.same standard as when she is in • Once the team knew what tothe office. Sarah realized that she do, and when and how to do it,had no system in place that the they were not continually lookingteam could use for guidance when to her for direction.she was out of the office. After she • Confidence in the systemshad discussed in detail how things allowed Sarah’s staff to makeshould progress in her absence, the decisions and operate effectivelystaff took more responsibility for in her absence.44 s T r u c T u r e s u cce s s
    • Clarify Expectations and ObjectivesWhen people are clear about what is expected of them,they will take more responsibility for their own behaviour.Organizational procedures should be fixed and everyoneshould know what they should be doing, and when. P  romotion should be clear, transparent, consistent, and linked to activity/performance. Many businesses promote using non- tangible, subjective criteria. These are difficult to justify and can cause widespread motivation issues. M  eetings should be regular and have consistent structure. The “feeling” should always be the same. G  oals/objectives should be made clear to the team and it should know that these are going to be achieved. C  oaching and training are critical to success but only if they are consistent. Many organizations invest in development only when they have problems. This pattern of behaviour will quickly establish a link between training and problems. M  anagement styles and agendas should be thought through and fixed. People should always know what to expect from their managers. This knowledge will build up their trust and rapport. Transparency P  aperwork and administrative and consistency tasks should be clearly defined. are basic People need to know exactly what they have to do, have sufficient to good training to do it, and have available management support and guidance. D  iscipline should always be even- handed, appropriate, and visible. E  nvironmental issues such as seating, lighting, desks, windows, phones, and laptop computers may not be true motivators, but perceived unfairness in these areas can give rise to major motivational challenges. T h e S T r u c T u r e o f S u cce S S 45
    • Motivate Your Teamthe ability to “see” how effectively people are operating atdifferent logical levels will help you to intervene successfully. Lookat how people are working and you will be able to recognize thelogical levels in action. Ask yourself: What results do you want to get in your business? What environment would support this?think about the behaviours you would like to see peopledisplaying consistently in order to achieve the results you need.Analyze the capabilities they would need to do this. How wouldthey feel about their situation? What emotions would theydisplay? Ask yourself what beliefs they hold that would supporttheir feelings and behaviours. Find out what is important to themand what their image of themselves is.Understand the Logical LevelsLogical levels help you to recognize and understandpatterns and structures within your business, clarify whereproblems originate, and give you the necessary insight tocorrect the problem.• Environment – the physical environment and the people around you• Results – the results that you get• Behaviour – Your activities and behaviours• Capabilities – What you are capable of doing. the sum of your knowledge, skills, and processes• Attitudes and emotions – How you feel about your current situation• Beliefs – What you believe about your situation• Values – What is important to you• Identity – the person you believe yourself to be. Your own personal identity.46 s t r u c t u r e s u cce s s
    • Align the Logical LevelsWhen trying to elicit change most managers interveneat the behavioural level (“work harder”) and occasionallyat the capability level (training). To create sustainablechange you need to ensure that a person’s attitudes,beliefs, values, and identity are aligned in order to supportthe required change. If these are not in place, motivationwill be short-lived.Address Values and BeliefsHelping someone to discover that nurturing and motivatinga team of people can produce far better results thanfocusing purely on the activity ofthat team is a powerful aim. Provide Create the Rightevidence and references for team Environment Workingleaders so that they can change their in a well-planned and pleasant workingbelief to one that focuses on environment can helpdeveloping the team’s abilities. to increase motivation. T H e S T r u c T u r e o f S u cce S S 47
    • Set the Right GoalsIt is essential that you encourage people to set theirown goals and targets. Goals provide both direction andmotivation and act as support on days when things arenot going exactly the way you want them to.Know What You WantWhat motivates one person may not motivate another.some individuals are motivated by one big goal whereasothers need smaller, mini-goals. You need to encouragepeople to set goals for the short term (daily/weekly),medium term (monthly/yearly), and long term (decades/lifetimes). Many people fail to set or focus upon goals.this can result in a lack ofdirection and in low motivation.common reasons for failing to setgoals include lack of know-how, Goals mustlaziness, fear of failure, and lack of be specific,focus. Goal setting is critical for realistic, andmaintaining motivation and should stretchingalways be congruent with yourvalues and beliefs.Set Goals that WorkWhen working with others ask these ten questions toensure that their goals will be motivational and effective.• What exactly do you want?• Where are you at the moment in relation to this goal?• How will you know when you achieve it?• What will you see/hear/feel/smell/taste when you achieve this goal?• Why is this so important to you?• What will achieving it do for you?• Where, when, how, and with whom do you want to achieve the goal?• What resources do you need to achieve this outcome?• What will be different as a result of achieving the goal?• Do you believe that you can achieve this goal?48 s t r u c t u r e s u cce s s
    • Achieve Your GoalsUsing imagery is an important part of successful goalsetting. By clearly visualizing, your brain will be able to“experience” the achievement of your goals prior to yourhaving achieved them. Repeat this exercise often. Pick a goal from one area of your life. Picture it in detail. Imagine stepping into the “you” in the picture and actually experiencing your achievement of that goal. Notice how it feels, what you see, hear, and think. Notice how other SMART Goals people treat you. Look into the future beyond Specific and your achievement of the goal. S detailed How does achieving this goal benefit all areas of your life? Look back at the past and your route to achieving your goal. Note your successes and the M Measurable obstacles you overcame. Notice how different they are now that you have overcome them. Appreciate how you feel about your achievements. Achievable but A stretching Imagine yourself walking backwards from your future achievement to the present. Notice what resources you needed and what you learned Realistic/relevant R to you from specific steps you took to help you along the way. From the present look forwards to your goal and appreciate the Timed realistically journey. Map out key stages of T for starting and the journey and the resources finishing you require right now. S e t t H e R I g H t g oA L S 49
    • Summary: Get on the Right PathIf you are to achieve success with your projects you willneed to motivate the members of your team. Learn howto motivate others by tapping in to the great motivationaltheories. create and sustain motivation by utilizing newstrategies and information. Be clear about what you expectof people and encourage them to break their bad habits. Utilizing Your Resources Use the Theories Create Lasting1 of Motivation 2 Motivation Learn the five stages of Meet lower level needs first high performance Use Maslow’s Hierarchy of Break bad habits by Needs to identify motivators becoming more aware Understand the Dual Factor, Build up your personal Sales Management, and desire to achieve Expectancy theories super motivation Take the lead from the great motivators to Strive to achieve mastery motivate your team50 s t r u c t u r e s u cce s s
    • Structure Your Set Your3 Success 4 Targets Plan ahead so that people know what is Set goals that will motivate expected of them Ask the right Ask yourself what questions to find out what results you want motivates people Understand the Use imagery to visualize the logical levels at which achievement of a goal people operate Align the logical levels to Apply the SMART test bring about change s u m m a ry: g e t o n t h e r i g h t pat h 51
    • Manage withMotivation 3In today’s competitive marketplace findingand locating motivated staff is difficult. Onceyou have found them, managing them andsustaining their motivation is equallychallenging. This chapter focuses on howto attract, manage, and retain the mostmotivated people. It will demonstrate:• Why it’s important that you attract the best• How to organize training and development that rewards and inspires• Why motivational meetings are essential for building a high performance team• How to create lasting motivation.
    • Get the Right People on BoardSuccessful recruitment requires careful planning andconsideration. By recruiting and selecting the rightpeople to work in your organization you will be ableto develop a highly motivated team.Identify the RoleIt is essential to specify the role for which you arerecruiting. If you are to attract the right people you willneed to put a lot of thought into the job description, thepurpose of the role, and the kind of person who will bestperform this role in the context of your organization.A written job description is useful, not only for externalagencies working with you, but also as a way of keepingaligned the different people involved internally in theorganization’s recruitment process. A personal specificationmay also be useful – this is something that can easily beincorporated into the job description. ! think SMART Good management is not simply about motivating existing team members; it’s your ability to motivate potential team members that will determine whether you get the right people on board in the first place. If you can’t offer potential employees or team members a reason to join your organization, you won’t attract the quality of candidates that you need to develop a highly motivated team. Before recruiting new staff, think about what your organization can offer them, plan properly for interviews and provide feedback.“If the ladder is not leaning against the right wall, every ”step we take just takes us to the wrong place faster. Steven Covey54 M A N AG E W I T H M OT I VAT I O N
    • Attract Talentthe key to creating a motivated team is to attract the right peopleto your organization. the more attractive you are to potentialstaff, the more choice you will have when recruiting. internal recruitment is a valuable source of talent, is cost effective, and provides an opportunity to promote, reward, and recognize effort and performance. advertise on notice boards, intranet, staff newsletters, and at internal meetings. Referrals offer a cost-effective and highly targeted way of reaching competent staff. You could create a referral scheme that would reward your existing staff for the successful recruitment of new team members. Place your own advertisements and run your own campaigns. Consider newspapers, trade periodicals, graduate schemes, job centres, and open days. Use professional recruitment organizations – whether on an ad hoc basis or in partnership. the services offered and received from external agencies vary dramatically and you should do some research prior to making a decision.Know Who You Wantthe objective of a personal specification is to consider thepersonal attributes, experience, and capabilities of theright person. Personal specifications will often be split intomandatory and desirable criteria.•  hysical requirements – Speech, general appearance, P manner, fitness• Achievements – education, qualifications, experience, past successes• Personalqualities relevant to the job – empathy, communication skills, motivation• Personality – ability to fit in to the existing team• nterests – activities relevant to the ability to do the job I G e t t h e R i G h t P e o P l e o n B oa R d 55
    • Know Your OptionsThe quality of your selection process will determine notonly whether you choose the right staff but also whetherthey decide to work for your organization. Having apre-defined, objective process creates a professional andefficient way of ensuring that you get the right people intoyour organization. There are several selection tools, all ofwhich are effective in different situations when utilized byexperienced individuals who have been properly trained.• Selection interviews can be carried out with one or more interviewers. They are the most widely utilized selection tool when recruiting.• Assessment centres are becoming increasingly popular, particularly for managerial, professional, and graduate positions. They can provide several candidates at once and have been shown to be an effective predictor of a candidate’s future success. Assessment centres will generally carry out written tests, one-to- Practise Your Technique If you’ve never conducted an one interviews, group interview before, practise on a exercises and activities, friend or colleague, taking note and presentations. of weak areas as you proceed.56 m A n Ag e w i T H m oT i vAT i o n
    • Plan the Perfect InterviewHIGH Impact NeGatIve Impact Writing a clear job description Failing to plan properly Reading the candidate’s CV in Reading the candidate’s CV advance of the interview and for the first time while you are researching former employers conducting the interview Greeting interviewees and Leaving interviewees waiting; starting the interview punctually failing to reserve an appropriate Preparing your interview interview location Giving timely feedback and Running an unplanned interview following up after the interview Failing to give feedback Ensuring that all procedures are Showing bias or ignoring legal fair and legal requirements• Psychological testing is focused either on attainment/ ability/general intelligence and psychometric questionnaires or on personality tests. this latter group includes tests such as Myers- Briggs and the holdsworth occupational Personality A good Questionnaire. to run and selection utilize the output data from psychological testing requires process will professional training. produce the• Panel interviews are often right result utilized when recruiting people for high-pressure jobs or competitive situations. despite their somewhat archaic qualities they can be an effective way of putting candidates under pressure. the way in which someone responds to this pressure will demonstrate to the interviewers whether he has the qualities required for the role for which he is being recruited.• Role-playing can be used to simulate the work environment and to gain an insight into the candidate’s behaviours and habits at work. G e t t h e R i G h t P e o P l e o n B oa R d 57
    • Training and DevelopmentStructured training and development programmes areessential for the development of long-term morale andmotivation. Whenever people are asked what motivatesthem personal development features highly.Make Training Ongoingwhether you need to train staff on a new piece ofequipment, increase existing skills, or improve weak skills,training is vital to the success of the modern organization.if you want people to see development programmes asbeing worthwhile they need to be ongoing and consistent.Key to the success of any development programme is thetraining needs analysis.Completed prior to Tailor Your Approachtraining, this does not haveto be expensive or time Starting with an individual department or team ask yourselfconsuming. it’s important what the primary businessto think of managerial objectives of that team aretraining, too. manyorganizations invest heavilyin staff development butfail to develop their Make a list of the core behaviours that you want the team tomanagers adequately. demonstrate and the core skills that are required to do thisFind the Right Trainerthe expertise of the traineror coach, internal orexternal, appointed to Now rate the team on howdevelop and run training effectively it executes the corecourses is of paramount behaviours currentlyimportance. if you get thisright, you’re far more likelyto be running a successfulcourse that will have Once you have identified the “gaps”, decide whether the gap inlong-term benefits, both behaviour is driven by lack offor the participants and skills, lack of motivation, or bothfor the organization.58 m a n ag e w i t h m ot i vat i o n
    • Find the Right FormatOnce the decision has been taken regarding the subject matter for thedevelopment programme it is important that the programme is deliveredin the most efficient format possible.Developmental Pros ConsFormatGroup training Builds team spirit, is cost Individuals have different effective, and uses a learning styles and needs, standard approach training requires time out of the officeOne-to-one Personalized and Takes time and cancoaching tailored, timely, and sometimes lack energy adjusts delivery/speedOn the job Time-effective, focused Can build on bad habitstraining and relevant, easy to do and is easily forgotten “in-house” or postponedMentoring Grows internal talent, Can build on established uses existing experience/ bad habits, may miss skills within the external solutions, and organization, and is can stifle individual contextually accurate responsibilityE-learning Cheap, easy, and quick, May not get done properly, can be studied in your will not suit some, and own time, and requires misses out on important no trainer/coach personal elementsSelf-learning – Cheap and easy, can be Will not suit some, requiresbooks, audios, studied in your own time, self-discipline, and willDVDs and may not require a need contextualizing for coach or trainer your organizationExternal seminars You’ll meet other people, Requires time out of office,and workshops it’s delivered by experts, and is difficult to follow and is cost effective for through without smaller numbers knowledge of the contentTeleseminars Cheap and easy, quick No face-to-face contact and effective, and can be and may not be taken delivered internally or seriously by some externally T r a i n i n g a n d d e v e lo p m e n T 59
    • Design Your Training SessionThis is your presentation arena, so control it! Preparefor the unexpected wherever you are. Creating your ownchecklist will reduce the likelihood of having to deal witheventualities for which you are unprepared. Remember to take into the account the different types of people who will attend your presentation and devise methods that will engage them fully. You will have to appeal to visual, auditory and kinaesthetic people, so tailor your language to all three types. if you see that people’s attention is wandering during your presentation, be prepared to change the focus to get them interested in what you are saying. Factor in the Variables Factor Suggestions Visual people Use flip charts, videos, models, PowerPoints, and handouts to engage people who will like to “see” the point you are making. Auditory people Make sure that you speak clearly and that you express your emotions when talking. Facilitate group discussions. Kinaesthetic people Create models that they can use. Run practical exercises. Give handouts that they can touch. Why? Explain why this training is important and link it to both performance and reward. What? Provide statistics, facts, and case studies. Make sure that you back up your case with solid facts. How? Let individuals have a go. Involve them in exercises and role-plays. Encourage participation. What if? Encourage brainstorming, action planning and planning for the future. Breaks Allow adequate breaks for those who have short attention spans and require regular breaks.60 m a n ag e w i t h m ot i vat i o n
    • Prepare ThoroughlyLearning to deliver a powerful training session will have asignificant effect on increasing the levels of motivation inyour organization by improving the overall effectiveness ofany programme that is run. Take into account the audienceand any training needs analysis that has taken place.Training in the right subjects at the right level is essential ifyou are to keep delegates engaged. Asking “What subjectswould be useful for these delegates?” and “What is thebest format for this training?” will set you on the righttrack. The structure of the training should be outlined,with core subjects broken down.Control the SessionSpeak clearly and confidently anduse the whole range of your voice.Maintain good eye contact. If you 5FIX minute If you are called onhaven’t done much presenting it’s to run a traininga good idea to practise. This will session at shorthelp you to feel more confident notice and withand allow you to get your timings little preparation,right. Take questions at the end of jot down five pointsyour presentation. Stay calm and against each of the following questions:take all questions confidently.Even challenging questions What would you likeshow that your audience is still the delegates to do differently as a resultinterested! If you don’t know the of the session?answer, “buy” time by throwingthe answer out to another What will helpmember of the audience or support them in their new behaviours?by seeking further clarificationfrom the questioner. Try saying How will you engagesomething like, “That’s an with them?interesting question, John, let’s How will you gofind out what the others think. about encouragingMary, what’s your take on that?” their interaction?Whatever you do, don’t try tobluff if you don’t have the facts. T r A I n I n g A n d d E v E L o p M E n T 61
    • Plan for SuccessIt is important that you know how you are going to followup on training sessions to create sustainability and ongoingbenefits for your organization. People need to know howtraining will benefit them and how it will affect theiroverall performance and the results that they are getting.They also need to know how they will be rewarded forimprovement. Pre-course objectives need to be set for alltraining programmes. People who know why they areattending training and what they need to get out of it aremore focused and motivated during the training.Follow ThroughPeople also need to know how you plan to debrief themafter training, what they will be expected to do differentlyas a result of the training, and how you will support themafterwards. A meeting should be held after the programmeso that they can discuss with you how well they have mettheir objectives and what they now Learn to Work Togetherneed to do to put their learning When team members areinto practise. You will need to having difficulty working as a group, a training sessionarrange a suitable time to review can help them to discoverthis progress and to decide upon how they can work togetherthe next steps to be taken. to achieve success.
    • Case study: Changing Training OutcomesA media sales agency ran training to training to discuss what theycourses to motivate team members wanted to get out of the trainingand increase skills levels. No and how they would implementpre-course conversations took what they learned, and againplace and people often attended after training to support them intraining without having been given implementing their action plans.any objectives. Not knowing whythey were present or how the • When the management teamcourse would benefit them, they realized that they needed tofelt that they could be doing other support training they were able tothings that would be a better use put the right structures in place.of their time. Management saw • People attending the trainingtraining courses as expensive courses began to takeand ineffective. The management responsibility for their ownteam decided to sit down with the development and better resultsteam members individually prior were soon being achieved.Pass It OnOne of the best ways of helping people to retaininformation is to make them aware that they will berequired to teach it to others later. Decide with theattendees prior to a training course that they will berunning a short course for their colleagues afterwardsto pass on the information and training that they havereceived. You could use these training mini-sessions runby individual team members to add variety to morningmeetings and regular trainingsessions. Encouraging themembers of your team to takeresponsibility for their own Effectivedevelopment in this way will help training willthem to build a good team spirit, improveso that they will learn to work motivationtogether well, increasing theireffectiveness and productivity. T r a i n i n g a n D D E v E lO p m E n T 63
    • Run Motivational MeetingsLearning to plan, design, and run regular meetings isan important part of team and individual motivation.Good meetings can be a powerful source of inspirationand will promote good team bonding.Participate FullyAn effective meeting is one that is planned and has adefinite purpose. It is highly participative and encouragesindividuals to get involved and to voice their opinions.It is viewed as an opportunity to discuss problems andchallenges, analyze situations, brainstorm solutions, anddiscuss best practice. It is also a meeting that is regular,timely, and consistent in content and quality.Avoid DisturbancesKeep the door of the meeting room closed and attach anotice to the effect that a meeting is in progress. Makesure that the office and the phones are covered and thatpeople not involved in the meeting understand that theycannot disturb you unless it is critical. This will help toensure that people who need to be present won’t havea reason to excuse themselves during the meeting. ! think SMART You need to ensure that you are fully prepared for your meeting. If you do not approach this seriously, neither will the members of your team. Your preparation does not need to take long but it is essential. In addition to the content of your meeting, ensure that you have considered room layout, handouts/brochures/paperwork, notepads and pens, PowerPoint presentation materials, electricity points, lighting, heating, housekeeping issues (fire exits, toilets, etc.), flip charts, pens, breaks, refreshments.64 M A N AG E W I T H M O T I VAT I O N
    • Plan Your Motivational MeetingDespite the fact that most managers spend an increasingamount of time in meetings, many do not run regularmeetings for their staff.the main reasons for this are lack ofplanning, lack of experience, lack of PLANbelief, and bad experiences in thepast. ask yourself: What is the purpose of having a regular meeting? When is the best time to hold PrePAre your meeting? How regularly are you going to run your meetings? What do you want your team to get out of the meetings? What fAciLitAte do you think is the best way to facilitate this outcome? How can you get your team involved in the meetings? What is the best way for your shAre team to share positive experiences and best practice? Where is the best location for Make the Most of Meetings Plan and run your meetings? How long do you meetings properly, think your meetings should last? encouraging sharing, to What resources/props do you maximize the benefits. need for your meetings? How can you ensure that your meetings will stay fresh and motivational in the long term? What action can you take if people start to lose interest in the proceedings?TIP Motivate yourself before you start themeeting. You cannot produce positive emotions inyour staff simply by going through the motions. R u n M ot i vat i o n a l M e e t i n g s 65
    • Be PositiveEvery meeting should be a positive anchor for the kindsof attitudes and behaviours that you want to see in theorganization on a day-to-day basis. One of the mainreasons that managers decide to stop running regularmeetings or do not place enough importance on theirmeetings is that they are not getting the results that theywant. Every meeting should be a positive and dynamicexperience. There are several meeting strategies andtechniques that you can tailor to help you to get the mostout of your regular meetings.• Agenda – Set a brief agenda for the meeting so that people know what is going to be covered and how long the meeting will last.• Follow-ups – It is important that you follow through; and each meeting should include a progress report on actions from the last meeting.• Mini-training sessions – These can be run by you or by one of your team. They are usually five to 15 minutes in length and are designed to deliver new information, review old information, and/ or expand on existing skills. Change the Format If your Keep this session participative team members are showing signs of boredom during and include follow-up checks meetings, do something and activities. unusual to liven them up.
    • Dynamic Meeting StrategiesHIGH Impact NeGatIve Impact Knowing your objectives Having no real purpose for Planning the structure of your meeting your meetings Ad libbing throughout meetings Involving the whole team Failing to invite all team Scheduling meetings members to meetings Taking action and following Cancelling/postponing meetings through after meetings Chatting aimlessly• High-energy activities – lasting for anything from 30 seconds to five minutes, these activities are designed to produce energy and promote fun and activity by creating movement – try a role-play, a simple stretching exercise, or even a Mexican wave! People will feel re-energized and refreshed afterwards.• Problem solving – ask everyone to write on a sheet of paper one problem that they would like solutions/ suggestions for. Pass the sheets of paper around the meeting and ask everyone to write down on each one a suggestion for dealing with the problem. Pass each sheet back to the original owner for action. as an alternative you could split those attending the meeting into two teams and have each team present the other with a problem that it would like to have solved. each team would then have ten minutes to come up with solutions that it would present to the other team.• Brainstorming – this is an opportunity for people to focus on an outcome that they want and to share ideas on how to achieve it. the ideas produced can be actioned immediately or may lead to further research and actions on a particular issue.“ ”The only limit to your impact is your imaginationand commitment. Anthony Robbins r u n M ot i vat i o n a l M e e t i n g s 67
    • Reward Excellence Reward is an essential tool for keeping people properly motivated. People expect rewards to be fair and related to the effort that they have put in. Consider the Variables Rewards management is a complex subject that focuses on creating, maintaining, and communicating a reward system that motivates people to achieve high performance. Different approaches and variables need to be taken into account in order to put into place a well-thought-out reward scheme for your team. Key Questions to Ask About Rewards what you perceive to be a fair rewards package will depend very much on your own perceptions. when designing rewards it is important that you are aware of your own beliefs about rewards. • Should people be rewarded for the jobs that they do or for the skills and capabilities that they have? • Should rewards be based upon people’s seniority or their performance? • Should your organization’s perceived position in the market place make any difference to the rewards given?Case study: Getting People InvolvedRory, a senior manager, took on increased motivation and resultshis new role to turn around an within the organization.under-performing team. In his initialmeetings he discovered that the • Getting the staff involved in theteam members were unhappy with rewards process made them feelelements of their rewards packages. appreciated and involved.They felt that these were unfair and • Changing the basis on whichnot competitive within the industry. rewards packages were putWith the contribution of the team together was good for the teamRory revised the packages and and for the organization. 68 m a n ag e w i t h m ot i vat i o n
    • Types of RewardThere are many different types of reward, and it is essential tounderstand what someone’s motivators are before you decidewhich reward is appropriate for that person: Money – commission, pay increase, bonus, profit-related pay, car allowance, fuel allowance Training/development – Personal or professional training Equipment/kit – laptop computers, mobile phones, electronic organizers, company cars, uniforms Loans – loans for season tickets for travel or other allowances Tangible gifts – Vouchers, cinema or theatre tickets, bottle of wine, portable music player Away days – Team or organization events such as go-karting, a meal out, bowling, paint-balling Non-salary financial benefits – Health insurance, pension contributions, share schemes, dental insurance, paid petrol Personal benefits – Free crèche, increased holiday entitlement, events with partner/family, gym membership Recognition – Hand-written note, mention in company newsletter, a simple “thank you”• Should other organizations and industries be checked to ensure that similar rewards are in place?• Should rewards be determined centrally (e.g. by group HR), or locally by managers?• Should your position in the hierarchy of your business determine your salary?• Should one person’s reward be related to the success of another on the team?although there are no “right” answers to any of thesequestions, they are important issues for you to addresswhen designing a rewards package for your organization.The most important factor to take into account is themotivators of the people who will be rewarded. R e wa R d e xce l l e n ce 69
    • Encourage Resultswhen designing rewards schemes it is important that youconsider the individuals on your teams and the cultureof your business in order to get the best results. Studieshave shown that employees value rewards schemes andpackages that reflect their efforts and their results. Fixedand rewards-based packages are universally recognized asimportant for salespeople but can be equally important forothers too. it is important to understand that the decidingfactor in whether a reward is high value or low value is theperception of the recipients themselves. what is consideredhigh value in one business or for one team may beconsidered low value for another team or within a different business, and the mostDo Your Research If you are going effective reward in ato motivate effectively you will need tobe aware of the reward culture that particular industry may beoperates in your organization. very inexpensive to provide. klistRewards Chec ble reward sche me ed and a variaWe have both a fix riables and the rewards vaWe have considered organization portant to our de cided what is im sales and s schemes for We have reward le non-sales peop t in alignment fit those who ac Ou r rewards bene pect from our staff urs that we ex with the behavio h value and high ed low cost/hig We have includ have reduced lo w e rewards and cost/high valu w va lue rewards and high cost/lo cost/low value rd table and rewa e fair and equi Our rewards ar ce and results both performan70 m a n ag e w i t h m ot i vat i o n
    • Understand the Four Types of RewardThe cost of a reward is fixed, but whether a reward is highor low value will always be determined by the person towhom the reward is being given. Low cost/high value High cost/high value These types of reward are These types of reward add cheap but will be high in high value. They need to perceived value. be considered carefully High owing to the high costs. VALUE Low cost/low value High cost/low value These types of low cost These types of reward are reward are often given by expensive but are of little managers who are going value to the staff. Low through the motions. Low COST High Low cost/high value – cinema or theatre tickets or a bottle of wine as a daily prize can be very motivational. High cost/high value – These can and should form a significant part of a good rewards package. They would include pension schemes or health insurance. High cost/low value – This might be a share scheme that allows staff to own part of the organization but which is perceived as a right rather than a bonus. This would be expensive, but would not be motivational. Low cost/low value – Vouchers or breakfast in the office. Positioned wrongly they will have no motivational value, and may even demotivate. R e wa R d e xce l l e n ce 71
    • Summary: Developing Your TeamRecruiting the right people is key to creating a motivatedteam. establish good recruitment procedures and learneffective interview techniques. Set up training proceduresand run motivational meetings that will inspire your team.Finally, understand the reward culture in your organizationand reward team members appropriately. Running a Tight Ship Recruit the Train to1 Right People 2 Develop Identify the role correctly Make training ongoing Know who you Run effective want to recruit training sessions Use the most Set pre-course objectives appropriate media for all training sessions Plan the perfect interview Follow through to get the right candidate on all training72 m a n ag e w i t h m ot i vat i o n
    • Run Meetings Use Reward3 that Motivate 4 as a Motivator Plan and design Make sure you regular meetings reward excellence Become aware Make your of the organization’s meetings dynamic reward culture Reward consistently Prepare thoroughly and and in line with what encourage full participation motivates people Follow through from one Determine the value of a meeting to the next reward to different people s u m m a ry: d e v e lo p i n g yo u r t e a m 73
    • Listen to Learn 4Many people think that motivation issomething that you give to people, but infact it comes from within. As a motivatoryour role is to understand the members ofyour team and to help them to motivatethemselves. This chapter looks at some ofthe core strategies for fully understandingpeople and helping them to get the resultsthat they want. You will learn:• How to run simple but effective coaching sessions that will build lasting motivation• The art of asking questions that focus people on results• How to listen effectively• How to position feedback as “the food of champions”.
    • Be a Good CoachA coach helps people to improve their performance andmotivation by empowering them to set and achievegoals and create sustainable increases in performance.Understand What Coaching IsCoaching has elements of several different disciplines andcan often be confused with them.• Mentoring is the teaching of skills for a specific role. Mentors will usually have worked in the role for which they are mentoring someone and will understand the “ins and outs” of that role.• Consulting is seeking the advice of experts on specific issues. Coaches are expected to draw on their own resources to formulate their own answers.• Counselling is guidance in dealing with personal or social problems. Counselling is more about dealing with problems whereas coaching is about finding solutions.• Therapy focuses on dealing with psychological issues. if therapy is required then the coach should refer the coachee to a fully qualified practitioner. Assess Your Coaching Skills Use this test as a benchmark to see where you can grow and develop and become a better coach and motivator. Read these statements and rate yourself from 1 to 5, where 1 = untrue 2 = usually untrue 3 = neutral 4 = usually true 5 = absolutely true. I am interested in individuals and I invest in my own personal ask questions to understand more development – books, audio-visual about people. aids, and training. I listen to individuals carefully, trying I am prepared to challenge others to understand what they mean. when appropriate. I am focused on outcomes and I view mistakes as something to oriented towards solutions. learn from. I am a positive individual and know I am tuned in to what people are how to motivate myself. really thinking.76 l i s t e n t o l e a r n
    • Coaches are MotivatorsGood motivators are also excellent coaches who can developpeople’s abilities. Simply listening and encouraging people topresent their ideas, for example, can really help them to learn.Increase Motivation Empower People Encourage LearningCoaches increase Creating a supportive Good coaches use all ofmotivation by asking coaching environment the resources within theirthe right questions and will empower individuals team to help individualslistening to what people so that they are open develop – in this case,have to say, encouraging and receptive to using third partythem to embrace change developmental feedback feedback from anotherand learn from any and keen to take action team member to get amistakes they make. to improve their skills. different perspective. B E A G o o d CoACH 77
    • GROW Your TalentThe GROW model is a powerful tool for helping peopleto move from being problem focused to being solutionoriented. GROW is one of the most widely used coachingmodels because it produces good results.Who Are You?The GROW model is only as effective as the coach using it.While it is worth considering which coaching style, model,or approach might be best for you and your teams it isworth noting that many of the best coaches are the bestbecause of “who” they are as opposed to what theystudied. You could think of applying the techniques usedby a mentor you admire to improve your results. Althoughthe GROW model may appear to be a sequential model itis, in fact, far less linear than it looks. Coach and coacheemay start anywhere within the model and could cover eachstage several times. Revisiting the model during the sessionwill help the coach to identify where she should befocusing her attention to get the best result. ! think SMART An effective coaching technique is to ask your question and then remain silent until you receive an answer. The longer it takes the coachee to answer, the more powerful the answer will usually be. Inexperienced managers often answer coachees’ questions for them. Allow the coachee to arrive at her own conclusion, even if it is not the one that you had anticipated. Avoid making assumptions and asking questions in such a way that the answer is a foregone conclusion. Utilize the GROW model to fully explore every option. Check that your coachee has been completely honest about her current reality – if she hasn’t, it will be difficult for her to grow and develop.78 L I S T E N T O L E A R N
    • Use the GROW ModelThere is a proliferation of coaching techniques andstrategies and these styles and approaches have theirown strengths and weaknesses. Using the simple GROWmodel well can be a powerful tool for change. Goalswhat is it that you specifically want to achieve? G GoalsHow will you know when you have achieved this?why is achieving it important to you?Do you believe this is achievable?How committed are you to this goal? R Reality Realitywhat is your current situation?what is holding you back at the moment?what actions have you taken so far? O OptionsHow successful have they been?what did you learn from them? Optionswhat options are available to you?what would a peak performer do in W What next? this situation?what would you do if failure simply wasn’t an option?How have you encountered and solved similar challenges before?what would you do if you had all of the resources (such as time, money, expertise) in the world? What Next?what actions are you going to take?when are you going to start/stop? How long will it take?what challenges might you face?How are you going to deal with them?what resources do you need to achieve your goal? g r o w yo u r ta l e n t 79
    • Motivate with QuestionsThe questions you ask focus your thoughts anddetermine whether you are motivated or not. Bystudying motivational questioning techniques youcan dramatically improve your motivational skills.Ask Good QuestionsMany people think that the art of a great motivator isdelivering powerful and inspiring rhetoric but the powerof questions outweighs this. in today’s blame culture manyof the questions that are asked are framed negatively:• Whose fault was that?• Who can we blame?• What went wrong? GoodWhile these problem-focused questionsquestions may be important foran analysis of performance they produceare not an effective way of bettermotivating people. answersPractise on YourselfYour questions should always be focused on the solutionor outcome that you want. You should always thinkcarefully before you ask a question. three of the mostpowerful questions that you can ask are:• What do you want to achieve?• What can you learn from this?• How can you constantly improve what you do?the more focused your questions are, the more specificwill be the responses you receive to them. the answers tothese questions should enable you to assess what yourown priorities are and point you towards a course of action“that will allow you to achieve a better quality of life.Successful people ask better questions, and as a ”result, they get better answers. Anthony Robbins80 l i s t e n t o l e a r n
    • Using the GROW ModelOpen questions are those that cannot easily be answeredwith a simple “yes” or “no”. Most people ask more closedquestions than open questions, so it is crucial that you planproperly and prepare your questions properly before youbegin working with someone. Consider the quality ofinformation each of the questions below will elicit:• Did your motivation problem start when you were late for work last week?• Do you think your target is achievable?• How could you take more responsibility for your personal motivation on a day-to-day basis?• Have you written your forecasts for next month yet?• What strategies could be implemented in order to improve customer service levels?• What would you like to have achieved by this time next year?• Are you going to take charge of this project?• What actions do you think you could take to improve your performance right now?Ask the Right QuestionsThe first word of a sentence will usually indicate whetherthe question is going to be open or closed. Sentencesstarting with words such as could, should, did, would,have, had, are, is, will, couldn’t, shouldn’t, wouldn’t, etc.are closed questions and require only “yes” or “no”answers. Open questions start with how, where, when,what, which, why, who, what if. The Value of the Right Type of Questionclosed questions open questions Require only “yes” or Require detailed answers “no” answers Produce more information of Limit information gathering a better quality Fail to explore possibilities Unlock possibilities M OT i vAT e W i T H Q u e S T i O n S 81
    • Ask the Right QuestionsThe subject matter of your questions is as important as thestructure of the questions. Great motivators know what toask questions about and what not to ask questions about inorder to get the information they want. Make Challenging Statements In order to challenge limiting statements you need to encourage the person making the statement to see the situation from a different perspective. Statement Challenge You can’t be motivated Who says you can’t? What would happen all of the time. if you were? This environment How exactly does the environment cause demotivates me. you to choose to feel demotivated? She’s always moaning. How does her moaning mean that she She thinks I’m worthless. thinks that you’re worthless? Have you ever moaned at someone you thought was worthwhile? If my boss knew how hard How do you know she doesn’t know? How I worked she would appreciate do you know she doesn’t appreciate you? me more. They always complain about Has there ever been a time when they our work. didn’t complain? I can’t do that. What would happen if you did? How could you do that? Motivation around here is What would you need to do to increase non-existent. motivation levels? She doesn’t rate me. How do you know? What would you do if you pretended she did? There’s nothing I can do Nothing? If there were one thing, what about it. would it be? It’s always the same; you How do you know you can’t change it? can’t change it. What if you could change it? Has there ever been a time when it was different?82 l i s t e n t o l e a r n
    • Ask Three Important Be Positive MotivateQuestions someone by encouraging her to acknowledge theone of the most important factors importance of what it iswhen someone is seeking personal she hopes to achieve.change is her perception of changeand the value that she places on the change. ask her:• how important is it for you to make this change on a scale of 1–10?• how important is this change to you?• how confident are you that when you set your mind to it you will be able to achieve your goals?Challenge LimitationsWhen spending any amount of time working one-on-one with someone it is important that your conversationhas structure and purpose. Listen carefully for potentialmotivational blocks and challenge them through intelligentquestioning. a statement such as, “no one can bemotivated all of the time” needs to be challenged as it willbecome a potentially limiting factor.TIP Write down five limiting statements that youhave heard from members of your team. Create fivechallenges to deconstruct the blocks to motivation. M ot i vat e W i t h Q u e s t i o n s 83
    • Listen to UnderstandThink about a time when someone listened to youwithout any agenda. Did this motivate you? If you’regoing to learn to listen properly you need to know whatbeing listened to properly feels like.Learn to ListenWhen combined with goodquestioning techniques,listening is sometimes all 5FIX minute Many managers listen inthat is required to motivate order to talk. Plan to listensomeone to solve her own to understand:problems. one of the key Write down some questionsskills of being a good before you start workingmotivator is that of being with someone.a good listener. Few of us Write down some answershave ever been taught to and practise asking yourselflisten properly. We rarely questions about them.focus on our listening Practise avoiding phrases suchtechniques but are as, “What I think is…”, andoffended if someone tells “The way I see it”.us that we are bad listeners. Listen EffectivelyHIGH Impact NeGatIve Impact Building rapport and “Turning off” from the speaker understanding Ignoring the individual Unlocking personal drivers Making assumptions Understanding beliefs and values Silencing opinion Encouraging free expression Creating resistance and Engendering good team spirit hostility in people and co-operation Allowing negativity to Motivating individuals and teams demotivate people Developing emotional awareness Stunting personal development Encouraging personal Creating dependence and responsibility fostering lack of responsibility84 l i s t e n t o l e a r n
    • The Nine Levels Levels of Listeningof Listeningif you don’t listen properly 1your attempts at motivation Not listeningwill be based on trial anderror, conjecture, andguesswork. in order to 2discover exactly how people Pretending to listenare motivated you needto ask questions and thenlisten. there are nine 3listening levels, ranging Partial listeningfrom inattentiveness to fullattention on the listener’spart. if you’re operating ata low level, try to improve 4 Listening but interruptingthe quality of your listening,so that you will be betterable to motivate people. 5 Selective listeningImprove YourConcentrationimproving your listeningskills is not easy. We usually 6listen out of our conscious Passive listeningawareness most of thetime, so improving resultsmeans breaking existing 7habits. the benefits, Active listeninghowever, are exceptional,not only when motivatingothers but also in other 8areas of life. You will be Reflective listeningable to achieve so muchmore when people sayto you, “You know, 9i really think that you Listening to understandunderstand me!” L i s t e n to u n d e r s ta n d 85
    • Be Present When ListeningWhen you start to listen properly you will realize thatyou are beginning to get a far deeper understanding ofthe people you are trying to motivate as they will bemore open and honest with you.See Things from Another PerspectiveWhen you communicate you interpret what others aresaying through your own filtering system so that it makessense to you. Many managers rush in to “fix” motivationalproblems without ever really understanding the underlyingfactors as the other person sees them. How many timeshave you been having a conversation and, before the otherperson has finished, you think, “I know what she meanshere, I can sort this out”? In order tolisten well you need to train yourself Learn to Listen Taketo silence your own inner dialogue time out to silence what is going on inside your head,so that you can concentrate fully on so that you will be able towhat the other person is saying and listen to someone elseunderstand how they really feel. with your full attention.
    • TECHNIQUES to practise Reflective listening is a deliver the reflection using a guess about the meaning downward or level inflection of what someone is saying. at the end of the sentence It requires a constant focus on rather than an upward one, the meaning behind the words. which would turn your “I wish I were more motivated” statement into a question. could mean “I’m depressed and • Rephrase the wording of unhappy with my job” or “I find whatever the speaker has your style of management just said – “You can’t find frustrating”! Next time you’re time to work on the project having a discussion, try using that we discussed.” this technique. • Add some emotion to what • Reflect the speaker’s words you are saying – “You’re by repeating them back – feeling down because you “You wish you were more can’t find time to work on motivated.” It is important to the project we discussed.”Be HonestBe honest with yourself about your listening skills. Howwell do you listen? How well do you focus on otherswhen they are talking? Just because you know how tolisten doesn’t mean that you do it properly. While yourlistening skills will not change from moment to moment,your use of them will. You will probably demonstratedifferent levels of listening at different times and indifferent circumstances. This may fluctuate according “to your mood, theenvironment, your stresslevels, your priorities, and Every person I work withhow interested you are in knows something betterthe other person. Before than me. My job is to listen long enough to ”you meet someone, find it and use it.visualize yourself really Jack Nicholslistening to understand. B e p r e s e n T W H e n l i s T e n i n g 87
    • Give Good FeedbackGiving consistent feedback is highly motivational and iscrucial for business success. Learning to give the rightsort of feedback to people will greatly improve yourability to motivate others effectively.Believe in FeedbackPeak performers see feedback as “the food of champions”and they use this information to measure their progressand adjust behaviours. Without feedback, any personalassessment of progress can be difficult. Managers givemany reasons for not giving feedback:• People see criticism, even when constructive, as failure• it feels just telling people off• People don’t like negative feedback• Feedback can be taken the wrong way• it’s difficult to give positively• i don’t have enough time• they already know how they are doing.if feedback is given in the wrong way, these objectionsmay sometimes arise. the key is to make sure that yourfeedback always follows the right formula. Effective Ways to Criticise ConstructivelyHIGH IMPACT NeGATIve IMPACT Last week you were late twice. You’re never on time. I think This disappoints me. that you are getting lazy. You have missed your targets for You never deliver on schedule. this quarter by 25 per cent. This I don’t think you’re good enough makes me rather worried about to do this job. your real commitment to this You’re lazy and incompetent, organization. you never listen, and you never You failed to log off the system do what you’re asked to do. twice last week. I wonder if you You always go your own way. understand the importance of Why can’t you understand that logging on and off? it ruins things for others?88 l i s t e n t o l e a r n
    • Rules for Giving Feedbackfeedback must be based on observed facts about behaviour inorder to prevent people taking the message personally andbecoming resistant. it must never be about them as people. oncethe feedback has been given you should listen to what the personhas to say before asking her what she thinks a more appropriateaction might be, or suggesting one yourself. always have a positive intention. give feedback on behaviours, not people. give feedback at the time. Use specific examples. only use first person examples, not third person examples and second-hand opinions. be consistent and accurate.Create a Learning Environmentencourage the giving and receiving of feedback wherelearning is paramount and failure is seen in a positive light.key to this approach is that the intention behind thefeedback is positive. feedback is designed to let peopleknow how they are doing, help them to improve theirperformance, open a coaching dialogue, and allow themto express any concerns and worries.The Core Components of Effective FeedbackWhen giving effective feedback there are three corecomponents: the intention behind the feedback, yourpositive control of your current emotional state, and thecontent and structure of your message. feedback given inanger or retaliation will never be received positively. even ifthe message you are conveying in your feedback is difficultfor the recipient of the feedback to hear, make it calmlyand reasonably and be prepared to listen to the response. g i v e g o o d f e e d b ack 89
    • Praise Your TeamPraising people is essential to fostering long-termmotivation. People consistently rate being given praiseas one of the key motivational factors in the workplace.Give Feedback ImmediatelyPraise seems to be something that many managers areunwilling or unable to give. they are often very quick tocriticize and reluctant to give praise. People need praiseto help them to build their self-confidence and theirmotivation. Praise should be given on the spot whensomeone behaves in the way you want them to. there aremany ways of giving praise, starting with a simple “thankyou”. Giving praise takes no time out of the day of amanager but can have significant benefits.Check the Balanceif your team is under-performing and the team membersseem poorly motivated, ask yourself how much time youspend giving praise and how much time you spendon disciplinary matters. if you discover that there is animbalance you’ll need to take steps to redress it.Case study: Saying “Thank You”Marina, a small business owner, praise. She began to praise hersaid that she gave her team staff when they deserved it. Thisconsistent and positive feedback. simple change increased the team’sHowever, the members of her team motivation and productivity.said that they did not know howthey were doing, that they never • Marina’s internal motivation hadgot feedback, and that they felt prevented her from realizing thatunappreciated. Because she was her team members wereinternally motivated Marina was externally motivated.unaware that her staff, who were • By making a small change thatexternally motivated, wanted clear cost nothing, she produced goodand relevant progress reports and business benefits.90 l i s t e n t o l e a r n
    • Show Appreciation Even a small gesture, like remembering people’s birthdays,will make them feel appreciated for themselves and not just the job they do.Clear Your Mind Optimize FeedbackThere are many wrongbeliefs about giving praise: Positive Intention• If they think they’re It must have positive intention doing well they’ll slack. and be non-judgmental• If they think the business is doing too well, they’ll get complacent.• To keep them motivated Consistent and Fair we need to keep them It needs to be perceived as consistent and fair on their toes.While fear may motivatein specific instances in theshort term, holding thesekinds of beliefs in the long Observed and Objectiveterm is counterproductive It should be comment on observed behaviours, not subjective opinionto producing sustainablelevels of motivation.Managing by fear andcriticism will promotedistrust, pent-up Positive and Developmentalaggression, disloyalty, lack It should tell people what to do rather than what not to doof team spirit, divisiveness,and lack of responsibility. p r a I s e yo u r T e a M 91
    • Summary: Learning to Listenif you are to motivate people effectively, you need to learnto listen to them properly, focusing your full attention onwhat they are saying. Coaching is an important tool thatcan enable you to discover what is going on inside people’sheads. Phrase your questions properly so that you will getthe information you need, and always give good feedback. Getting Results by Paying Attention Coach Effectively Ask the Right1 2 Questions Understand the importance Assess your coaching skills of asking the right questions Practise on yourself Understand what to improve your coaching is not questioning technique Learn effective coaching Identify people’s techniques and put them limiting beliefs into practice Help them to challenge Apply the GROW model to those limiting beliefs so develop people’s talent that they can move forward92 l i s t e n t o l e a r n
    • Focus Your Full Learn to Use3 Attention 4 Feedback Be aware of the nine levels Understand the importance of listening and learn to and power of feedback listen properly Improve your powers of concentration so that Work hard at not you can focus on what underestimating people is being said Learn reflective Always give praise where listening techniques praise is due Try to see things from the Give feedback that is perspective of the person positive and developmental speaking to you s u m m a ry: L e a r n i n g to L i s t e n 93
    • SustainMotivation 5Knowing your team well is key to sustainablemotivation. There are many techniques andskills for finding out more about the peopleyou are working with. This chapter revealsseveral powerful and effective techniquesthat are quick and easy to implement. Youwill be able to discover:• How to see things from other perspectives• Why some people are motivated by what they want and why others are motivated by what they don’t want• How to associate yourself with success and dissociate yourself from failure• How time interpretation affects motivation• How to build positive associations to access your motivation.
    • Build RapportTo improve as a motivator you need to be aware of allof the messages that you are sending out, not just theverbal ones. Sometimes the subconscious message isconveyed more strongly than the conscious, verbal one.Control Non-Verbal CommunicationsWhen you walk into an office you can discern almostinstantly what the levels of motivation are. this is becausea large part of communication is contained not in what issaid but in the non-verbal messages that are conveyed.non-verbal communications include body language,gestures, and voice tonality. You need to be fully aware ofthe messages that you convey and tune yourself in to thenon-spoken messages of your team. For most of us, whatwe do from moment to moment is one of our unconscioushabits. sometimes our non-verbal communications supportus, at other times they don’t. You can create better rapport with others by tuningyourself into non-verbal communications and subtlymatching and mirroring elements of people’s behaviour.Case study: Watching What You’re DoingSales manager Pedro had a small to bring his feelings under controlteam of sales and administrative before he came into the office bystaff and a very large workload, so using breathing techniques andhe felt constantly under pressure. visualization exercises.He spent a considerable amount oftime out of the office dealing with • By paying more attention to hisclients but when he returned to physical state Pedro was able tothe office his team could read his reduce his team’s apprehensionsmood instantly and this would have about his mood.a negative impact on morale and • As a result, his team becameproductivity. Pedro began to pay more motivated and moreattention to the negative effect he productive, which helped towas having on his team. He learned reduce Pedro’s workload.96 s u s ta i n m o t i vat i o n
    • Learn to Read Non-Verbal CommunicationWhen you master non-verbal communication you willget better results from your team. tune yourself in to thesubtle messages people send through their body language.are movements expansive or controlled, postures openor closed, breathing deep or shallow, facial expressionsupbeat or more severe? paying attention to such detailswill prove effective when building rapport with others.Note Posture Read GesturesT ake more notice of people’s posture, Pace any consistent use of bodybut don’t make assumptions. There is movements such as scratching thea belief that crossed arms means that nose, and pay attention to gesturessomeone is “closed”, yet she might that you can match subtly, such assimply be feeling cold or feel crossed legs. Check out the angle atcomfortable in that position. which people sit or stand. Reflect the Speaker Listen carefully to the voice tone and pitch of the person speaking. Match the voice but not to an excessive extent. Listen carefully for key phrases and then repeat them when you are giving your feedback. b u i l d r a p p o r t 97
    • Know How People CommunicateEverybody’s experience of the world is different. This isbecause it is based on internal representation and willdepend upon communication styles. Understanding thesestyles is important when motivating others.See It, Feel It, Hear ItThink about something you did last week. As you thinkabout it become aware of how you remember it – do yourecall images or sounds, or is your memory mainly of howyou felt? We experience the world through our five sensesof sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. The three sensespeople generally pay most attention to are visual (sight),auditory (sound), and kinaesthetic(touch), but we all give differentamounts of attention to the Our sensesdifferent senses at different times. play a bigUnderstanding which sensespeople are paying most attention part into will help you to understand how wetheir experience and, therefore, communicateto motivate them better.Recognize the TypeIt is important to recognize whether individuals areprimarily visual, auditory, or kinaesthetic so that you canplan some strategies for engaging them.• Visual people will often stand or sit upright or forward with their hands and their bodies erect and their eyes directed upwards. They tend to be organized, neat, well groomed, and orderly. Appearance may be important to them. They memorize by seeing pictures and are not very distracted by noise. They often have difficulty remembering verbal instructions. Words and phrases they might use include “I see”, “bright”, “colour”, “keep an eye out”, “eye to eye”, “bird’s-eye view”. They respond well to pictures, videos, diagrams, and graphs. They like to see things from your point of view.98 s U s TA I n m oT I vAT I o n
    • • Auditory people are good with verbal instructions and learn by listening. They often like music and enjoy talking on the phone. They like to be told how they’re doing and will hear the emotion behind any communication. They are easily distracted by noise. Words and phrases they might use include “hear”, “sound”, “an earful”, “lend me an ear”, “listen up”, “rings true”, “sound as a bell”. Tell them stories and make sure you sound good to them. Remember that they will hear any incongruity or lack of enthusiasm in your tone of voice. Use plenty of auditory language.• Kinaesthetic people will often move and talk slowly. They like physical rewards and touching. They memorize by doing. They like to know that something “feels” right. They may well use phrases like “feels fine to me”, “get a grip”, “hang on”. In a meeting you need to let them have hands-on experiences. How they feel, Read the Signs People’s about you and about pastimes and interests will often give you a clue as to themselves, is very important. their communication styles, Use stories to evoke the enabling you to engage emotional states you want. with them meaningfully.
    • Walk a Mile in Their ShoesBeing able to switch perceptions, to understandsomething from someone else’s point of view, is anessential motivation skill. Motivated people usually havea greater understanding of the behaviours of others.Switch PositionsLess motivated people often lack the ability to step intoanother’s shoes and become stuck in unresourcefulsituations. Being able to “switch” positions is a usefulstrategy when motivating others. There are threeperceptual positions – first, second, and third.• First position – When you see something from your own point of view. It’s your take on the situation. Many people spend most of their time in first position. Comments such as, “He just does not see my point of view” would suggest someone stuck in this position. First position is useful for understanding what is important to you. If you always put others first, spending more time in first position is critical for you.• Second position – When you see things from someone else’s point of view. Some people rarely experience true second position! As a motivator second position will help you to understand the person you are trying to motivate. As all motivation comes from inside, without this capability you will always be limited as a motivator. You’ll see• Third position – An objective more from “fly on the wall” view. You can a new see and hear the individuals perspective involved but you cannot“ experience their feelings.There are no impossible dreams, just our limited ”perception of what is possible. Beth Mende Conny100 S u S TA I n M o T I vAT I o n
    • Adopt Different PositionsLearning how to adopt different positions is a powerfulmotivation and life tool and one that it is well worthspending time on. It is a strategy that will enable you todeal with challenges and frustrations more resourcefully.If there are times when you don’t understand the behaviour ofothers or feel frustrated by their actions, it will help to look atyour reaction from different perspectives. Reframe Events An event that often affects motivation is a complaint from a customer. Take yourself through this exercise by thinking of a time when you felt annoyed by a customer’s complaint, paying attention to your reactions to the event. Position Focus You’re in first position, What do you see, hear, and feel in first position? having just received What is important to you here? a customer’s complaint. How are you approaching this situation? Break your state What does he see, hear, and feel in this situation? and imagine yourself What is important to him? in second position, How does he think he is approaching this “the shoes” of the situation? customer. Break your state What do you see and hear? and put yourself into How do you think these two people (first and third position, that second) are interacting? of an uninvolved What do you think about the interaction/situation? bystander. Break your state What advice would you give to yourself? again and imagine that What do you need to learn from this situation? you are a consultant How can you improve this situation? with all of the What do you think you could do to create a information from all win-win scenario here? three parties. wa l k a m I l e I n t h e I r s h o e s 101
    • Use Motivational FiltersThe brain filters the information it receives so that itcan select what is most important. Understanding howpersonal filters work can help you to motivate peoplein the most appropriate way.Judge the Importance of Informationinformation is filtered through experiences, values, beliefs,and attitudes. two of the most useful filter patterns areknown as the internal/external filter and the towards/awayfrom filter. if you can identify which filter is operatingwhen you are dealing with people you will have a betteridea of what will motivate them.• Internal/External Filter the internal/external filter determines how people know something is true. internal people will use their own references and experiences to make the decision internally, whereas external people will look for corroboration from someone or something external to themselves. How do you know when you’ve done a good job at work? is it because you know or is it because someone tells you?Speak the Right LanguageYou will need to know someone’s motivational direction if you aregoing to use the right language when speaking to him. Considerthe impact of these two statements: When you achieve your goals this month you will be first in line for promotion. You must achieve your targets this month or we will not be able to promote you.the first statement will be more of a driver if the person you arespeaking to is towards motivated whereas the second will be moremotivational if he is away from motivated.102 s u s ta i n m o t i vat i o n
    • • Towards/Away From This Identify the Motivator filter operates when people Unlike adults children do not let comparison and are motivated either by moving embarrassment affect towards what they want or their motivation levels. moving away from what they don’t want. Think about why you go to work in the morning. What’s your motivation? Do you jump out of bed thinking about what you can achieve today or do you get up on time to avoid being late for work?Tailor Feedback to the IndividualWhen giving feedback to your team members it isimportant to know whether they are internally orexternally motivated. Feedback given in the wrong waymay well not be “heard” by the employee. Some peoplejust know that they’ve done a good job (internal), whereasothers need to be told, thanked, or rewarded (external).Many senior managers are internally motivated and donot need anyone else to tell them when they have donea good job. Because of this they may not feel the need totell others when they have done a good job. This couldresult in an externally motivated team member feelingdemotivated and unappreciated. u S e M oT i vaT i o n a l F i lT e r S 103
    • Consider Motivational FactorsHow you feel about any experience is determined by themeaning that you attach to it. Learning to reframe yourexperience will help you to interpret events positively.Giving Meaning to Eventsall events are neutral, it is peoplewho give them meaning. it ispossible to reframe experiences 5FIX minute Think about aand attach a more positive situation that ismeaning to any situation. causing you concern.• one person may be devastated Ask yourself: that he did not get promoted What meaning do I whereas another may be currently attach to happy that he didn’t. this situation/event?• their reactions depend totally What could be good upon the meaning that each about this situation? attaches to the situation. How can I turn this• the first individual may be situation around? focused on the pain of missing What can I learn from out or on lost income, this situation? whereas the second may be What other meanings thinking that it means that he could be attached to can spend more time with his this situation? friends and family.Learn to Reframe Experiencesas a motivator it is important that you learn how toask the questions that will help people to consider theirreaction to an event and to reframe themselves bychanging their negative reactions. Common situations thatwill require reframing when working to motivate othersinclude problems with commuting to work, failure toachieve targets, problems with colleagues, receivingnegative feedback from clients or a manager. Be awareof how you interpret situations that affect you. as asuccessful motivator you may be a role model for yourteam, so ensure that you interpret situations positively.104 s u s ta i n m o t i vat i o n
    • Reframe Events Look at these examples of common events and note how they can be interpreted in different ways by different people in different circumstances. Think about frequently occurring events that could be interpreted negatively by members of your team. Think about how you can help them to reframe their experiences and see their situation in a more positive light. Event Negative Meaning Reframe Complaints from clients No one appreciates us. This is an opportunity We’re always messing to reconnect with the up. We’ll probably lose client and provide an the client now. even better service. Being stuck in traffic I’m going to be late, I can use the time I’ll be in trouble, and I out to plan the rest am going to get behind of my week. with my work. Feedback from your He always criticizes me. Feedback is the food of manager He thinks I am useless. champions. He wants to help me to improve. Losing a deal It always happens to me. Every lost deal takes I’ll never manage to hit me one step closer to my targets now. a deal. I can learn from this experience and improve next time. Attending training It’s a waste of my time. I could learn It won’t be relevant. I something that will could be doing help me. It’s good something more useful. that my organization values me. Paperwork/ It’s a complete waste of Everyone has to do it. administration my valuable time. It’s It’s essential. It’s good unnecessary and it’s to get things finished. beneath me.TIP When one of your team expresses an opinionwith a negative meaning attached, reframe him byasking, “Are you absolutely sure that’s true? “ co n s i d e r m ot i vat i o n a l fac to r s 105
    • Get Associated with SuccessHow you remember past events affects your emotionsand will play a significant part in your day-to-daymotivation levels. Learn to associate with positiveexperiences and dissociate from negative ones.Recognize your StateThink of a recent conversation with a friend. As youremember it, are you living in the experience as if it ishappening now (associated state) or are you experiencingit as if you are outside your own body (dissociated state)?• In an associated state you experience past events as if they are happening now. You see what you saw, hear what you heard, and feel what you felt. Association is good for reliving positive experiences and recalling resourceful emotions. Anchoring and goal setting are more effective when the associated state is utilized.• In a dissociated state you are an observer of events. Dissociation is useful when taking feedback, Associate with the Good Times when dealing with When you access your happy, criticism, or when fun-filled memories you can increase your motivation by connecting with coping with a painful all of the positive emotions that you or traumatic situation. experienced during those times.
    • TECHNIQUES to practise There are times when you • See what you saw, hear what need instant motivation. you heard, and feel what you You can learn to achieve felt at the time. this by accessing a positive • Allow yourself to reconnect experience while in an fully with the positive associated state. experience until all of the • Think about a time when you emotions you experienced at felt totally motivated. that time have returned. • Step into your body and re- • Come back to now, bringing experience the situation fully. this resourceful state with you.Become Aware of Your StateGenerally people fit into one of four categories. Bybecoming more aware of your habitual state you canaccess other states to enrich the quality of your experience.• Associated to all experiences – you experience huge highs and lows as you associate fully into both positive and negative experiences.• Dissociating from all experiences – you can distance yourself from difficult situations and choices but you may never really experience the full range of positive emotions within any situation.• Dissociation from positive and association into negative – you may be unhappy, as you can fully relive and re-experience negative emotions but are never able to connect completely with your positive experiences.• Association into positive and dissociation from negative “ – you can relive positive experiences and choose to step back from Sow a habit and you negative experiences, reap a character; sow a character and you reap ” allowing you to be more a destiny. objective and less Ralph Waldo Emerson emotional about them. G e t A s s o ci At e D w i t h s u cce s s 107
    • Use Imagery to Boost MotivationYour internal image of an experience or a future eventwill determine how you feel about it. By using imageryto “improve” the experience you can alter the emotionsproduced by the event to motivate yourself effectively.Notice Different ElementsChanging the characteristics or qualities of an experiencewill change the quality of that experience significantly. Bylearning how to change these characteristics you caneffectively programme your mind to make you feel moremotivated to do things that you wouldn’t usually want todo. think about two tasks that you had to perform. Youenjoy one of the tasks and felt motivated to do it, but theother one holds no appeal for you and you procrastinateduntil you had no choice but to do it. in each case, thecharacteristics of the experience of performing the taskwill have been very different. if you can “improve” thesefactors you will be able to change your internal codingof the experience and how it makes you feel. TECHNIQUES to practise Think of a time when • Do you see the picture in black you felt totally motivated. and white or in colour? See By experimenting with the picture in vivid colour. different elements of this • Is the sound low or high? Turn image you will change the up the volume. intensity of the feelings. • How bright is the picture? Try the following and see what Increase the brightness of the works best for you. picture until the image is • Are you in the picture? Step brightly lit. into it and experience it as if • Is it a still photograph or a you are in it. movie? Add movement and life • What size is the picture? to the image until it becomes Increase it until it is life-sized. real for you.108 s u s ta i n m o t i vat i o n
    • Case study: Changing Your ExperienceMelanie, a sales executive, was • Prior to her coaching sessionscompetent in all areas of her Melanie was forming morework except when presenting powerful negative images thansales solutions to clients. She was positive ones.capable when practising but would • She was able to increase herbecome nervous and worried when confidence by improving hermaking the presentation in front of positive visualizations.a “live” client. After working with • By seeing herself presentingher sales coach on changing her confidently and successfullymental pictures of past and future Melanie was soon able toevents, Melanie was able to make improve her sales results.her presentations more confidentlyand more successfully.Be PresentAs you think about your goal do you see yourself doingthe task (dissociated) or are you actually experiencingyourself doing it (associated)? This distinction can make ahuge difference to the levels of emotion that you attach toan experience. If you can imagine yourself experiencing theevent it will be more powerful. Focusing on the results youwant and the benefits that you gain from them in this wayhelps to stimulate your mind and acts as a motivator. Thisclarity of vision also serves to create a positive mental stateand an anticipation of success. You can use these positiveemotions to drive the necessary short-term activities thatare required. As you focus on your outcomes in this wayyour mind will also begin to notice resources andopportunities that will help you to achieve your goals.These resources werealways there, but yourbrain did not recognize TIP To remove negative associationsthem until achieving from events, dissociateyour objectives became yourself fully.a reality. u s e I m Ag e rY To b o o s T m oT I vAT I o n 109
    • How Time Affects MotivationWhy are some people always late while others are ontime? Why are some people always on top of theirprojects while others rush to finish? The relationshipwith time is a significant motivational factor.Different Views of TimeThere are those who live in the moment (“in time” people)and are not that aware of time passing, and those whoare much more aware of time and who plan and organize(“through time” people). Awareness of the personalitiesand characteristics of these two types is essential for theprofessional motivator. Personal coding of time affectsbehaviours when it comes to dealing with difficultscenarios, running meetings, organizing projects, makingdecisions, setting goals, and meeting targets.Recognize In Time PeopleIn time people live for the moment. When you work withthem in a meeting or on a project they are “fully present”and are not easily distracted. They have a tendency tomistake the time, will often be late, and may havedifficulty finishing meetings and phone calls. They like tokeep their options open and are not usually good planners. ! think SMART People at either extreme of the time spectrum can sometimes create problems in an organization and you need to assess their situation carefully. It may not be wise to give a very in time person responsibility for managing a project with many small checklists or asking a through time person to deliver a presentation without giving him a timescale and checkpoints. Ensure that you adapt your management approach to get the best out of the person whom you are managing.110 S U S TA I N M O T I VAT I O N
    • Which Time Type Are You? It’s quite easy to establish which approach you have to time. Read these statements and choose which statements you agree with. In Time Through Time You are often surprised by the amount You usually have a good idea of of time that has passed since you last what time it is. noticed what time it was. You like to decide in the moment, You plan and prepare, making keeping your options open. decisions in advance. You are often late. You’re usually on time. You are constantly rushing to meet Your know what your deadlines are last-minute deadlines. and plan to meet them. You often get talking when you have You end conversations to get on with something to do. the task in hand. Your diary is a mess/you have no diary. Your diary is well organized. You’ll see what happens and go You plan your days on paper or with the flow. in your head and then work out your plan.Recognize Through Time PeopleThrough time people are much more aware of time. Theyplan their movements and actions and will often useplanning tools such as diaries and schedules. They areoften frustrated by in time people and may regard themas disorganized. They will usually be on time for theirappointments and will have no problem bringing meetingsto a close when the allotted time is up. Disorganizedenvironments can distract them. in time people willfrequently find that through time people are slightlyclinical in their approach to time.TIP Think about whether your team members arein time or through time people and how you can usethis information to help them to achieve more. H o w T i m e A f f e c T s m oT i vAT i o n 111
    • Anchor Positive StatesHave you ever heard a piece of music and beenreminded of a particular event? Naturally occurringanchors link a specific mental state with an externaltrigger or stimulus such as a smell, a sound, or a place.Break Negative ResponsesPotentially negative anchors will already be in place withinyour workplace and you need to work to remove themand replace them with new, positive ones. Common areasfor negative responses include group meetings, targets,closed-door meetings, managerial behaviours, and poorlyphrased e-mails. It is easy to replace most negativeresponses with positive ones – it usually just needs a littlethought and a few modifications of the behaviours thatare producing the negative anchors.Replacing Negative AnchorsWhen meetings are unproductive and staff seem uninterested inthe content and outcome of the meetings, it may be possible toimprove performance by taking a few simple steps to break thepattern and replace their negative responses by: varying the times and locations of the meetings Changing the seating arrangement altering the content and format of the meetings Getting the staff more involved Bringing in a guest speaker Being more energetic.Keep the meetings focused on positive results and constructivedevelopment. When you move all problem-focused issues outsidethe meeting you will discover that you can establish new, positiveassociations, and your meetings will soon become a celebration ofenergy, enthusiasm, and creativity.112 s u s ta I n m o t I vat I o n
    • Ivan Pavlov’s Experiment DOG DOG BELL BELL FOOD SALIVATEA Conditioned Response Pavlov Eventually, just ringing the bell causedexperimented with dogs by ringing a the dogs to salivate in anticipation ofbell each time they were fed. The dogs receiving food. The dogs were merelybegan to link the bell with being fed. reacting to the stimulus.Build Positive AnchorsBeing able to build new positive anchors that you canuse to motivate yourself or others at any time is aneffective management tool.• remember a time when you felt totally motivated and completely in control.• choose a word, an image, and a physical gesture that sum those feelings up.• As you relive that time repeat the word to yourself, see the image, and physically make the gesture.• practise getting into those good feelings until they are associated with the word, the image, and the gesture.• You will be able to access them any time you need them just by using the word, the image, or the gesture.You may become so good at accessing your positiveanchors in any situationthat you will automaticallydismiss the negative feelings TIP The more intenseassociated with an event the emotion that you linkand react positively to the to, the more powerful the trigger will become.things that happen to you. A n ch o r p o s i t i v e s tAt e s 113
    • Summary: The Motivational Edgeto be a really good motivator you will need to learn toharness the inspiration and energy of the great motivators.Find out what motivates others by building a rapport withthem, stepping into their shoes to understand what theyare feeling. in order to achieve success in your own life,learn to associate with success. Staying Motivated Tune Yourself in to Others1 Learn to read Recognize people’s non-verbal communication motivational filters Use Personal Filters2 Weigh up the importance of information Speak the right language to different people Associate with Success3 Access instant motivation Recognize the by associating with a state you are in positive experience114 s u s ta i n m o t i vat i o n
    • Understand how different Build positive associations people code timeGive feedback based on Attach a positive meaning people’s filters to difficult situations Use imagery to boost Find successful motivators your motivation and model them s u m m a ry: t h e m ot i vat i o n a l e d g e 115
    • Model Peak PerformanceGreat motivators know how to harness the inspirationand energy of the most motivated people in the world.One of the best ways to learn how to motivate is toidentify a great motivator and model his strategies.Model Improved Motivational Skillsmodelling is useful for capturing the success of others andmaking it your own, breaking out of your comfort zone,thinking creatively, acquiring new skills, learning anddeveloping strategies, and getting motivated. modellingwell is an essential success skill and the more time youspend perfecting it, the more powerful a tool it willbecome for you. You need to focus on skills, behaviours,and shadowing rather than on conscious rationalization.Children learn at a phenomenal rate because of theirinsatiable curiosity and their lack of limitation. TECHNIQUES to practise If you need to acquire a • Ask questions that help you skill or strategy to deal to understand why your role with a specific situation, model does what he does. select as your role model “Why did you do that? What someone you know who were you thinking when you has the beliefs and values did that? What do you believe that are appropriate to about…?” your situation. • Act as if you are your role • Watch your model do the task model and try out the task for you need to do. Pay attention yourself so that you know how to what he does and says and it feels from his perspective. how he interacts with others • Refine the core components of and their environment. Pay the task and carry on asking attention to detail and the questions until you are able process he uses. to do the task effectively.116 s u s ta i n m o t i vat i o n
    • Case study: Trying a New ApproachLauren, a young sales director, • Lauren knew that if otherhad recently been given some people were getting results instiff sales quotas. With a new, similar circumstances they wouldunproven, and demotivated team have strategies that could helpshe was currently not even meeting her to meet her targets.her existing targets. Lauren knew • She spent time uncovering,that her beliefs, attitudes, and understanding, and implementingbehaviours were not supporting her the correct strategies.but she did not know what to do. • She was open enough to takeAfter spending some time with a on board feedback and try a newsales director who had encountered approach that enabled her tosimilar challenges, she was able to meet her targets and motivatemake changes that helped her to her team to work with her.remotivate the team.Identify Your Role ModelsTop performers believe that if one person can do it, so canyou. Think about people who could be your role models.You can select different role models for different skills,strategies, and situations. Your role models do not haveto be people you know – you can model people throughbooks, the Internet, and television.Spend Time with Your ModelIdeally, however, your role model should be someone withwhom you can spend some time as he works. choosesomeone whose skill makes him a model of excellence.assess this excellence by comparing your model to othersworking in the same field, and by looking for signs of hiseffortless achievement and mastery. You are more likely tosucceed if you aim your aspirations as high as possible.TIP When faced with a challenging situation askyourself, “What would (your role model) do?” M o d e l P e a k P e r f o r M a n ce 117
    • feedback 88–9, 103Index praise 90–1 filters, motivational 102–3 financial benefits 69administrative tasks 45 focus 21, 22agencies, recruitment 55 focusing on success 24–5assessment centres 56 seven-day plan 22association with success 106–7, 109, testing 23 112–13auditory people 60, 99 gifts 69awareness 40 goal setting 45, 48–9away days 69 group training 59 GROW model 78–9, 81bad habits 40–1 gym memberships 69beliefs challenging 82, 83 HABIT model 41 changing 26–7 habits, changing 40–1body language Hierarchy of Needs 34–5 controlling 20–1, 96 high-energy activities 67 reading 96, 97 high performance, five steps to 38–43bonus schemes 35 holiday entitlement 69brainstorming 64, 67 imagery, usingclosed questions 81 to boost motivation 108–9coaching 24, 28, 45, 59, 76–7 to set goals 49 GROW model 78–9, 81 in time people 110–11commission structures 35 instant motivation 20, 107communication internal motivation 18, 19 non-verbal 20–1, 96–7 internal state, changing 20–1 styles of 98–9 interviews 56, 57conditioned responses 113counselling 76 job descriptions 54crèches 69 kinaesthetic people 60, 99desire, personal 43development programmes 58–9 learning, five steps of 38–9 see also training legal issues (recruitment) 54directions, motivational 102–3 levels of behaviour 46–7discipline 45 levels of listening 85dissociation 106, 107, 109 limiting beliefsDual Factor Theory 36 challenging 82, 83 removing 26–7e-learning 59 listening 84–7, 92–3emotions listing team attributes 18 changing 20–1 loans 69 controlling 18 logbooks 15environments, working 45 logical levels of behaviour 46–7events reacting to or acting 24 management styles/agendas 45 reframing 101, 104–5 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 34–5 responding well to 19 mastery, achieving 39, 43Expectancy Theory 36–7 meetings 45, 64–7, 112expectations, clarifying 45 mental focus 21, 22 focusing on success 24–5 seven-day plan 22 testing 23118 I N D E x
    • mentoring 59, 76 Sales Management theories 36mindsets, motivational 28–9 self-assessment testsmodelling technique 116–17 coaching skills 76money 35, 69 focus 23motivational directions 102–3 motivation skills 8–11motivational mindsets 28–9 what motivates you? 15motivational theories 36–7 self-learning 59 self motivation 14–31negative associations, breaking 112–13 quick fixes 20, 107newsletters 69 self-talk 21non-verbal communications 20–1, 96–7 seminars, external 59 SMART goal setting 49objectives, clarifying 45 structure, establishing 44–7open questions 81 success, associating with 106–7, 109, 112–13panel interviews 57 systems, creating 44paperwork 45people, understanding 14, 35, 42, talking to yourself 21 98–9, 100–1 teams building rapport 98–9 developing 54–73perceptions, switching position 100–1 listing attributes 18personal specifications 54, 55 motivating 36, 37, 46–7physiology and emotions 20–1 praising 90–1planning teleseminars 59 interviews 57 “Thank you,” saying 69, 90 meetings 64, 65 therapy 76positive associations, building 113 through time people 110–11posture, controlling 20, 96 time, views of 110–11praise, giving 90–1 trainers, finding 58presentations 18, 60, 109 training 45, 58–63priorities, determining 16–17 formats 59problem solving sessions 67 increasing retention rates 63promotion 45 mini-sessions 58, 66psychological testing 57 motivating attendees 62 as reward 69questioning technique 80–3 running successful sessions 61–2 tailoring approach to 58rapport, building 96–7reasons for change, clarifying 43 understanding people 14, 35, 42,recruitment 54–7 98–9, 100–1 interviews 56, 57 legal issues 54 values, identifying 14, 16–17referral recruitment schemes 55 visual people 60, 98reflective listening 85, 87 visualizations, usingreframing events 101, 104–5 to boost motivation 108–9rewards 68–71 to set goals 49role models 28, 29, 116–17role-playing 57, 67 wheel of life 16, 17 workshops, external 59 i n d e x 119
    • Picture CreditsThe publisher would like to thank the following for their kind permission toreproduce their photographs: Abbreviations key : (l) = left, (c) = centre, (r) = right,(t) = top, (b) = below, (cl) = centre left, (cr) = centre right.1: Tony Metaxas/Asia Images/Getty (l), Meeke/zefa/Corbis (c), Randy Faris/Corbis (r);2: BanaStock/PunchStock/JupiterImages; 3: Wide Group/Iconica/Getty (t),Chabruken/Taxi/Getty (c), Seth Joel/Photographer’s Choice/Getty (b); 5: WideGroup/Iconica/Getty; 7: Liquidlibrary/Alamy; 8: Marc Romanelli/The Image Bank/Getty (l), M. Thomsen/zefa/Corbis (cl), Ashok Charles/Taxi/Getty (cr), Wide Group/Iconica/Getty (r); 13: Euan Myles/Stone/Getty; 14: Meeke/zefa/Corbis; 21: MarcRomanelli/The Image Bank/Getty; 26: Logan Mock-Bunting/Reportage/Getty;29: PunchStock; 31: Chabruken/Taxi/Getty; 33: Steven Puetzer/Photonica/Getty;42: Zia Soleil/Iconica/Getty (tl), Michael Krasowitz/Taxi/Getty (bl), PunchStock (br);47: M. Thomsen/zefa/Corbis; 51: Chabruken/Taxi/Getty; 53: Grove Pashley/Photis/JupiterImages; 56: Michael Hemsley; 62: Randy Faris/Corbis; 66: Simon Marcus/Corbis; 73: Michael Hemsley; 75: Charles Maraia/Photonica/Getty; 77: PM Images/The Image Bank/Getty; 83: Wide Group/Iconica/Getty; 86: Seth Joel/Photographer’sChoice/Getty; 91: Wide Group/Iconica/Getty; 93: Wide Group/Iconica/Getty;95: Doug Landreth/Science Faction/Getty; 97: Chabruken/Taxi/Getty (tl), Yellow DogProductions/The Image Bank/Getty (tr), PunchStock (b); 99: Tom Grill/Iconica/Getty;103: Ross Whitaker/The Image Bank/Getty; 106: Ashok Charles/Taxi/Getty;115: Johner Images/Getty.All other images © Dorling Kindersley.For further information see www.dkimages.comAuthors’ acknowledgmentsI’d like to thank all at Dorling Kindersley for their help in completing this book –a true team effort. Special thanks to Adèle Hayward and to Simon Tuite, and toFiona Biggs for her excellent work. Also, thanks to all those who have supportedmy journey thus far – you know who you are!Authors’ biographyAs an expert in sales and motivation Gavin Ingham helps people to increaseperformance by turning self-doubt, fear, and lack of motivation into self-belief,confidence, and action. Gavin is a published author and has recorded numeroussales audio and DVD programmes. His products sell worldwide and his seminarsare attended by thousands of people every year. For more details of hisprogrammes and for free resources/newsletters, visit www.gaviningham.net.120 ACK n o W L E D G M E n T S