Implementing the Curriculum
Lesson 1 – The Role of Stakeholders in Curriculum Implementation
Stakeholders are individuals or institutions that are interested in the school curriculum.
Their interests vary in degree and complexity. They get involved in many different ways in the
implementation because the curriculum affects them directly or indirectly.
The different stakeholders:
1. Learners at the Center of the Curriculum
- The learners are the very reason a curriculum is made.They are the primary stakeholders
in the curriculum. They are the ones who are directly influenced by it. Learners in all levels
make or unmake the curriculum by their active and direct involvement. The universal as well as
the individual characteristics of the students should be considered. Age, gender, physical, mental,
emotional, development, cultural background, interests, aspirations and personal goals are some
of the factors to be considered on curriculum implementation. The students make the curriculum
alive. The success of the curriculum can only be measured by the extent of learning that the
2. Teachers as Curriculum Developers and Implementers
-Planning and writing the curriculum are the primary roles of the teacher. He/she writes a
curriculum daily through lesson plan, a unit plan or yearly plan. The teacher addresses the goals,
needs, interests, of the learners by creating experiences where students can learn. The teacher
designs, enriches and modifies curriculum to suit the learner’s characteristics.
As a curriculum developer, teachers are part of textbook committees, faculty selection
boards, school evaluation committee or textbook writers themselves. Teachers are empowered to
develop their own school curricula taking into consideration their own expertise, the context of
the school and the abilities of the learners. Teachers become the architect of school curriculum.
Teacher’s role shifts from a developer to an implementer because a developed curriculum
is still inactive if it is not implemented. The teacher’s role as an implementer is very crucial.
Curriculum implementation is now giving life to the written material. The teacher guides,
facilitates and directs activities which will be done by the student. The choice of the activities,
the methods to be utilized, the material to be used are some of the considerations that the teacher
should have in curricular implementation. Oftentimes, unsuccessful implementation becomes the
root of educational failure.
3. Curriculum Managers and Administrators
- In a school organization, there is always a curriculum manager or school administrator.
For school principals, one of their functions is being a curriculum manager. They supervised
curriculum implementation, select and recruit new teachers, admit students, procure equipment
and materials needed for effective learning. They also plan for the improvement of school
facilities and physical plants.
The school administrators play an important role in shaping the school curriculum. They
have the responsibility of running the entire school effectively. They are responsible in the
formulation of the school’s vision, philosophy, mission and objectives.
4. Parents as Supporters to the Curriculum
- Parents are the best supporters of the school especially because they are the ones paying
for their child’s education. They are willing to pay the cost of educating their child for as long
their children get the best learning experiences.
Parents are considered stakeholders because of the following observations:
a) Effective parental involvement in school affairs may be linked to parent educational
programs which is central to high quality educational experiences for children.
b) The parent’s involvement extends from the confine of the school to the homes.
c) In most schools the Parent Association is organized.
5. Community Members as Curriculum Resources
- The success in the implementation of the curriculum requires resources. The community
members and materials in the existing local community can very well substitute for what are
needed to implement the curriculum. The whole community can serve as a curriculum resource.
Each member has a great stake in the curriculum implementation.
6. Others Stakeholders in Curriculum Implementation
-They have shown great influence in school curriculum. They are being asked by
curriculum specialists to contribute in curriculum review because they have voice in
licensure examination, curriculum enhancement and more.
- has a great stake in curriculum implementation.
The government is represented by:
a) Department of Education (DepEd) – for basic education curricula.
b) Commission or Higher Education (CHED) – for tertiary and graduate curricula.
- These two government agencies have mandatory and regulatory powers over the
implementation of any curricula.
c) Professional Regulation Commission ( PRC) because the graduates of the different
tertiary degrees must be certified as professionals.
Lesson 2- The Roles of Technology in Delivering the Curriculum
Instructional media may also be referred to as media technology, learning technology or
simply technology. Technology plays a crucial role in delivering instruction to learners. It offers
various tools of learning and these ranges from non-projected and projected media from which
the teacher can choose depending on what he sees will fit the intended instructional setting.
Types of instructional media
Non-projected media Projected media
Printed materials (books, worksheets)
Visuals (drawings, photographs,
graphs, charts, posters)
Visual boards (chalkboard,
whiteboard, flannel board, etc. )
Video, CD, DVD
Factors for Technology Selection
2. Appropriateness in relation to the learners
3. Activity/ Sustainability
4. Objective- matching
The Roles of Technology in Curriculum Delivery
The Primary roles of technology in Curriculum Delivery:
o Upgrading the quality of teaching and learning process
o Increasing the capability of the teacher to effectively inculcate learning, and for
students to gain mastery of lessons and courses
o Broadening the delivery of education outside schools through non-traditional
approaches to formal and informal learning
o Revolutionizing the use of technology to boost educational paradigm shifts that
give importance to student-centered and holistic learning
Lesson 3- Pilot Testing, Monitoring and Evaluating the Implementation of the Curriculum
Pilot testing or field try-out is one of the common practices of curriculum makers to
determine the strength and the weaknesses of a written or planned curriculum. This process will
gather empirical data to support whether the material or the curriculum is useful, relevant,
reliable and valid. Most of the field testing follows some research designs. Usually it follows an
experimental method, however an initial process can be done without any comparison group.
The try out or pilot testing assures the teachers and the schools that indeed the curriculum
materials are ready for use.
As the curriculum is implemented, there is a need to continuously monitor the process:
Curriculum Monitoring – It is a periodic assessment and adjustment period during the try
out period. It determines how the curriculum is working, such that the monitoring report
becomes the basis on what aspects to be retained, revised or improved. It also provides
decision that would end or terminate the program.
Curriculum Evaluation – a systematic process judging the value, effectiveness and
adequacy of curriculum.
1. School- Based Evaluation( SBE) - an approach to curriculum evaluation which
places the content, design, operation and evaluation procedure in the hands of the
Advantages of SBE
a) Bias and conflict are minimized
b) School personnel develop evaluation skills
c) The real concerns of the school and community
d) Broad participation of school personnel provide opportunities for building
e) Provides reliable and valid information on curriculum, resources and general
2. Accreditation- voluntary process of submitting a curricular program to an
external accrediting body for review in any level of education: basic, tertiary or
graduate school to standard.
Areas for Accreditation
a) Curriculum and Program of Studies – program of studies includes the clusters of
knowledge, attitudes, values and experiences that will provide the students at any level
with the necessary competencies for effective learning.
b) Classroom Management- A good classroom management provides opportunities to
develop independent lifelong learners who uphold and observe democratic process.
c) Instructional Processes and Methodologies- The decision of choosing and using the
method of teaching is a crucial factor in curriculum and instruction. There are varied
teaching methodologies that are compatible with the different learning styles of the
d) Graduation Requirements- Graduation means successful accomplishment of the
curricular program of studies. The grade requirements of each subject should be known.
Aside from academic requirements required, some curricula provide activities that are
necessary and should be accomplished as a graduation requirement.
e) Administrative Support for Effective Instruction- A curriculum can be best implemented
if there is support of the school administration.
f) Evaluation of Academic Performance- It is necessary that learning outcomes be
evaluated. After all the best measure of a curriculum is the learning outcome of the
students. The evaluation should make use of valid and reliable tools.
Assessing the Curriculum
Lesson 1- Intended Vs. Implemented vs. Achieved Curriculum
Purpose of Curriculum Assessment
- Curriculum Assessment is the process of collecting information for use in evaluation.
Any information, data collected or obtained through various processes will be
analyzed for important decision making.
1. Highlight curriculum expectations
2. Gather information about what students know and what can do
3. Motivate students to learn better
4. Motivate and encourage teachers to meet the identified needs of students
5. Provide evidence to tell how well the students have learned
6. Obtain feedback that helps teachers, students and parents make good decisions to guide
- It establishes the goals, the specific purposes and the immediate objectives to be
accomplished. It answers what the curriculum maker wants to do.
- Refers to the various learning activities or experiences of the students in order to
achieve the intended curricular outcomes.
- Refers to the curriculum outcomes based on the first two types of curriculum. It is
now considered the product.
Each type of curriculum should be linked to one another. Any gap along the line will
make the connection weak and will lead to obstacles in the accomplishment of the over-all
purpose of the curriculum.
Lesson 2- Criteria for Curriculum Assessment
Criteria for Curriculum Assessment
- Are set of standards to be followed in assessment. It is a set of standards upon which
the different elements of the curriculum is being tested.
Criteria for Goals and Objectives
- Goals and Objectives are statements of curricular expectations. They are set of
learning outcomes specifically designed or students. Objectives indicate clearly what
the students will learn.
1. To have focus on curriculum and instruction
2. To meet the requirements specified in the policies and standards of curriculum
3. To provide the students the best possible education and describe their level of
4. To monitor the progress of students
5. To motivate the students to learn and the teachers to be able to feel a sense of
competence when goals are attained.
Criteria on elements (Howell and Nolet 2000)
1. Syntactic correctness – ( Are the objectives syntactically correct?)
2. Compliance with legal requirements- ( Do the objectives comply with the legal
requirements of the course of subjects?)
3. The stranger Test
4. Both knowledge and behavior are addressed
5. The So-What Test
7. Common Sense
Criteria for Assessment of Instruction
- Instruction refers to the implementation of the objectives. It is concerned with the
methodologies of the strategies of teaching.
Approaches to Instruction
1. Supplantive Approach- referred to as direct instruction. Information is presented in an
ordered sequence in which component subskills are taught directly or a foundation for
later tasks. This is highly teacher- directed.
2. Generative Approach- referred to as constructivist or developmental. Sub-skills may not
be taught explicitly. Pre-requisites for more complex information are expected to be
learned as a consequence of the larger understanding students would be guided to
A Comparison of Approaches
Attribute Generative Approach Supplantive Approach
1. Buzz words used by
2. What proponents
Call the other
3. Underlying beliefs
about what is taught
4. Underlying beliefs
about how learning occurs
5. Underlying beliefs
about how to teach
6. Common error made by
Students construct their own
When learning is
contextualized, students will
identify what they are ready
Learning is socially
constructed, students link
info to prior knowledge
Learning is developmental
and occurs much the way
early language is acquired
Teachers take a hand off
classroom activities but
failure to link to learning
Too much emphasis on
larger ideas not enough
emphasis on the component
The skills that
students need to learn
can be derived from
an analysis of the
Learning can be
When learning does
not occur, it can be
facilitated by building
it from the bottom up
Teachers take a hands
By focusing on
they may fail to
attend other equally
Too much emphasis
on the components
not enough emphasis
on larger ideas
Guidelines for Selecting an Instructional Approach
Select the generative approach
Select the Supplantive Approach
Has considerable prior
Has adaptive motivational
Experience consistent success
on the task
Is simple for the student
Is well defined
Can be completed using a
Is easy to understand but not
necessarily apply,what is
Allows plenty of time to
Places priority on experiences
Has little prior knowledge of
Has non-adaptive motivational
Experiences repeated failure
on the task
Is ill defined
Has missing information
Requires the use of a task-
Is pivotal to the learning of
Must be used with a high level
Time allowed to finish
outcomes is limited
Places priority on task mastery
- Are guidelines on standard for curriculum decision making.
1. Have the goals of the curriculum or teaching plan been clearly stated and they are used by
teachers and students in choosing content, materials and activities for learning?
2. Have the teacher and students engaged in student-teacher planning in determining how
they will be implemented?
3. Do some of the planned goals relate to the society or the community in which the
curriculum will be implemented or the teaching will be done?
4. Do some of the planned goals relate to the individual learner and his needs, purposes,
interest and abilities?
5. Are the planned goals used as criteria in selecting and developing learning materials for
6. Are the planned goals used as criteria in evaluating learning achievement and in further
planning of learning sub-goals and activities?
- According to Hass and Parkay( 1993), individual differences, flexibility and
systematic planning are criteria that depend in part on knowledge of the different
approaches to learning.
Characteristics of a Good Curriculum
1. The curriculum is continuously evolving
- In order for a curriculum to be effective, it must continuously monitor and evaluate. It
must adapt to educational activities and services to meet the needs of a modern and
2. The curriculum is based on the needs of the people
- A good curriculum reflects the needs of the individual and the society.
3. The curriculum is democratically conceived
- The curriculum is a product of many minds and energies.
4. The curriculum is the result of long-term effort
- It takes a long period of time in planning, management, evaluation and development.
5. The curriculum is a complex of details
- It provides the proper instructional equipment and meeting places that are often most
conducive to learning.
6. The curriculum provides for the logical sequence of subject matter
- There is a smooth transition and continuing achievement of learners from one subject
matter, classroom, grade or school to another.
7. The curriculum complements and cooperates with other programs of the
- A curriculum is responsive to the needs of the community.
8. The curriculum has educational quality
- It helps the learner to become the best he can be.
9. The curriculumadministrative flexibility
- It must be ready to incorporate changes whenever necessary.
Marks of a Good Curriculum by Galen Saylor
1. A good curriculum is systematically planned and evaluated.
2. A good curriculum reflects adequately the aims of the school
3. A good curriculum maintains balance among all aims of the school
4. A good curriculum promotes continuity of experience
5. A good curriculum arranges learning opportunities flexibly for adaptation to
particular situations and individuals.
6. A good curriculum utilizes the most effective learning experiences and resources
7. A good curriculum makes a maximum provision for the development of each
- It is a process of determining the value of something or the extent to which goals are
being achieved. A process of making a decision or reading a conclusion. It is the
judgments we make about the assessments of student learning based on establish
criteria. The ultimate process of any evaluation process that takes place in school is to
improve student learning.
It provides information:
a) Directly to the learner for guidance
b) Directly to the teacher for orientation of the next instruction activities
c) Directly to the external agencies for their assessment of school functioning
- Is the process of obtaining information for judging the worth of an educational
program, product, procedure, educational objectives or the potential utility of
alternative approaches designed to specific objectives.
a) Summative Evaluation
Takes place at the end of a unit or section of instruction and tells the evaluator
what has happened.
b) Formative Evaluation
Takes place during the lesson and tells the evaluator what is happening.
It is ongoing and yields information that can be used to modify program prior
Lesson 3- Tools to Assess Curriculum
- Are the structures through which the students are assessed.
1. PAPER-AND-PENCIL STRATEGY
a) Essay is a writing sample used to assess student understanding and or how well
can analyze and synthesize information.
b) Select Response is a commonly used procedure for gathering formal evidence
about student learning, specifically in memory, recall and comprehension.
2. PERFORMANCE-BASED STRATEGY
a) Performance Task is an assessment which students to demonstrate a skill or
proficiency by asking them to create produce or perform.
b) Exhibition/ Demonstration is a performance in which student demonstrates
individual achievement through application of specific skills and knowledge.
3. OBSERVATIONAL STRATEGY
- Is a process of systematically viewing and recording student behavior for the purpose
of making programming decision; permeatesthe entire teaching process by assisting
the teacher in making the decisions required in effective making.
4. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
a) Conferenceis a formal or informal meeting between/ among the teacher and
student and/or parent, has a clear on focus on learning for discussion.
b) Interview is a form of conversation in which all parties (teacher, student and
parent) increase their knowledge and understanding.
5. ORAL STATEGY
a) Questions and Answers provide a mechanism which monitors student’s
understanding while assessing student progress.
b) Classroom Presentation is an assessment which requires students to verbalize
their knowledge, select and present samples of finished work and organize
thoughts in order to present a summary of learning about a topic.
6. REFLECTIVE STRATEGY
a) Self-Assessment is the process of gathering information and reflecting on one’s
b) Response Journal provides frequent written reflective response to a material that
a student is reading, viewing, listening to or discussing.
7. COMBINATION OF STRATEGIES
1. Portfolio is a purposeful collection of samples of a student’s work that is
selective, reflective and collaborative.
RECORDING DEVICE/ TOOLS
- Provide various means of organizing the recordings of information about student
1. Anecdotal Record is a short narrative describing both a behavior and the context in which
the behavior occurred, describes student performance in detail and in writing.
2. Checklist is a list of actions or descriptions that a rater ( teacher) checks off as the particular
behavior or expectation is observed.
3. Rating Scale assesses the extent to which the specific fact, skills, attitudes and/or behaviors
are observed in a student’s work or performance.
4. Rubrics is a series of statements describing a range of levels of student performance.
5. Learning Log is an ongoing record by the student of what he does while working on a
particular task or assignment.
Non- Test Monitoring and Assessment
- Good instruction involves observing and analyzing student performance and the most
valuable assessment should be learning experiences as well.
1. Oral and written reports- students research a topic and then present orally or written.
2. Teacher observation- teacher observes students while they work to make to certain the
students understand the assignment and task.
3. Journal- students write daily on assigned or personal topic.
4. Portfolio of students work- teacher collects samples of students work and save for
determined amount of time.
5. Slates or hand signals- students use slates or hand signal as a means of signaling
answers to the teacher.
6. Games- teachers use utilize fun activities to have the students practice and review
7. Projects- students research a topic and then present it in a creative way.
8. Debates- students take opposing position on a topic and defend their position.
9. Checklist-the teacher will make a list of objectives need to answers and then check off
the skill as the student masters it.
10. Cartooning- students will use drawings to depict situation and ideas.
11. Models-students produce a miniature replica of a given topic.
12. Notes-students write a summary of a lesson.
13. Daily assignments-students complete work assigned on a daily basis to be completed at
the school or home.
14. Anecdotal record- the teachers record a student’s behavior.
15. Panel- a group ofstudents verbally present information.
16. Learning centers- students use teacher provided activities for hands on learning.
17. Demonstration- students present a visual enactment of a particular skill or activity.
18. Problem solving- students follow a step by step solution of a problem.
19. Discussions-students in a group verbally interact on a given topic.
20. Organize note sheets and study guides-students collect information to help pass a test
Lesson 4- Linking Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment
Curriculum and Instruction
A curriculum is a structured set of learning outcomes or task that educators usually call
goals and objectives. The knowledge of a curriculum is for successful assessment, evaluation,
decision making and teaching. Without a curriculum component, there is no need of teacher-
directed instruction and therefore no lesson. Instruction is the actual engagement of learners of
the planned learning activities. It is the implementation of the curriculum plan. It should be
emphasized that curriculum and instruction interlock with each other. Without a curriculum plan,
there could be no effective instruction and without instruction, curriculum has a very little
Curriculum and Assessment
Curriculum is also related to assessment. It is curriculum that determines what
assessment should be done and how to do it. Assessment is the process of collecting information
which describes student achievement in relation to curriculum achievement.
Instruction and Assessment
Factors that tell how well the instruction is done:
a. Learner- the center and the one who receives instruction.
b. Teacher- guides the implementation of plans.
c. Learning environment- this is where learning occurs.
d. Subject matter- content of instruction.
e. Methods of teaching and learning- heart of instruction.
f. Measurement- refers to assessment.
Instruction and assessment should be intertwined to provide a system that supports and
encourages student’s progress. Assessment will provide the teacher or curriculum maker the
value of their work. It will also tell the general public of the quality or kind of product that
resulted from a prerequisite process which is instruction. Assessment gives the quantitative
measure of the instruction.
Interaction of Curriculum instruction, Assessment
The interaction of the three elements shows how each affects one another. Good
plan will be implemented through good instruction. This will result to good outcomes. Beginning
with a strong curriculum and professional development program, the school can use continued
school improvement to assess needs, set targets, design strategies and evaluate success of the
curriculum content area of the program.
Addressing the Future: Curriculum Innovations
Lesson 1- Curriculum Innovations: Local and Global Trends
With the demand brought about by the fast changing society, it is most that innovations
will occur. In curriculum, changes and modifications are introduced to keep pace with the
Local and National Curricular Innovations
1. 2002 Basic Education Curriculum
The BEC developed through a dynamic process. It started with the review of the existing
basic education curriculum in 1997 which took into consideration worldwide trends and
Parameters of the Basic Education Curriculum
i. objectives are expressed in terms of competencies in knowledge, skills and attitudes.
ii. contentis delivered using a variety of media and resources.
iii. the use of multi-sensory materialsis encouraged in teaching.
iv. learning is assessed using a variety of measures. The use of both of the traditional and the
authentic assessment is mandated for purposes of gathering information about the learner in
v. teaching-learning processconsiders the learners as active partners than objects of teaching.
Salient Features of the Curriculum
Its aim is to raise the quality of education of Filipino learners and graduates. The
BEC empowers life-long learners through the attainment of functional literacy.
ii. English are tool subjects
iii. Science subjects to develop internationalism
v. Makabayan (laboratory of life) and Filipino are subjects that develop nationalism.
Integrative Teaching as Mode of Instructional Delivery
Integrative Teaching works best in the BEC. It is because the curriculum is treated in a
holistic manner. The process is integrative, collaborative and innovative.
1. Thematic Teaching requires organization of themes around ideas. The theme
provides focus and helps the learners see the meaningful and connections across
subject areas. It links ideas to learning in life.
2. Content- Based Instruction (CBI) is the integration of content learning with
language teaching. The language curriculum is centered on the academic needs
and interests of the learners thus CBI crosses the barriers between the language
and subject matter content. It aims to at developing the learner’s academic
3. Focusing Inquiry is an interdisciplinary approach that uses questions to organize
learning. Learners become creators rather than recipients of knowledge.
4. Generic Competency Model, learners are enrolled in three to four linked or
related courses or subject areas.
2. Third Elementary Education Program (TEEP)
It aimed to build institutional capacity of the Department of Education to manage change
and actively involve parents, teachers, and community leaders as stakeholders for quality
education. It began in 1996 and concluded in 2005.
3. Secondary Education Improvement and Development Program (SEDIP)
Its purpose was to improve equitable access to secondary education in poverty affected
areas. It started in 2000 and Curricular reforms in SEDIP revolved around:
a) Improving Teaching Learning
the development of skills and competencies of school heads in school planning,
management and instructional support for teachers
improving teachers’ subject knowledge and teaching skills
improving the availability of learning materials by providing books, teaching
improving the learning environment through the construction and rehabilitation
of school facilities and procurement of furniture and equipment for classrooms,
laboratories and other school facilities.
b) Improving Access to Secondary Education
c) Facilitating Decentralized Secondary Education Management
4. The New Teacher Education Curriculum for BEED and BSEd
There are two teacher education degrees offered by the Teacher Training Institutions. The
Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEED) is structured to meet the needs of professional
teachers for elementary schools and the Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSed) for the
needs of professional teachers in the high schools in the Philippines.
BEED aims to develop elementary school teacher who are either generalists who can
teach across different areas in grade school, special education teachers and pre-school
teachers while BSED aims to develop high school teachers who can teach in one of different
learning areas in high school.
The curriculum of the BEEd and the BSed
The curriculum design features include various components that correspond to the basic
and specialized knowledge and skills that will be needed by a practicing professional teacher:
foundational general education knowledge and skills, theoretical knowledge about teaching
and learning, methodological skills, experiential knowledge and skills and professional
ethical values and subject matter knowledge appropriate to the level of teaching of pre-
school, elementary and secondary levels. The curriculum recognizes the need to equip
teachers with wide range of theoretical and methodological skills. These allow the teachers to
have more options and greater flexibility in designing and implementing learning
environments which will maximize student’s learning.
5. The Ladderized Curriculum for Bachelor of Technical Teacher Education ( BTTE)
BTTE prepares teachers in technical-vocational program education (TVET) and higher
education institutions who are equipped not only with strong theoretical understanding of
teaching and technology but also exposure to industry. The curricular program of BTTE shall
impart knowledge, skills, attitudes values and experiences that will provide prospective
teachers with the necessary competencies essential in effective teaching. The specific body of
knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and experiences include general education, component,
professional studies component, specialization component and industrial technology
1. Curricular Model A
-is offered for high school graduates who could meet the admission requirements
for the college.
2. Curricular Model B
-is offered to the graduates of the Two-Tear Trace Technical Curriculum and the
Three Year Diploma Technology Program in different areas of specialization.
6. Instructional and Curricular Excellence in School Leadership and Management-
- IceXCELS (Instructional and Curricular Excellence in School for South East Asia)
is a short course package of SEAMEO INNOTECH for elementary and secondary
school administrators on developing instructional and development leadership. It
addresses the need to develop and strengthen the social head’s role as an instructional
leader in promoting or improving the quality of teaching and learning in his school.
Special Features of the Innovation
1. Delivery of Instruction- teaching is primarily delivered through print self-
instructional modules augmented by the use of interactive tools such as chat,
discussion forums and email, among other learning support system.
2. Learning Modality- students can immediately study at their own pace and time
3. Evaluation System – each learner will be given feedback in the form of qualitative
narratives by the tutors for their outputs.
4. Time Table- the duration of time expected of all learners to finish the course is 50
hours which is equivalent to a 3 unit course.
Global Curricular Innovations
1. Project Child( Computer Helping Instruction and Learning Environment)
- is a research-based instructional delivery system that enables one to intensify the
curriculum with technology and hand on learning. It aims to increase academic performance,
develop reasoning abilities, problem solving, decision making and knowledge application,
communicating effectively and emphasizes the development of mathematics in early years.
Six Stations or Learning Centers
1. Computer Station for technology-based learning
2. Textbook Station for written work
3. Challenge Station for activities in game formats
4. The imagination Station for creative expression
5. Exploration Station for hands-on activities
6. Teacher Station for additional instructional support
Project CHILD Materials
1. Station Planning Guides
2. Station Activities/ Task Cards- directs learners to work
3. Passports- management tool to help students become organized and focused on
4. Teacher’s Manual- a complete guide to assist teachers implementing the program
5. Leadership Guide- composed of materials in making presentations to community
groups and strategies to involve schools adopting the program.
6. Special Needs Inclusion Guide- timely resource for both regular and exceptional
teachers to support the inclusion of special needs in the classroom.
7. Training Facilitator Guide- includes comprehensive trainings, overviews,
transparencies and hand-outs for workshop participation.
2. Brain-Based Learning
- is an approach to teaching based on research neuroscience. It suggests that our brain
learns naturally. Brain-based theory includes an eclectic mix of techniques. These technique
stress allowing teachers to connect learning to students’ real life situations. This form of learning
also encompasses education concepts like mastery learning, problem-based learning, cooperative
education, multiple intelligences, learning styles, experiential learning etc.
Interactive Teaching Elements
Orchestrated immersion- learning environment are created to provide authentic learning
Relaxed Alertness- efforts are made to eliminate fear while maintaining a highly
Active Processing- learners consolidate and internalize information by actually
processing this information. Prior learning has been given recognition as having
connections to current information.
Lesson 2- Curriculum Issues, Concerns and Responses
Curricular Issues and Concern
Poor Academic performance of learners.
- Issues on varied implementation of the curriculum among schools and teachers seem
to be one of the reasons for the prevailing low performance of schools over the
country. There is a perennial complaint about books and other instructional materials,
overcrowded classrooms and teacher has been identified as one of the influencing
factors in the varied implementation if the curriculum.
Curricular innovations lack the sense of ownership from stakeholders.
- The implementers lack full understanding of the changes or modification that they are
doing. The goal is unclear and there are lot of questions in the implementation and
Some curricular innovations are results of bandwagon but are not well supported by
- Changes and innovations are drastically implemented even if the school is not ready.
Lack of monitoring and evaluation.
- After a new curriculum has been implemented, it is left unattended.
Innovations results to teacher burn out.
- Teachers get tired easily and the motivation is very low. They would still prefer the
good old days and stick with it.
Innovations are not communicated to all.
- Changes may falter along the way because the people involved are not empowered.
Responses to Issues and Concern
The BEC is an example of curricular innovation that tries to address the continuous
decline in learners’ performance. Some schools have now elevated the national
achievement performance. It is because the DepEd is trying to provide support to its
In the installation of a new curriculum or innovation, all stakeholders should be involved.
Even in planning stage, consultations should be held. This process will provide each
interested sector or person to make decision as to whether the innovation will be
introduced or not.
There is a need to respond to the fast changing times in terms of school curriculum
innovations. The steps should be well planned and well-studied.
New curricular programs have now embedded monitoring and evaluation in its plan. On
the school-based innovations, principals have been empowered to conduct monitoring
and new curricular programs. It is part of the curricular leadership roles.
Collaboration in the implementation of a new curriculum is very necessary. There must
be a continuous communication of the different aspects of the innovation. If it is done,
there will always be an assurance of success.
For every action, there will always be a corresponding reaction!