Alternative assessment


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Alternative assessment

  1. 1. Alternatives in Language Assessment <br />by: James D. Brown and Thom Hudson<br />
  2. 2. List of positive characteristics for alternative assessments:<br />Brown and Hudson (1998)<br /><ul><li>Require students to perform, create, produce, or do something
  3. 3. Use real-world contexts or simulations
  4. 4. Are nonintrusive in that they extend the day-to-day classroom activities
  5. 5. Allow students to be assessed on what they normally do in class every day
  6. 6. Use tasks that represent meaningful instructional activities
  7. 7. Focus on processes as well as products
  8. 8. Tap into higher level thinking and problem-solving skills
  9. 9. Provide information about both the strengths and weaknesses of students
  10. 10. Are multiculturally sensitive when properly administered
  11. 11. Ensure that people, not machines, do the scoring, using human judgment
  12. 12. Encourage open disclosure of standard and rating criteria
  13. 13. Call upon teachers to perform new instructional an assessment roles</li></li></ul><li>Reliability and Validity<br />Attitudes, beliefs, and values - often held unconsciously - may be reflected in the judgments of raters. <br />Peoples’ lives are often influenced by the results of the assessments they are given. <br />Brown and Hudson, 1998, state “the designers and users of alternative assessments must make every effort to structure the ways they design, pilot, analyze and revise the procedure so the reliability and validity of the procedures can be studied, demonstrated and improved.” (p. 656)<br />
  14. 14. Three Categories of Language Assessment<br />Selected Response<br />True/False,<br />Matching,<br />Multiple Choice<br />Conference,<br />Portfolios,<br />Self or Peer Assessment<br />Personal Response<br />Constructed Response<br />Fill-In,<br /> Short Answer,<br />Performance<br />
  15. 15. Selected-Response Assessment<br />(True/False, Matching, and Multiple Choice)<br /> Students choose correct answer from a limited set of options.<br />Best used to measure listening an reading skills<br /> Quick to administer<br /> Scoring is quick, easy and relatively objective<br /> Difficult to construct<br /> Students do not use any productive language<br />Advantages<br />Disadvantages<br />
  16. 16.  True False Assessment<br /> Advantages<br /> Focus on students’ abilities to select from two alternatives<br /> Simple and direct indication if a particular point is understood<br /> Disadvantages<br /> Writers may write tricky answer choices<br /> High guessing factor<br /> Emphasis on details and unimportant facts<br /> Difficult for listening and reading passages<br /> Matching Assessment<br /> Advantages<br /> Low guessing factor<br /> Takes up little space<br /> Disadvantage<br /> Restrictive in measuring ability <br /> Multiple Choice Assessment<br /> Advantages<br /> Low guessing factor<br /> Measures wide variety of learning points<br /> Can provide useful information about student’s ability<br />Disadvantage<br /> Real life language is not multiple choice<br />
  17. 17. Constructed-Response Assessment<br />Fill-In, Short- Answer, and Performance<br />Measures productive skills of speaking and writing<br /> Can observe interactions of receptive and productive skills<br /> Relatively objective<br /> Low guessing (bluffing) factor<br />Create problems for subjectivity<br />Scoring is time consuming<br />Advantages<br />Disadvantages<br />
  18. 18.  Fill-In Assessment<br /> Advantages<br /> Easy to make and administer<br /> Measures ability to produce small amount of language<br /> Possibility of assessing interaction between receptive and productive skills<br /> Disadvantages<br /> Narrow focus<br /> Blank may have multiple possibilities<br /> Short Answer Assessment<br />Advantage<br /> Easy to make and administer<br /> Disadvantages<br /> Assesses only a few phrases or sentences<br /> Multiple answers are possible<br /> Performance<br /> Advantages<br /> Comes close to getting authentic communication <br /> Measures students’ abilities to respond to real-life language tasks<br /> Counteracts negative washback effects in standardized testing , like bias<br /> Disadvantages<br /> Difficult to make and time-consuming to administer<br />Various costs are involved<br /> Reliability, validity, and test security may be problematic<br />
  19. 19. Personal-Response Assessment<br />Conferences, Portfolios, Self and Peer<br /> A. Produces language<br /> B. Provides:<br /> a. individualized assessment,<br /> b. ongoing assessment<br /> c. rich forms of feedback<br /> Difficult to produce and organize<br /> B. Scoring is subjective <br />Advantages<br />Disadvantages<br />
  20. 20.  Portfolios<br />Advantages<br /> Strengthen students’ learning<br /> Enhance teacher role<br /> Improve testing processes<br /> Disadvantages<br /> Variety in design can be difficult to assess<br /> Issues with logistics<br /> Subject to interpretation<br />d. Limited reliability<br />e. Questionable validity <br />Conferences<br />Advantages<br /> Foster students reflection of their own learning process<br /> Develop better self-image<br /> Elicit answers<br /> Gather information<br /> Disadvantages<br /> Time consuming <br /> Subjective to grade<br /> Typically not scored <br />
  21. 21. Personal-Response Assessment (continued)<br /> Selfand Peer Assessments<br />Advantages<br /> Quickly administered<br /> Students are directly involved in assessment<br /> Help students understanding of the language process<br /> Increase motivation to learn<br /> Disadvantages<br /> Students’ self-estimates are not always accurate<br /> May be affected by subjective errors<br />
  22. 22. Washback<br /> Positive Consequence<br /> Assessment corresponds to course goals and objectives.<br /> Negative Consequence<br /> Assessment does not correspond to course goals and objectives.<br />Feedback<br /> Important in diagnostic and achievement testing <br />Essential part of learning process<br />“The assessment procedures used within a particular language program must be directly related to the curriculum if that feedback is to be maximally useful.” (Brown and Hudson, 1998, p.669 )<br />
  23. 23. Brown and Hudson (1998) , make two statements about assessments that most teachers should already know:<br />1. Using multiple sources of information in designing and selecting assessments is a key factor in interpreting assessment. (p. 671)<br />2. Assessments based on multiple observations are generally more reliable than assessments based on few observations. (p. 671)<br />