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  • 1. Conceptualizing Tourism Image and Nation Image:An Integrated Relational-behavioral Model
    Suh-hee Choi
  • 2. AGENDA
    INTRODUCTION
    LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROPOSITIONS
    2.1. Tourism Image
    2.2. Nation Image
    2.3. Tourism Cognitive Image and Nation Cognitive Image
    2.4. The Relational-behavioral Model
    2.5. Role of Previous Visit
    2.6. Nationality Effect
    METHODOLOGY
    RESULTS
    4.1. Dimensions of Tourism Image and Nation Image
    4.2. Linkages between Tourism Cognitive Image and Nation Cognitive Image
    4.3. The Relational-behavioral Model
    4.4. Role of Previous Visit
    4.5. Nationality Effect
    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
  • 3. 1. INTRODUCTION
    “How many people can actually say getting through Mumbai Airport is an incredible experience?”
    http://www.spiceye.com/travel/incredible-india/
  • 4. Tourism Image
    Relationship
    Behavioral Outcome
    Nation Image
    Objectives of the Study
    Previous Visit
    Nationality
  • 5. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROPOSITIONS
    1
    4.3
    Tourism Image
    4.1
    4.2
    Relationship
    Behavioral Outcome
    3
    2
    Nation Image
    5
    Previous Visit
    Nationality
    6
  • 6. Tourist Experience
    Tourist Generating Region
    Tourist Destination Region
    Tourist Destination Region
    Transit Region
    Destination Image
    Tourism Image
  • 7. Proposition 1: Tourism image is a multidimensional construct comprised of a variety of tourism experiences.
    Hypothesis 1a: Marketing-derived and non-marketing-derived experiences form two distinct dimension of cognitive tourism image.
    Hypothesis 1b: A totality of tangible and intangible features of experiences forms a distinct dimension of cognitive tourism image.
    Hypothesis 1c: There are three distinct dimensions of cognitive tourism image resulting from core, peripheral, and miscellaneous tourism experiences at the destination.
    Hypothesis 1d: Experiences at the tourist origins and during transit form two distinct dimensions of cognitive tourism image.
  • 8. International Marketing
    Country Branding
    Proposition 2: Nation image is a multidimensional construct comprised of country image and the nation’s political-economic influence.
    • Hypothesis 2a: Perceived national characteristics including economic, political, social, and cultural advancement would form a distinct dimension of cognitive nation image.
    Nation Image
    Levels of advancement
  • 9. Public Diplomacy
    International Marketing
    Country Branding
    Proposition 2: Nation image is a multidimensional construct comprised of country image and the nation’s political-economic influence.
    • Hypothesis 2b: Soft and hard powers form two distinct dimensions of cognitive nation image.
    Nation Image
    Levels of advancement
    Reputation
    Attractive images
    Hard power
  • 10. Public Diplomacy
    International Marketing
    Country Branding
    Proposition 2: Nation image is a multidimensional construct comprised of country image and the nation’s political-economic influence.
    • Hypothesis 2c: Communicative ability forms a distinct dimension of cognitive nation image.
    Communication
    Nation Image
    Levels of advancement
    Reputation
    Attractive images
    Hard power
  • 11. Proposition 3: Nation image and tourism image are interrelated.
    TOURISM IMAGE
    Non geographically-bounded
    Hypothesis 3a: Geographically-bounded cognitive tourism image is more associated with nation image than that not bounded geographically.
    Core
    Geographically-bounded
    Peripheral
    Miscellaneous
    Hypothesis 3b: Core and peripheral dimensions of cognitive tourism image is less associated with nation image than miscellaneous dimension.
    Soft-power oriented
    Hypothesis 3c: Cognitive tourism image shows a higher correlation with the soft-power dimension of nation image than hard-power dimension.
    Hard-power oriented
    NATION IMAGE
  • 12. Affective Image
    Affective place quality
    Consumption emotions
  • 13. Relationship
    “The condition that one party affects the welfare of the other from the economic, political, social and cultural aspects”
    • Hypothesis 4a: There are five distinct dimensions of relationship: satisfaction, commitment and emotional attachment, trust, involvement, and social relationship.
    • 14. Hypothesis 4b: There are two distinct levels of relationship: individual-nation and nation-nation.
  • Behavioral Outcome
    Supportive intention
    Active
    Passive
    • Hypothesis 5: Passive and active intentions form two distinct dimensions of behavioral outcome.
  • The relational-behavioral model
    CI
    Cognitive Image and Affective Image
    AI
    • Hypothesis 6a: There is a significant effect of cognitive image on affective image.
  • The relational-behavioral model
    CI
    Cognitive Image and Affective Image
    REL
    AI
    Image as the Antecedent of Relationship
    • Hypothesis 6b: There is a significant effect of image on relationship.
  • The relational-behavioral model
    CI
    Cognitive Image and Affective Image
    REL
    BO
    AI
    Image as the Antecedent of Relationship
    Behavior Outcome as the Consequence of Relationship
    • Hypothesis 6c: There is a significant effect of relationship on behavioral outcome.
  • Relationship as a mediator
    Relationship
    Image
    Behavioral Outcome
    • Hypothesis 6d: Relationship construct mediates linkages between image and behavioral outcome.
  • CI
    REL
    BO
    AI
    • Previous Visit
    • 15. Nationality
    • 16. Hypothesis 7: The associations among the constructs are stronger for tourists than non-tourists.
    • 17. Hypothesis 8: The associations among the constructs are significantly different between Chinese and South Koreans.
  • 3. METHODOLOGY
    Self-administered survey
    Quota sampling
    Translation
    Measurement Items
    Stereotypical images, previous first-hand and vicarious experience
    Cognitive tourism image (34 items)
    Cognitive nation image (29 items)
    Affective tourism image (29 items)
    Affective nation image (29 items)
    Relationship (26 items)
    Overall image and behavioral outcome (13 items)
    Demographic information
  • 18. 3. METHODOLOGY
    Korean Data (n=572 t=220, nt=352)
    • Descriptive Statistics, EFA
    Chinese Data (n=653, t=339, nt=310)
    • Descriptive Statistics, EFA
    Combined Data
    Univariate Analysis
    • Descriptive Statistics
    • 19. Mean Differences
    Structural Equation Modeling
    • EFA, Measurement Model
    • 20. Structural Model Building and Testing
    • 21. Mediation Analysis
    • 22. Multi-group Analysis
    400 Korean
    400 Chinese
  • 23. Cognitive Image
    4. RESULTS
    F1 :
    TI_CORPER
    F2 :
    NI_INF
    F3 :
    NI_DEV
    F4 :
    TI_SER
    F5 :
    TI_MISC
    F6 :
    TI_POPULAR
    H1a: Marketing-derived and non-marketing-derived experiences….
    H1b: A totality of tangible and intangible features of experiences ….
    H1c: There are three distinct dimensions of cognitive tourism image resulting from core, peripheral, and miscellaneous tourism experiences….
    H1d: Experiences at the tourist origins and during transit….





    10-8
    10-17
    11-12
    11-29
    11-2
    11-17
    10-29
    10-34
    10-20
    10-23
    10-2
    10-4
    10-3
    (9 items)
    (9 items)
    (8 items)
    (6 items)
    (4 items)
    (3 items)
    (8 items)
    (8 items)
    (8 items)
    (4 items)
    (2 items)
    (3 items)
  • 24. Cognitive Image
    F1 :
    TI_CORPER
    F2 :
    NI_INF
    F3 :
    NI_DEV
    F4 :
    TI_SER
    F5 :
    TI_MISC
    F6 :
    TI_POPULAR
    H2a: Perceived national characteristics including economic, political, social, and cultural advancement would form a distinct dimension of cognitive nation image.
    H2b: Soft and hard powers form two distinct dimensions of cognitive nation image.
    H2c: Communicative ability forms a distinct dimension of cognitive nation image.





    10-8
    10-17
    11-12
    11-29
    11-2
    11-17
    10-29
    10-34
    10-20
    10-23
    10-2
    10-4
    10-3
    (9 items)
    (9 items)
    (8 items)
    (6 items)
    (4 items)
    (3 items)
    (8 items)
    (8 items)
    (8 items)
    (4 items)
    (2 items)
    (3 items)
  • 25. Affective Image
    F2 :
    NAI_CALM
    F1 :
    TAI_EXCITE
    13-9
    13-10

    13-28
    12-4
    12-5
    (12 items)
    (2 items)
    (4 items)
    (2 items)
    H1e: Affective tourism image is a multidimensional construct reflecting the characteristics of affective place quality and consumption emotions.
    H2d: Affective nation image is a multidimensional construct reflecting the characteristics of affective place quality and consumption emotions.
  • 26. Tourism Image and Nation Image
    F1 :
    TI_CORPER
    F2 :
    NI_INF
    F3 :
    NI_DEV
    F4 :
    TI_SER
    F5 :
    TI_MISC
    F6 :
    TI_POPULAR
    H3a: Geographically-bounded cognitive tourism image is more associated with nation image than that not bounded geographically.
    *Std. estimates
    p.121
  • 27. Tourism Image and Nation Image
    F1 :
    TI_CORPER
    F5 :
    TI_MISC
    F2 :
    NI_INF
    F3 :
    NI_DEV
    F4 :
    TI_SER
    F6 :
    TI_POPULAR
    H3b: Core and peripheral dimensions of cognitive tourism image is less associated with nation image than miscellaneous dimension.
    *Std. estimates
  • 28. Tourism Image and Nation Image
    F1 :
    TI_CORPER
    F2 :
    NI_INF
    F3 :
    NI_DEV
    F4 :
    TI_SER
    F5 :
    TI_MISC
    F6 :
    TI_POPULAR
    H3c: Cognitive tourism image shows a higher correlation with the soft-power dimension of nation image than hard-power dimension.
    *Std. estimates
  • 29. Relationship
    Relational-behavioral Model Testing
    F2 :
    REL_INT
    F1 :
    REL_IND
    14-1
    14-2

    14-15
    14-22
    14-23

    14-26
    (7 items)
    (5 items)
    (4 items)
    (4 items)
    H4a: There are five distinct dimensions of relationship: satisfaction, commitment and emotional attachment, trust, involvement, and social relationship.
    H4b: There are two distinct levels of relationship: individual-nation and nation-nation.
  • 30. Behavioral Outcome
    Relational-behavioral Model Testing
    F2 :
    BO_NONECON
    F1 :
    BO_ECON
    15-11
    15-12
    15-13
    15-3
    15-4
    15-5
    (3 items)
    (3 items)
    H5: Passive and active intentions form two distinct dimensions of behavioral outcome.
  • 31. Relational-behavioral Model Testing
    Relationship
    Cognitive Image
    Behavioral
    Outcome
    Affective Image
  • 32. Relational-behavioral Model Testing
    Relationship
    Behavioral
    Outcome
    Nation Cognitive
    Image
    Tourism Cognitive
    Image
    AI-F1 :
    TAI_EXCITE
    AI-F2 :
    NAI_CALM
    H6a: There is a significant effect of cognitive image on affective image.
    H6b: There is a significant effect of image on relationship.
    H6c: There is a significant effect of relationship on behavioral outcome.
  • 33. Mediation Analysis
    Cognitive Image
    Behavioral Outcome
    Relationship
    H6d: Relationship construct mediates linkages between image and behavioral outcome.
  • 34. Mediation Analysis
    Affective Image
    Behavioral Outcome
    Relationship
    H6d: Relationship construct mediates linkages between image and behavioral outcome.
  • 35. Group Difference—Tourist vs. Non-tourist
    • Tourism Cognitive Image-AI--F2:NAI_CALM
    • 36. AI-F2:NAI_CALM—Relationship (Tourist)
    • 37. Relationship—BO
    (Non-tourist)
    H7: The associations among the constructs are stronger for tourists than non-tourists.
  • 38. Group Difference—South Korean vs. Chinese
    H8: The associations among the constructs are significantly different between Chinese and South Koreans.
  • 39. 5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
    Theoretical Contributions
    Suggestion of new concepts
    Development of relational-behavioral model
  • 40. 5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
    Practical Implications
    Managing image associations of the U.S.
    Tourism branding and nation branding
    Brand architecture and the role of tourism
  • 41. 5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
    Practical Implications
    Reconsideration of nation branding
    Image
    Behavioral Outcome
    Relationship
    One-way Image Formation
    (Traditional Nation Branding Function)
    Two-way
    Perceived Mutuality
    (New Nation Branding Function)
  • 42. 5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
    Limitations
    Variation by individuals not considered
    Cross-sectional survey
    Focused on model building: Confirmatory studies needed in the future
    Samples from only two nations
  • 43. Thank you.
  • 44. F1 :
    TI_CORPER
    F2 :
    NI_INF
    F3 :
    NI_DEV
    F4 :
    TI_SER
    F5 :
    TI_MISC
    F6 :
    TI_POPULAR
    Cognitive Image Model
  • 45. Second-order Relational-behavioral Models
    8
    CI-F1 :
    TI_CORPER
    4
    4
    REL-F1 :
    REL_IND
    REL-F2 :
    REL_INT
    CI-F2 :
    NI_INF
    8
    Relationship
    BO-F1 :
    BO_ECON
    3
    CI-F3 :
    NI_DEV
    8
    Cognitive
    Image
    Behavioral
    Outcome
    BO-F2 :
    BO_NONECON
    CI-F4 :
    TI_SER
    4
    3
    Affective
    Image
    CI-F5 :
    TI_MISC
    AI-F2 :
    NAI_CALM
    AI-F1 :
    TAI_EXCITE
    CI-F6 :
    TI_POPULAR
    2
    2
    4
    3
  • 46. 4
    REL-F1 :
    REL_IND
    8
    4
    CI-F1 :
    TI_CORPER
    REL-F2 :
    REL_INT
    CI-F2 :
    NI_INF
    8
    Relationship
    BI-F1 :
    BI_ECON
    Nation Image
    3
    CI-F3 :
    NI_DEV
    8
    Behavioral
    Outcome
    BI-F2 :
    BI_NONECON
    Tourism Image
    CI-F4 :
    TI_SER
    4
    3
    CI-F5 :
    TI_MISC
    AI-F2 :
    NAI_CALM
    AI-F1 :
    TAI_EXCITE
    CI-F6 :
    TI_POPULAR
    2
    4
    2
    3
  • 47. Mediation Analysis
    Relationship
    Affective Image
    Behavioral Outcome
    H6d: Relationship construct would mediate linkages between image and behavioral outcome.
  • 48. Mediation Analysis
    Relationship
    Cognitive Image
    Behavioral Outcome