Towards Geospatial Architectures of ParticipationPresentation Transcript
Towards Geospatial Architectures of Participation
The grassroots remapping can't be stopped
Picking up where Schuyler left off
Collaborative mapping can't be stopped
But can we help it go a bit faster?
Stallman started work in January 1984
2004 saw Weber's 'The Success of Open Source'
From Rebels to the Establishment
It took 20 years for collaboratively built software to achieve mainstream success
Open Street Map - started in 2004, amateurs (in the best sense of the word), hobbyists and 'true believers'
'The Success of Collaborative Mapping'? - a diverse commons of mapping data constantly updated by citizens, governments and the private sector
How to Speed things up
Identify 'tipping points', places it will make economic sense to invest in collaborative mapping.
An Ecosystem of reusable tools, workflows, licenses and communities to evolve the most effective ways to map collaboratively on a wide variety of datasets
Clear legal ambiguities
Collaborative approaches to digital good production are cheaper in the long run
No owner to extract rents above the value of the good. Cut out the middle man.
Every organization buying mapping data will have a point where it's cheaper for them to fund improvement to a collaborative map than it is to purchase from a commercial provider for the accuracy they need
Tipping Points (cont)
BUT: the transaction cost of that investment must be low, must be immediate results
Funding 'mapping parties'
Great innovation by Open Street Map
Quite cost effective
Takes very enlightened, forward thinking funders - a leap of faith
Like the early investors in open source, for most part ended up great investment, but hard for most to argue effectively for it.
Potential Business models
Decouple functions of commercial data providers so market competes on each
Surveying/mapping - contracts to improve a certain area of a collab map
Provide Guarantees of accuracy, perform QA
ie someone to sue
Services and Consulting - contributions to collaborative maps are the 'calling card'
Accuracy evaluations of collaborative maps
Answer the question of 'should I invest in collaborative mapping?'
Micro Tipping Points
Good enough for context
Most Mashups just need a bit of context
High quality in constrained areas
Not all uses of maps need all the attributes
Good enough for basic car navigation
Introduces great feedback loops
Services built on top that make money in alternate ways
Car navigation with feedback loop
When the system gets you lost you can log in the change right then
Collects GPS data from all cars on the service, automatically extracts vectors and one way info
Monthly fee for all, you can reduce your fee and even make money by correcting maps (on the fly or online processing raw tracks)
Real time bounties for accurate information requested by clients
Architecture s of Participation
There's more to collaboratively map than streets
Two big 'commons-based peer production' movements: Wikipedia and Open Source
Will mapping look like one or the other? Something in between? Completely different?
One project to rule them all.
Works out quite well for a big collective work like an encyclopedia.
Anyone can edit, but also easy to rollback
But a bad edit doesn't break everything, like in software.
Highly evolved mechanisms for watching areas and erasing vandalism
Automated techniques to get rid of spam
An Ecosystem of approaches
Different licenses, different languages, different sets of tools. Encourages alternative innovations, especially for niche areas
Very few people can edit an individual project as 'breaking the build' is really bad
Quite easy to start a new project
Innovation in workflow: FSF was cathedral building until Linus came along and shook techniques up.
We don't know..
Clear early leader with OSM
May be healthy to have experimentation with niche maps, constrained areas ect.
Vetting of contributors?
Work with governments?
GeoServer: CVS for the GeoWeb
Easy to install
Connects to PostGIS, Oracle Spatial, DB2, ArcSDE, MySQL backends
Outputs WMS, WFS, KML, Shapefiles, ect.
Editing through WFS-T standard
Extended standard for Rollbacks, Diffs, History, Commit comments
Soon will have granular security settings
GeoServer Collaboration Features
Automated validation engine
Reject 'Chris Rulez!' over the 48 states
Integrate with 'power tools' through WFS-T
Many GIS professionals are already passionate about mapping
But they want to use the tools they know
'Patches' - a GetDiff result is a WFS-T transaction, can apply it to another service
Granular GeoRSS/email notification
Watch a bounding box
Version aware user friendly web and desktop tools with OpenLayers and uDig
KML Superoverlay output (GS 1.5.1)
Easy license selection, machine readable
Whatever you want, it's open source!
No clear licenses for mapping data
Software licenses don't work
Creative Commons doesn't really apply to data
Public domain or don't release? Or use complex contract law
Open Licenses for Geodata?
What is a derivative work for geodata?
What can be copyrighted? Do we need contract law?
Clearing Legal Ambiguities
Clear terms of derivative rights from major mapping portals
With approval from their data providers
'We think you can' isn't good enough for serious work
Teleatlas/Navteq will not be pleased with people hand copying their roads
What about wikimapia/geonames? Trouble later?
Yahoo! is the clear early leader in enlightened approaches to derivative works
Set of licenses with clear terms about derivation and attribution
Do whatever you like but don't sue me (BSD)
Don't sue me and give me credit (Apache)
Contribute back fixes to the data (LGPL)
All derived works must be collaborative (GPL)
Encourage different communities with different licenses and see what works
If you're a lawyer let's talk!
The Open Planning Project: http://topp.openplans.org
My blog: http://cholmes.wordpress.com
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