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  1. 1. 1 Module III Implementing the Curriculum Lesson 1 – The Role of Stakeholders in Curriculum Implementation Stakeholders are individuals or institutions that are interested in the school curriculum. Their interests vary in degree and complexity. They get involved in many different ways in the implementation because the curriculum affects them directly or indirectly. The different stakeholders: 1. Learners at the Center of the Curriculum - The learners are the very reason a curriculum is made.They are the primary stakeholders in the curriculum. They are the ones who are directly influenced by it. Learners in all levels make or unmake the curriculum by their active and direct involvement. The universal as well as the individual characteristics of the students should be considered. Age, gender, physical, mental, emotional, development, cultural background, interests, aspirations and personal goals are some of the factors to be considered on curriculum implementation. The students make the curriculum alive. The success of the curriculum can only be measured by the extent of learning that the learners achieved. 2. Teachers as Curriculum Developers and Implementers -Planning and writing the curriculum are the primary roles of the teacher. He/she writes a curriculum daily through lesson plan, a unit plan or yearly plan. The teacher addresses the goals, needs, interests, of the learners by creating experiences where students can learn. The teacher designs, enriches and modifies curriculum to suit the learner’s characteristics. As a curriculum developer, teachers are part of textbook committees, faculty selection boards, school evaluation committee or textbook writers themselves. Teachers are empowered to develop their own school curricula taking into consideration their own expertise, the context of the school and the abilities of the learners. Teachers become the architect of school curriculum. Teacher’s role shifts from a developer to an implementer because a developed curriculum is still inactive if it is not implemented. The teacher’s role as an implementer is very crucial. Curriculum implementation is now giving life to the written material. The teacher guides, facilitates and directs activities which will be done by the student. The choice of the activities,
  2. 2. 2 the methods to be utilized, the material to be used are some of the considerations that the teacher should have in curricular implementation. Oftentimes, unsuccessful implementation becomes the root of educational failure. 3. Curriculum Managers and Administrators - In a school organization, there is always a curriculum manager or school administrator. For school principals, one of their functions is being a curriculum manager. They supervised curriculum implementation, select and recruit new teachers, admit students, procure equipment and materials needed for effective learning. They also plan for the improvement of school facilities and physical plants. The school administrators play an important role in shaping the school curriculum. They have the responsibility of running the entire school effectively. They are responsible in the formulation of the school’s vision, philosophy, mission and objectives. 4. Parents as Supporters to the Curriculum - Parents are the best supporters of the school especially because they are the ones paying for their child’s education. They are willing to pay the cost of educating their child for as long their children get the best learning experiences.  Parents are considered stakeholders because of the following observations: a) Effective parental involvement in school affairs may be linked to parent educational programs which is central to high quality educational experiences for children. b) The parent’s involvement extends from the confine of the school to the homes. c) In most schools the Parent Association is organized. 5. Community Members as Curriculum Resources - The success in the implementation of the curriculum requires resources. The community members and materials in the existing local community can very well substitute for what are needed to implement the curriculum. The whole community can serve as a curriculum resource. Each member has a great stake in the curriculum implementation. 6. Others Stakeholders in Curriculum Implementation  Professional Organization -They have shown great influence in school curriculum. They are being asked by curriculum specialists to contribute in curriculum review because they have voice in licensure examination, curriculum enhancement and more.  Government - has a great stake in curriculum implementation.
  3. 3. 3 The government is represented by: a) Department of Education (DepEd) – for basic education curricula. b) Commission or Higher Education (CHED) – for tertiary and graduate curricula. - These two government agencies have mandatory and regulatory powers over the implementation of any curricula. c) Professional Regulation Commission ( PRC) because the graduates of the different tertiary degrees must be certified as professionals. Lesson 2- The Roles of Technology in Delivering the Curriculum Instructional media may also be referred to as media technology, learning technology or simply technology. Technology plays a crucial role in delivering instruction to learners. It offers various tools of learning and these ranges from non-projected and projected media from which the teacher can choose depending on what he sees will fit the intended instructional setting. Types of instructional media Non-projected media Projected media Real objects Models Field trips Printed materials (books, worksheets) Visuals (drawings, photographs, graphs, charts, posters) Visual boards (chalkboard, whiteboard, flannel board, etc. ) Audio materials Overhead transparencies Opaque projection Slides Filmstrips Films Video, CD, DVD Computer/ multimedia presentations Factors for Technology Selection 1. Practicality 2. Appropriateness in relation to the learners 3. Activity/ Sustainability 4. Objective- matching
  4. 4. 4 The Roles of Technology in Curriculum Delivery The Primary roles of technology in Curriculum Delivery: o Upgrading the quality of teaching and learning process o Increasing the capability of the teacher to effectively inculcate learning, and for students to gain mastery of lessons and courses o Broadening the delivery of education outside schools through non-traditional approaches to formal and informal learning o Revolutionizing the use of technology to boost educational paradigm shifts that give importance to student-centered and holistic learning Lesson 3- Pilot Testing, Monitoring and Evaluating the Implementation of the Curriculum Pilot testing or field try-out is one of the common practices of curriculum makers to determine the strength and the weaknesses of a written or planned curriculum. This process will gather empirical data to support whether the material or the curriculum is useful, relevant, reliable and valid. Most of the field testing follows some research designs. Usually it follows an experimental method, however an initial process can be done without any comparison group. The try out or pilot testing assures the teachers and the schools that indeed the curriculum materials are ready for use. As the curriculum is implemented, there is a need to continuously monitor the process:  Curriculum Monitoring – It is a periodic assessment and adjustment period during the try out period. It determines how the curriculum is working, such that the monitoring report becomes the basis on what aspects to be retained, revised or improved. It also provides decision that would end or terminate the program.  Curriculum Evaluation – a systematic process judging the value, effectiveness and adequacy of curriculum. 1. School- Based Evaluation( SBE) - an approach to curriculum evaluation which places the content, design, operation and evaluation procedure in the hands of the school personnel. Advantages of SBE a) Bias and conflict are minimized b) School personnel develop evaluation skills c) The real concerns of the school and community d) Broad participation of school personnel provide opportunities for building school cohesiveness
  5. 5. 5 e) Provides reliable and valid information on curriculum, resources and general school functioning. 2. Accreditation- voluntary process of submitting a curricular program to an external accrediting body for review in any level of education: basic, tertiary or graduate school to standard. Areas for Accreditation a) Curriculum and Program of Studies – program of studies includes the clusters of knowledge, attitudes, values and experiences that will provide the students at any level with the necessary competencies for effective learning. b) Classroom Management- A good classroom management provides opportunities to develop independent lifelong learners who uphold and observe democratic process. c) Instructional Processes and Methodologies- The decision of choosing and using the method of teaching is a crucial factor in curriculum and instruction. There are varied teaching methodologies that are compatible with the different learning styles of the students. d) Graduation Requirements- Graduation means successful accomplishment of the curricular program of studies. The grade requirements of each subject should be known. Aside from academic requirements required, some curricula provide activities that are necessary and should be accomplished as a graduation requirement. e) Administrative Support for Effective Instruction- A curriculum can be best implemented if there is support of the school administration. f) Evaluation of Academic Performance- It is necessary that learning outcomes be evaluated. After all the best measure of a curriculum is the learning outcome of the students. The evaluation should make use of valid and reliable tools.
  6. 6. 6 MODULE IV Assessing the Curriculum Lesson 1- Intended Vs. Implemented vs. Achieved Curriculum Purpose of Curriculum Assessment - Curriculum Assessment is the process of collecting information for use in evaluation. Any information, data collected or obtained through various processes will be analyzed for important decision making.  Purposes 1. Highlight curriculum expectations 2. Gather information about what students know and what can do 3. Motivate students to learn better 4. Motivate and encourage teachers to meet the identified needs of students 5. Provide evidence to tell how well the students have learned 6. Obtain feedback that helps teachers, students and parents make good decisions to guide instruction Intended Curriculum - It establishes the goals, the specific purposes and the immediate objectives to be accomplished. It answers what the curriculum maker wants to do. Implemented Curriculum - Refers to the various learning activities or experiences of the students in order to achieve the intended curricular outcomes. Achieved Curriculum - Refers to the curriculum outcomes based on the first two types of curriculum. It is now considered the product. Each type of curriculum should be linked to one another. Any gap along the line will make the connection weak and will lead to obstacles in the accomplishment of the over-all purpose of the curriculum.
  7. 7. 7 Lesson 2- Criteria for Curriculum Assessment Criteria for Curriculum Assessment - Are set of standards to be followed in assessment. It is a set of standards upon which the different elements of the curriculum is being tested. Criteria for Goals and Objectives - Goals and Objectives are statements of curricular expectations. They are set of learning outcomes specifically designed or students. Objectives indicate clearly what the students will learn.  Purposes 1. To have focus on curriculum and instruction 2. To meet the requirements specified in the policies and standards of curriculum 3. To provide the students the best possible education and describe their level of performance 4. To monitor the progress of students 5. To motivate the students to learn and the teachers to be able to feel a sense of competence when goals are attained.  Criteria on elements (Howell and Nolet 2000) 1. Content 2. Behavior 3. Criterion 4. Condition  General Criteria 1. Syntactic correctness – ( Are the objectives syntactically correct?) 2. Compliance with legal requirements- ( Do the objectives comply with the legal requirements of the course of subjects?) 3. The stranger Test 4. Both knowledge and behavior are addressed 5. The So-What Test 6. Individualization 7. Common Sense Criteria for Assessment of Instruction - Instruction refers to the implementation of the objectives. It is concerned with the methodologies of the strategies of teaching.  Approaches to Instruction 1. Supplantive Approach- referred to as direct instruction. Information is presented in an ordered sequence in which component subskills are taught directly or a foundation for later tasks. This is highly teacher- directed. 2. Generative Approach- referred to as constructivist or developmental. Sub-skills may not be taught explicitly. Pre-requisites for more complex information are expected to be learned as a consequence of the larger understanding students would be guided to construct.
  8. 8. 8 A Comparison of Approaches Attribute Generative Approach Supplantive Approach 1. Buzz words used by proponent 2. What proponents Call the other 3. Underlying beliefs about what is taught 4. Underlying beliefs about how learning occurs 5. Underlying beliefs about how to teach 6. Common error made by proponents Constructivist Developmental Top down Holistic Authentic Meaning-based Romantics Fuzzy Postmodernist Unrealistic Students construct their own understanding When learning is contextualized, students will identify what they are ready to learn Learning is socially constructed, students link info to prior knowledge Learning is developmental and occurs much the way early language is acquired Teachers take a hand off approach Creating interesting classroom activities but failure to link to learning outcomes Too much emphasis on larger ideas not enough emphasis on the component Direct instruction Teacher- directed Mastery learning Task analytic Competency based Effective teaching Reductionist Drill-and-kill Dogmatic Unauthentic The skills that students need to learn can be derived from an analysis of the social demands Learning can be induced When learning does not occur, it can be facilitated by building it from the bottom up Teachers take a hands on approach By focusing on specific learning, they may fail to attend other equally important topics Too much emphasis on the components not enough emphasis on larger ideas
  9. 9. 9 Guidelines for Selecting an Instructional Approach Select the generative approach when: Select the Supplantive Approach when: The students The task The setting Has considerable prior knowledge Has adaptive motivational patterns Experience consistent success on the task Is simple for the student Is well defined Can be completed using a general-problem-solving strategy Is easy to understand but not necessarily apply,what is learned Allows plenty of time to accomplish outcomes Places priority on experiences and activities Has little prior knowledge of the task Has non-adaptive motivational patterns Experiences repeated failure on the task Is complex Is ill defined Has missing information Requires the use of a task- specific strategy Is pivotal to the learning of subsequent task Must be used with a high level of proficiency Time allowed to finish outcomes is limited Places priority on task mastery Curriculum Criteria - Are guidelines on standard for curriculum decision making. 1. Have the goals of the curriculum or teaching plan been clearly stated and they are used by teachers and students in choosing content, materials and activities for learning? 2. Have the teacher and students engaged in student-teacher planning in determining how they will be implemented? 3. Do some of the planned goals relate to the society or the community in which the curriculum will be implemented or the teaching will be done? 4. Do some of the planned goals relate to the individual learner and his needs, purposes, interest and abilities? 5. Are the planned goals used as criteria in selecting and developing learning materials for instruction?
  10. 10. 10 6. Are the planned goals used as criteria in evaluating learning achievement and in further planning of learning sub-goals and activities? - According to Hass and Parkay( 1993), individual differences, flexibility and systematic planning are criteria that depend in part on knowledge of the different approaches to learning. Characteristics of a Good Curriculum 1. The curriculum is continuously evolving - In order for a curriculum to be effective, it must continuously monitor and evaluate. It must adapt to educational activities and services to meet the needs of a modern and dynamic community. 2. The curriculum is based on the needs of the people - A good curriculum reflects the needs of the individual and the society. 3. The curriculum is democratically conceived - The curriculum is a product of many minds and energies. 4. The curriculum is the result of long-term effort - It takes a long period of time in planning, management, evaluation and development. 5. The curriculum is a complex of details - It provides the proper instructional equipment and meeting places that are often most conducive to learning. 6. The curriculum provides for the logical sequence of subject matter - There is a smooth transition and continuing achievement of learners from one subject matter, classroom, grade or school to another. 7. The curriculum complements and cooperates with other programs of the community - A curriculum is responsive to the needs of the community. 8. The curriculum has educational quality - It helps the learner to become the best he can be. 9. The curriculumadministrative flexibility - It must be ready to incorporate changes whenever necessary. Marks of a Good Curriculum by Galen Saylor 1. A good curriculum is systematically planned and evaluated. 2. A good curriculum reflects adequately the aims of the school 3. A good curriculum maintains balance among all aims of the school 4. A good curriculum promotes continuity of experience 5. A good curriculum arranges learning opportunities flexibly for adaptation to particular situations and individuals. 6. A good curriculum utilizes the most effective learning experiences and resources available. 7. A good curriculum makes a maximum provision for the development of each learner.
  11. 11. 11  Evaluation - It is a process of determining the value of something or the extent to which goals are being achieved. A process of making a decision or reading a conclusion. It is the judgments we make about the assessments of student learning based on establish criteria. The ultimate process of any evaluation process that takes place in school is to improve student learning. It provides information: a) Directly to the learner for guidance b) Directly to the teacher for orientation of the next instruction activities c) Directly to the external agencies for their assessment of school functioning  Curriculum Evaluation - Is the process of obtaining information for judging the worth of an educational program, product, procedure, educational objectives or the potential utility of alternative approaches designed to specific objectives. a) Summative Evaluation  Takes place at the end of a unit or section of instruction and tells the evaluator what has happened. b) Formative Evaluation  Takes place during the lesson and tells the evaluator what is happening.  It is ongoing and yields information that can be used to modify program prior to termination.
  12. 12. 12 Lesson 3- Tools to Assess Curriculum Assessment Strategies - Are the structures through which the students are assessed. 1. PAPER-AND-PENCIL STRATEGY a) Essay is a writing sample used to assess student understanding and or how well can analyze and synthesize information. b) Select Response is a commonly used procedure for gathering formal evidence about student learning, specifically in memory, recall and comprehension. 2. PERFORMANCE-BASED STRATEGY a) Performance Task is an assessment which students to demonstrate a skill or proficiency by asking them to create produce or perform. b) Exhibition/ Demonstration is a performance in which student demonstrates individual achievement through application of specific skills and knowledge. 3. OBSERVATIONAL STRATEGY - Is a process of systematically viewing and recording student behavior for the purpose of making programming decision; permeatesthe entire teaching process by assisting the teacher in making the decisions required in effective making. 4. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGY a) Conferenceis a formal or informal meeting between/ among the teacher and student and/or parent, has a clear on focus on learning for discussion. b) Interview is a form of conversation in which all parties (teacher, student and parent) increase their knowledge and understanding. 5. ORAL STATEGY a) Questions and Answers provide a mechanism which monitors student’s understanding while assessing student progress. b) Classroom Presentation is an assessment which requires students to verbalize their knowledge, select and present samples of finished work and organize thoughts in order to present a summary of learning about a topic. 6. REFLECTIVE STRATEGY a) Self-Assessment is the process of gathering information and reflecting on one’s own learning. b) Response Journal provides frequent written reflective response to a material that a student is reading, viewing, listening to or discussing. 7. COMBINATION OF STRATEGIES 1. Portfolio is a purposeful collection of samples of a student’s work that is selective, reflective and collaborative. RECORDING DEVICE/ TOOLS - Provide various means of organizing the recordings of information about student achievement. 1. Anecdotal Record is a short narrative describing both a behavior and the context in which the behavior occurred, describes student performance in detail and in writing.
  13. 13. 13 2. Checklist is a list of actions or descriptions that a rater ( teacher) checks off as the particular behavior or expectation is observed. 3. Rating Scale assesses the extent to which the specific fact, skills, attitudes and/or behaviors are observed in a student’s work or performance. 4. Rubrics is a series of statements describing a range of levels of student performance. 5. Learning Log is an ongoing record by the student of what he does while working on a particular task or assignment. Non- Test Monitoring and Assessment - Good instruction involves observing and analyzing student performance and the most valuable assessment should be learning experiences as well. 1. Oral and written reports- students research a topic and then present orally or written. 2. Teacher observation- teacher observes students while they work to make to certain the students understand the assignment and task. 3. Journal- students write daily on assigned or personal topic. 4. Portfolio of students work- teacher collects samples of students work and save for determined amount of time. 5. Slates or hand signals- students use slates or hand signal as a means of signaling answers to the teacher. 6. Games- teachers use utilize fun activities to have the students practice and review concepts. 7. Projects- students research a topic and then present it in a creative way. 8. Debates- students take opposing position on a topic and defend their position. 9. Checklist-the teacher will make a list of objectives need to answers and then check off the skill as the student masters it. 10. Cartooning- students will use drawings to depict situation and ideas. 11. Models-students produce a miniature replica of a given topic. 12. Notes-students write a summary of a lesson. 13. Daily assignments-students complete work assigned on a daily basis to be completed at the school or home. 14. Anecdotal record- the teachers record a student’s behavior. 15. Panel- a group ofstudents verbally present information. 16. Learning centers- students use teacher provided activities for hands on learning. 17. Demonstration- students present a visual enactment of a particular skill or activity. 18. Problem solving- students follow a step by step solution of a problem. 19. Discussions-students in a group verbally interact on a given topic. 20. Organize note sheets and study guides-students collect information to help pass a test
  14. 14. 14 Lesson 4- Linking Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment Curriculum and Instruction A curriculum is a structured set of learning outcomes or task that educators usually call goals and objectives. The knowledge of a curriculum is for successful assessment, evaluation, decision making and teaching. Without a curriculum component, there is no need of teacher- directed instruction and therefore no lesson. Instruction is the actual engagement of learners of the planned learning activities. It is the implementation of the curriculum plan. It should be emphasized that curriculum and instruction interlock with each other. Without a curriculum plan, there could be no effective instruction and without instruction, curriculum has a very little meaning. Curriculum and Assessment Curriculum is also related to assessment. It is curriculum that determines what assessment should be done and how to do it. Assessment is the process of collecting information which describes student achievement in relation to curriculum achievement. Instruction and Assessment Factors that tell how well the instruction is done: a. Learner- the center and the one who receives instruction. b. Teacher- guides the implementation of plans. c. Learning environment- this is where learning occurs. d. Subject matter- content of instruction. e. Methods of teaching and learning- heart of instruction. f. Measurement- refers to assessment. Instruction and assessment should be intertwined to provide a system that supports and encourages student’s progress. Assessment will provide the teacher or curriculum maker the value of their work. It will also tell the general public of the quality or kind of product that resulted from a prerequisite process which is instruction. Assessment gives the quantitative measure of the instruction.
  15. 15. 15 Interaction of Curriculum instruction, Assessment The interaction of the three elements shows how each affects one another. Good plan will be implemented through good instruction. This will result to good outcomes. Beginning with a strong curriculum and professional development program, the school can use continued school improvement to assess needs, set targets, design strategies and evaluate success of the curriculum content area of the program. Curriculum Assessment Instruction
  16. 16. 16 MODULE V Addressing the Future: Curriculum Innovations Lesson 1- Curriculum Innovations: Local and Global Trends With the demand brought about by the fast changing society, it is most that innovations will occur. In curriculum, changes and modifications are introduced to keep pace with the changing world. Local and National Curricular Innovations 1. 2002 Basic Education Curriculum The BEC developed through a dynamic process. It started with the review of the existing basic education curriculum in 1997 which took into consideration worldwide trends and Philippine realities.  Parameters of the Basic Education Curriculum i. objectives are expressed in terms of competencies in knowledge, skills and attitudes. ii. contentis delivered using a variety of media and resources. iii. the use of multi-sensory materialsis encouraged in teaching. iv. learning is assessed using a variety of measures. The use of both of the traditional and the authentic assessment is mandated for purposes of gathering information about the learner in holistic manner. v. teaching-learning processconsiders the learners as active partners than objects of teaching.  Salient Features of the Curriculum Its aim is to raise the quality of education of Filipino learners and graduates. The BEC empowers life-long learners through the attainment of functional literacy. i. Filipino ii. English are tool subjects iii. Science subjects to develop internationalism iv. Mathematics v. Makabayan (laboratory of life) and Filipino are subjects that develop nationalism.
  17. 17. 17 Integrative Teaching as Mode of Instructional Delivery Integrative Teaching works best in the BEC. It is because the curriculum is treated in a holistic manner. The process is integrative, collaborative and innovative. 1. Thematic Teaching requires organization of themes around ideas. The theme provides focus and helps the learners see the meaningful and connections across subject areas. It links ideas to learning in life. 2. Content- Based Instruction (CBI) is the integration of content learning with language teaching. The language curriculum is centered on the academic needs and interests of the learners thus CBI crosses the barriers between the language and subject matter content. It aims to at developing the learner’s academic language skills. 3. Focusing Inquiry is an interdisciplinary approach that uses questions to organize learning. Learners become creators rather than recipients of knowledge. 4. Generic Competency Model, learners are enrolled in three to four linked or related courses or subject areas. 2. Third Elementary Education Program (TEEP) It aimed to build institutional capacity of the Department of Education to manage change and actively involve parents, teachers, and community leaders as stakeholders for quality education. It began in 1996 and concluded in 2005. 3. Secondary Education Improvement and Development Program (SEDIP) Its purpose was to improve equitable access to secondary education in poverty affected areas. It started in 2000 and Curricular reforms in SEDIP revolved around: a) Improving Teaching Learning the development of skills and competencies of school heads in school planning, management and instructional support for teachers improving teachers’ subject knowledge and teaching skills improving the availability of learning materials by providing books, teaching manuals improving the learning environment through the construction and rehabilitation of school facilities and procurement of furniture and equipment for classrooms, laboratories and other school facilities. b) Improving Access to Secondary Education c) Facilitating Decentralized Secondary Education Management
  18. 18. 18 4. The New Teacher Education Curriculum for BEED and BSEd There are two teacher education degrees offered by the Teacher Training Institutions. The Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEED) is structured to meet the needs of professional teachers for elementary schools and the Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSed) for the needs of professional teachers in the high schools in the Philippines. BEED aims to develop elementary school teacher who are either generalists who can teach across different areas in grade school, special education teachers and pre-school teachers while BSED aims to develop high school teachers who can teach in one of different learning areas in high school. The curriculum of the BEEd and the BSed The curriculum design features include various components that correspond to the basic and specialized knowledge and skills that will be needed by a practicing professional teacher: foundational general education knowledge and skills, theoretical knowledge about teaching and learning, methodological skills, experiential knowledge and skills and professional ethical values and subject matter knowledge appropriate to the level of teaching of pre- school, elementary and secondary levels. The curriculum recognizes the need to equip teachers with wide range of theoretical and methodological skills. These allow the teachers to have more options and greater flexibility in designing and implementing learning environments which will maximize student’s learning. 5. The Ladderized Curriculum for Bachelor of Technical Teacher Education ( BTTE) BTTE prepares teachers in technical-vocational program education (TVET) and higher education institutions who are equipped not only with strong theoretical understanding of teaching and technology but also exposure to industry. The curricular program of BTTE shall impart knowledge, skills, attitudes values and experiences that will provide prospective teachers with the necessary competencies essential in effective teaching. The specific body of knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and experiences include general education, component, professional studies component, specialization component and industrial technology component. 1. Curricular Model A -is offered for high school graduates who could meet the admission requirements for the college. 2. Curricular Model B -is offered to the graduates of the Two-Tear Trace Technical Curriculum and the Three Year Diploma Technology Program in different areas of specialization.
  19. 19. 19 6. Instructional and Curricular Excellence in School Leadership and Management- DepEdeXCELS - IceXCELS (Instructional and Curricular Excellence in School for South East Asia) is a short course package of SEAMEO INNOTECH for elementary and secondary school administrators on developing instructional and development leadership. It addresses the need to develop and strengthen the social head’s role as an instructional leader in promoting or improving the quality of teaching and learning in his school. Special Features of the Innovation 1. Delivery of Instruction- teaching is primarily delivered through print self- instructional modules augmented by the use of interactive tools such as chat, discussion forums and email, among other learning support system. 2. Learning Modality- students can immediately study at their own pace and time 3. Evaluation System – each learner will be given feedback in the form of qualitative narratives by the tutors for their outputs. 4. Time Table- the duration of time expected of all learners to finish the course is 50 hours which is equivalent to a 3 unit course. Global Curricular Innovations 1. Project Child( Computer Helping Instruction and Learning Environment) - is a research-based instructional delivery system that enables one to intensify the curriculum with technology and hand on learning. It aims to increase academic performance, develop reasoning abilities, problem solving, decision making and knowledge application, communicating effectively and emphasizes the development of mathematics in early years. Six Stations or Learning Centers 1. Computer Station for technology-based learning 2. Textbook Station for written work 3. Challenge Station for activities in game formats 4. The imagination Station for creative expression 5. Exploration Station for hands-on activities 6. Teacher Station for additional instructional support Project CHILD Materials 1. Station Planning Guides 2. Station Activities/ Task Cards- directs learners to work 3. Passports- management tool to help students become organized and focused on their work. 4. Teacher’s Manual- a complete guide to assist teachers implementing the program
  20. 20. 20 5. Leadership Guide- composed of materials in making presentations to community groups and strategies to involve schools adopting the program. 6. Special Needs Inclusion Guide- timely resource for both regular and exceptional teachers to support the inclusion of special needs in the classroom. 7. Training Facilitator Guide- includes comprehensive trainings, overviews, transparencies and hand-outs for workshop participation. 2. Brain-Based Learning - is an approach to teaching based on research neuroscience. It suggests that our brain learns naturally. Brain-based theory includes an eclectic mix of techniques. These technique stress allowing teachers to connect learning to students’ real life situations. This form of learning also encompasses education concepts like mastery learning, problem-based learning, cooperative education, multiple intelligences, learning styles, experiential learning etc. Interactive Teaching Elements  Orchestrated immersion- learning environment are created to provide authentic learning experience.  Relaxed Alertness- efforts are made to eliminate fear while maintaining a highly challenging environment.  Active Processing- learners consolidate and internalize information by actually processing this information. Prior learning has been given recognition as having connections to current information.
  21. 21. 21 Lesson 2- Curriculum Issues, Concerns and Responses Curricular Issues and Concern  Poor Academic performance of learners. - Issues on varied implementation of the curriculum among schools and teachers seem to be one of the reasons for the prevailing low performance of schools over the country. There is a perennial complaint about books and other instructional materials, overcrowded classrooms and teacher has been identified as one of the influencing factors in the varied implementation if the curriculum.  Curricular innovations lack the sense of ownership from stakeholders. - The implementers lack full understanding of the changes or modification that they are doing. The goal is unclear and there are lot of questions in the implementation and evaluation.  Some curricular innovations are results of bandwagon but are not well supported by managers. - Changes and innovations are drastically implemented even if the school is not ready.  Lack of monitoring and evaluation. - After a new curriculum has been implemented, it is left unattended.  Innovations results to teacher burn out. - Teachers get tired easily and the motivation is very low. They would still prefer the good old days and stick with it.  Innovations are not communicated to all. - Changes may falter along the way because the people involved are not empowered. Responses to Issues and Concern  The BEC is an example of curricular innovation that tries to address the continuous decline in learners’ performance. Some schools have now elevated the national achievement performance. It is because the DepEd is trying to provide support to its implementation.
  22. 22. 22  In the installation of a new curriculum or innovation, all stakeholders should be involved. Even in planning stage, consultations should be held. This process will provide each interested sector or person to make decision as to whether the innovation will be introduced or not.  There is a need to respond to the fast changing times in terms of school curriculum innovations. The steps should be well planned and well-studied.  New curricular programs have now embedded monitoring and evaluation in its plan. On the school-based innovations, principals have been empowered to conduct monitoring and new curricular programs. It is part of the curricular leadership roles.  Collaboration in the implementation of a new curriculum is very necessary. There must be a continuous communication of the different aspects of the innovation. If it is done, there will always be an assurance of success. For every action, there will always be a corresponding reaction!