Winsted, 2000,  Service behaviors that lead to satisfied customers

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presentation file for an HTM 681 seminar

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  • 1. HTM 681 Reading 9
    (Spring 2009)
    Kathryn Frazer Winsted,2000
     Service behaviors that lead to satisfied customers
    European Journal of Marketing, 34, 3/4, 399 – 417
    Feb. 19, 2009
    Suh-hee Choi
  • 2. Background
    How does this patient evaluate service encounters?
    What does he REALLY want her to do?
    Aren’t we obsessed with SERVQUAL?
    Need to examine behaviors based on the real service encounters!
  • 3. Research Questions
    Which behaviors do consumers use to evaluate services?
    Which behaviors/factors are related to satisfaction?
    Four stages
    1. Literature review: Identify dimensions
    2. Open-ended survey:
    Behavior identification
    3. Identify relationships between behaviors and satisfaction
    4. Group behaviors into factors
  • 4. Industry-specific Analysis
    Difference
    Similarity
    • doctor
    -- professional
    -- long-term relationship
    -- credence attributes
    • waiter
    -- generic / unskilled
    -- experience attributes
    • “people business”
    • 5. WOM is important
    SERVQUAL is too generic..
    An industry-specific analysis is needed!
  • 6. 1. Literature Review: Identify Dimensions + focus groups
    Authenticity
    Promptness
    Caring
    Service Encounter Dimensions
    Personalization
    Perceived control
    Courtesy
    Friendliness
    Formality
  • 7. Oops…
  • 8. 2. Behavior Identification
    Behavioral identification questionnaire (Q1)
    • 156 students in the US / Open-ended questions
    • e.g. “what thing would a doctor do if he or she were being ? Ans: behaviors (smile)
    Sorting +
    Antonym
    Courteous
    Coding
    4000 behaviors
    448 codes
    137 behaviors
  • 9. 2. Behavior Identification
    Authenticity
    Caring
    137 behaviors
    119 – both
    12-restaurant
    6-medical
    25~60 generated for
    each dimension
    3~12 uniquely for one dimension
    Personalization
    smile
    Courtesy
    Friendliness
    Formality
  • 10. 3. Identify Relationships between Behaviors and Satisfaction
    Behavioral analysis questionnaire (Q2)
    • 304 (medical) + 424 (restaurant) = 728 undergrads
    • recalled recent visit
    - 137 behaviors: 7 point Likert scale of agreement
    - satisfaction levels: 6 questions
    Crosby et al., 1990, 79
    “semantic differential scales” – feelings, pleasure, satisfaction
    Churchill and Surprenant, 1982, global faces scale
  • 11. 3. Identify Relationships between Behaviors and Satisfaction
    Pearson’s correlation between behaviors and satisfaction
     123 (out of 137) of behaviors are significantly correlated with satisfaction
    • Correlation > 0.50 were chosen
     78 (restaurant), 63 (hospital) : 59 behaviors in common
    “there are some differences in the level of relationship with satisfaction
    and in a few of the behaviors identified” (406)
    can we conclude like this?
    emotional issues are more important
    caretakingissues are more important
  • 12. Oops~~!
    p. 406
    0.76
  • 13. 4. Group Behaviors into Factors
    Group factors that are highly correlated with satisfaction and test ability to predict satisfaction.
    “since the behaviors highly correlated with satisfaction are almost identical for the two industries, a single factor analysis was instead performed for both industries to avoid redundancy and to allow for improved generalizability.” (409)
    Didn’t you say that an industry-specific analysis is needed?
    (412) “This research supports the notion that many of the behaviors important to consumers in evaluating service encounters are the same across different types of service encounters.”
  • 14. 4. Group Behaviors into Factors
    Principal component analysis
    Factor loading 0.50 and above with high reliability were selected (34 items, 3 factors—concern, congeniality, civility, all factors with Cronbach alpha > 0.9)
    • Factor score regressed on satisfaction – = 0.74 , sum scores of each factor highly correlated with satisfaction
    • 15. Discriminant analysis (dividing low / high satisfaction)  each factor classified correctly 96% of the cases
  • 4. Group Behaviors into Factors
    Table IV. Analysis of factors
  • 16. 4. Group Behaviors into Factors
    AUTHENTICITY
    “not negative” behavior
    Chandon et al. (1997)
    perceived competence
    listening
    dedication
    SERVQUAL
    Empathy
    Assurance
    Responsiveness
    Congeniality
    Concern
    Civility
    RESPECT
    CONVERSATION/
    PERSONALIZATION
    positive attitude
  • 17. 4. Group Behaviors into Factors
    assurance
    (SERVQUAL)
    empathy
    (SERVQUAL)
    Responsiveness
    (SERVQUAL)
    Respect
    Authenticity
    communication
    personalization
    Table III. Service dimensions with factor loadings (loading > 0.5)
  • 18. Discussion
    Tangibles?
    Factors might be different depending on the context
    Sampling / Methods
  • 19. Oops~~!
    :