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0719slides

  1. 1. Conceptualizing Tourism Image and Nation Image:An Integrated Relational-behavioral Model<br />Suh-hee Choi<br />
  2. 2. AGENDA<br />INTRODUCTION<br />LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROPOSITIONS<br />2.1. Tourism Image<br />2.2. Nation Image<br />2.3. Tourism Cognitive Image and Nation Cognitive Image<br />2.4. The Relational-behavioral Model<br />2.5. Role of Previous Visit<br />2.6. Nationality Effect<br />METHODOLOGY <br />RESULTS<br /> 4.1. Dimensions of Tourism Image and Nation Image<br /> 4.2. Linkages between Tourism Cognitive Image and Nation Cognitive Image<br /> 4.3. The Relational-behavioral Model<br /> 4.4. Role of Previous Visit<br /> 4.5. Nationality Effect <br />CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS <br />
  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION<br />“How many people can actually say getting through Mumbai Airport is an incredible experience?”<br />http://www.spiceye.com/travel/incredible-india/<br />
  4. 4. Tourism Image<br />Relationship <br />Behavioral Outcome<br />Nation Image<br />Objectives of the Study<br />Previous Visit<br />Nationality<br />
  5. 5. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROPOSITIONS<br />1<br />4.3<br />Tourism Image<br />4.1<br />4.2<br />Relationship <br />Behavioral Outcome<br />3<br />2<br />Nation Image<br />5<br />Previous Visit<br />Nationality<br />6<br />
  6. 6. Tourist Experience<br />Tourist Generating Region<br />Tourist Destination Region<br />Tourist Destination Region<br />Transit Region<br />Destination Image<br />Tourism Image<br />
  7. 7. Proposition 1: Tourism image is a multidimensional construct comprised of a variety of tourism experiences. <br />Hypothesis 1a: Marketing-derived and non-marketing-derived experiences form two distinct dimension of cognitive tourism image. <br />Hypothesis 1b: A totality of tangible and intangible features of experiences forms a distinct dimension of cognitive tourism image.<br />Hypothesis 1c: There are three distinct dimensions of cognitive tourism image resulting from core, peripheral, and miscellaneous tourism experiences at the destination.<br />Hypothesis 1d: Experiences at the tourist origins and during transit form two distinct dimensions of cognitive tourism image.<br />
  8. 8. International Marketing<br />Country Branding<br />Proposition 2: Nation image is a multidimensional construct comprised of country image and the nation’s political-economic influence.<br /><ul><li>Hypothesis 2a: Perceived national characteristics including economic, political, social, and cultural advancement would form a distinct dimension of cognitive nation image. </li></ul>Nation Image<br />Levels of advancement <br />
  9. 9. Public Diplomacy<br /> International Marketing<br />Country Branding<br />Proposition 2: Nation image is a multidimensional construct comprised of country image and the nation’s political-economic influence.<br /><ul><li>Hypothesis 2b: Soft and hard powers form two distinct dimensions of cognitive nation image. </li></ul>Nation Image<br />Levels of advancement <br />Reputation<br />Attractive images <br />Hard power<br />
  10. 10. Public Diplomacy<br /> International Marketing<br />Country Branding<br />Proposition 2: Nation image is a multidimensional construct comprised of country image and the nation’s political-economic influence.<br /><ul><li>Hypothesis 2c: Communicative ability forms a distinct dimension of cognitive nation image.</li></ul>Communication<br />Nation Image<br />Levels of advancement <br />Reputation<br />Attractive images <br />Hard power<br />
  11. 11. Proposition 3: Nation image and tourism image are interrelated. <br />TOURISM IMAGE<br />Non geographically-bounded<br />Hypothesis 3a: Geographically-bounded cognitive tourism image is more associated with nation image than that not bounded geographically. <br />Core<br />Geographically-bounded<br />Peripheral<br />Miscellaneous<br />Hypothesis 3b: Core and peripheral dimensions of cognitive tourism image is less associated with nation image than miscellaneous dimension. <br />Soft-power oriented<br />Hypothesis 3c: Cognitive tourism image shows a higher correlation with the soft-power dimension of nation image than hard-power dimension. <br />Hard-power oriented<br />NATION IMAGE<br />
  12. 12. Affective Image<br />Affective place quality<br />Consumption emotions<br />
  13. 13. Relationship<br />“The condition that one party affects the welfare of the other from the economic, political, social and cultural aspects” <br /><ul><li>Hypothesis 4a: There are five distinct dimensions of relationship: satisfaction, commitment and emotional attachment, trust, involvement, and social relationship.
  14. 14. Hypothesis 4b: There are two distinct levels of relationship: individual-nation and nation-nation. </li></li></ul><li>Behavioral Outcome<br />Supportive intention<br />Active<br />Passive <br /><ul><li>Hypothesis 5: Passive and active intentions form two distinct dimensions of behavioral outcome.</li></li></ul><li>The relational-behavioral model <br />CI<br />Cognitive Image and Affective Image<br />AI<br /><ul><li>Hypothesis 6a: There is a significant effect of cognitive image on affective image. </li></li></ul><li>The relational-behavioral model <br />CI<br />Cognitive Image and Affective Image<br />REL<br />AI<br />Image as the Antecedent of Relationship<br /><ul><li>Hypothesis 6b: There is a significant effect of image on relationship.</li></li></ul><li>The relational-behavioral model <br />CI<br />Cognitive Image and Affective Image<br />REL<br />BO<br />AI<br />Image as the Antecedent of Relationship<br />Behavior Outcome as the Consequence of Relationship<br /><ul><li>Hypothesis 6c: There is a significant effect of relationship on behavioral outcome. </li></li></ul><li>Relationship as a mediator <br />Relationship <br />Image<br />Behavioral Outcome<br /><ul><li>Hypothesis 6d: Relationship construct mediates linkages between image and behavioral outcome.</li></li></ul><li>CI<br />REL<br />BO<br />AI<br /><ul><li> Previous Visit
  15. 15. Nationality
  16. 16. Hypothesis 7: The associations among the constructs are stronger for tourists than non-tourists.
  17. 17. Hypothesis 8: The associations among the constructs are significantly different between Chinese and South Koreans.</li></li></ul><li>3. METHODOLOGY<br />Self-administered survey <br />Quota sampling<br />Translation<br />Measurement Items<br />Stereotypical images, previous first-hand and vicarious experience<br />Cognitive tourism image (34 items) <br />Cognitive nation image (29 items)<br />Affective tourism image (29 items) <br />Affective nation image (29 items)<br />Relationship (26 items)<br />Overall image and behavioral outcome (13 items) <br />Demographic information <br />
  18. 18. 3. METHODOLOGY<br />Korean Data (n=572 t=220, nt=352)<br /><ul><li>Descriptive Statistics, EFA</li></ul>Chinese Data (n=653, t=339, nt=310)<br /><ul><li>Descriptive Statistics, EFA</li></ul>Combined Data<br />Univariate Analysis<br /><ul><li>Descriptive Statistics
  19. 19. Mean Differences</li></ul>Structural Equation Modeling<br /><ul><li>EFA, Measurement Model
  20. 20. Structural Model Building and Testing
  21. 21. Mediation Analysis
  22. 22. Multi-group Analysis </li></ul>400 Korean<br />400 Chinese<br />
  23. 23. Cognitive Image<br />4. RESULTS<br />F1 :<br />TI_CORPER<br />F2 :<br />NI_INF<br />F3 :<br />NI_DEV<br />F4 : <br />TI_SER<br />F5 :<br />TI_MISC<br />F6 :<br />TI_POPULAR<br />H1a: Marketing-derived and non-marketing-derived experiences….<br />H1b: A totality of tangible and intangible features of experiences ….<br />H1c: There are three distinct dimensions of cognitive tourism image resulting from core, peripheral, and miscellaneous tourism experiences….<br />H1d: Experiences at the tourist origins and during transit….<br />…<br />…<br />…<br />…<br />…<br />10-8<br />10-17<br />11-12<br />11-29<br />11-2<br />11-17<br />10-29<br />10-34<br />10-20<br />10-23<br />10-2<br />10-4<br />10-3<br />(9 items)<br />(9 items)<br />(8 items)<br />(6 items)<br />(4 items)<br />(3 items)<br />(8 items)<br />(8 items)<br />(8 items)<br />(4 items)<br />(2 items)<br />(3 items)<br />
  24. 24. Cognitive Image<br />F1 :<br />TI_CORPER<br />F2 :<br />NI_INF<br />F3 :<br />NI_DEV<br />F4 : <br />TI_SER<br />F5 :<br />TI_MISC<br />F6 :<br />TI_POPULAR<br />H2a: Perceived national characteristics including economic, political, social, and cultural advancement would form a distinct dimension of cognitive nation image.<br />H2b: Soft and hard powers form two distinct dimensions of cognitive nation image.<br />H2c: Communicative ability forms a distinct dimension of cognitive nation image. <br />…<br />…<br />…<br />…<br />…<br />10-8<br />10-17<br />11-12<br />11-29<br />11-2<br />11-17<br />10-29<br />10-34<br />10-20<br />10-23<br />10-2<br />10-4<br />10-3<br />(9 items)<br />(9 items)<br />(8 items)<br />(6 items)<br />(4 items)<br />(3 items)<br />(8 items)<br />(8 items)<br />(8 items)<br />(4 items)<br />(2 items)<br />(3 items)<br />
  25. 25. Affective Image <br />F2 :<br />NAI_CALM<br />F1 : <br />TAI_EXCITE<br />13-9<br />13-10<br />…<br />13-28<br />12-4<br />12-5<br />(12 items)<br />(2 items)<br />(4 items)<br />(2 items)<br />H1e: Affective tourism image is a multidimensional construct reflecting the characteristics of affective place quality and consumption emotions. <br />H2d: Affective nation image is a multidimensional construct reflecting the characteristics of affective place quality and consumption emotions.<br />
  26. 26. Tourism Image and Nation Image<br />F1 :<br />TI_CORPER<br />F2 :<br />NI_INF<br />F3 :<br />NI_DEV<br />F4 : <br />TI_SER<br />F5 :<br />TI_MISC<br />F6 :<br />TI_POPULAR<br />H3a: Geographically-bounded cognitive tourism image is more associated with nation image than that not bounded geographically. <br />*Std. estimates<br />p.121<br />
  27. 27. Tourism Image and Nation Image<br />F1 :<br />TI_CORPER<br />F5 :<br />TI_MISC<br />F2 :<br />NI_INF<br />F3 :<br />NI_DEV<br />F4 : <br />TI_SER<br />F6 :<br />TI_POPULAR<br />H3b: Core and peripheral dimensions of cognitive tourism image is less associated with nation image than miscellaneous dimension. <br />*Std. estimates<br />
  28. 28. Tourism Image and Nation Image<br />F1 :<br />TI_CORPER<br />F2 :<br />NI_INF<br />F3 :<br />NI_DEV<br />F4 : <br />TI_SER<br />F5 :<br />TI_MISC<br />F6 :<br />TI_POPULAR<br />H3c: Cognitive tourism image shows a higher correlation with the soft-power dimension of nation image than hard-power dimension. <br />*Std. estimates<br />
  29. 29. Relationship<br />Relational-behavioral Model Testing<br />F2 :<br />REL_INT<br />F1 : <br />REL_IND<br />14-1<br />14-2<br />…<br />14-15<br />14-22<br />14-23<br />…<br />14-26<br />(7 items)<br />(5 items)<br />(4 items)<br />(4 items)<br />H4a: There are five distinct dimensions of relationship: satisfaction, commitment and emotional attachment, trust, involvement, and social relationship. <br />H4b: There are two distinct levels of relationship: individual-nation and nation-nation. <br />
  30. 30. Behavioral Outcome <br />Relational-behavioral Model Testing<br />F2 :<br />BO_NONECON<br />F1 : <br />BO_ECON<br />15-11<br />15-12<br />15-13<br />15-3<br />15-4<br />15-5<br />(3 items)<br />(3 items)<br />H5: Passive and active intentions form two distinct dimensions of behavioral outcome.<br />
  31. 31. Relational-behavioral Model Testing<br />Relationship<br />Cognitive Image<br />Behavioral <br />Outcome<br />Affective Image<br />
  32. 32. Relational-behavioral Model Testing<br />Relationship<br />Behavioral<br />Outcome<br />Nation Cognitive<br />Image<br />Tourism Cognitive<br /> Image<br />AI-F1 : <br />TAI_EXCITE<br />AI-F2 :<br />NAI_CALM<br />H6a: There is a significant effect of cognitive image on affective image. <br />H6b: There is a significant effect of image on relationship. <br />H6c: There is a significant effect of relationship on behavioral outcome.<br />
  33. 33. Mediation Analysis<br />Cognitive Image<br />Behavioral Outcome<br />Relationship <br />H6d: Relationship construct mediates linkages between image and behavioral outcome.<br />
  34. 34. Mediation Analysis<br />Affective Image<br />Behavioral Outcome<br />Relationship <br />H6d: Relationship construct mediates linkages between image and behavioral outcome.<br />
  35. 35. Group Difference—Tourist vs. Non-tourist<br /><ul><li>Tourism Cognitive Image-AI--F2:NAI_CALM
  36. 36. AI-F2:NAI_CALM—Relationship (Tourist)
  37. 37. Relationship—BO </li></ul> (Non-tourist) <br />H7: The associations among the constructs are stronger for tourists than non-tourists.<br />
  38. 38. Group Difference—South Korean vs. Chinese<br />H8: The associations among the constructs are significantly different between Chinese and South Koreans. <br />
  39. 39. 5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS<br />Theoretical Contributions<br />Suggestion of new concepts<br />Development of relational-behavioral model<br />
  40. 40. 5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS<br />Practical Implications <br />Managing image associations of the U.S. <br />Tourism branding and nation branding <br />Brand architecture and the role of tourism <br />
  41. 41. 5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS<br />Practical Implications <br />Reconsideration of nation branding <br />Image<br />Behavioral Outcome<br />Relationship <br />One-way Image Formation<br />(Traditional Nation Branding Function)<br />Two-way <br />Perceived Mutuality<br />(New Nation Branding Function)<br />
  42. 42. 5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS<br />Limitations <br />Variation by individuals not considered<br />Cross-sectional survey <br />Focused on model building: Confirmatory studies needed in the future<br />Samples from only two nations<br />
  43. 43. Thank you.<br />
  44. 44. F1 :<br />TI_CORPER<br />F2 :<br />NI_INF<br />F3 :<br />NI_DEV<br />F4 : <br />TI_SER<br />F5 :<br />TI_MISC<br />F6 :<br />TI_POPULAR<br />Cognitive Image Model <br />
  45. 45. Second-order Relational-behavioral Models<br />8<br />CI-F1 :<br />TI_CORPER<br />4<br />4<br />REL-F1 : <br />REL_IND<br />REL-F2 :<br />REL_INT<br />CI-F2 :<br />NI_INF<br />8<br />Relationship<br />BO-F1 : <br />BO_ECON<br />3<br />CI-F3 :<br />NI_DEV<br />8<br />Cognitive<br />Image<br />Behavioral<br />Outcome<br />BO-F2 :<br />BO_NONECON<br />CI-F4 : <br />TI_SER<br />4<br />3<br />Affective<br />Image<br />CI-F5 :<br />TI_MISC<br />AI-F2 :<br />NAI_CALM<br />AI-F1 : <br />TAI_EXCITE<br />CI-F6 :<br />TI_POPULAR<br />2<br />2<br />4<br />3<br />
  46. 46. 4<br />REL-F1 : <br />REL_IND<br />8<br />4<br />CI-F1 :<br />TI_CORPER<br />REL-F2 :<br />REL_INT<br />CI-F2 :<br />NI_INF<br />8<br />Relationship<br />BI-F1 : <br />BI_ECON<br />Nation Image<br />3<br />CI-F3 :<br />NI_DEV<br />8<br />Behavioral<br />Outcome<br />BI-F2 :<br />BI_NONECON<br />Tourism Image<br />CI-F4 : <br />TI_SER<br />4<br />3<br />CI-F5 :<br />TI_MISC<br />AI-F2 :<br />NAI_CALM<br />AI-F1 : <br />TAI_EXCITE<br />CI-F6 :<br />TI_POPULAR<br />2<br />4<br />2<br />3<br />
  47. 47. Mediation Analysis<br />Relationship <br />Affective Image<br />Behavioral Outcome<br />H6d: Relationship construct would mediate linkages between image and behavioral outcome. <br />
  48. 48. Mediation Analysis<br />Relationship <br />Cognitive Image<br />Behavioral Outcome<br />

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