UEM STUDENT RESEARCH SUMMARY                  A.T.M. Nurul Amin                 Nowarat Coowanitwong                   Ton...
Edited by: A.T.M. Nurul Amin, Nowarat Coowanitwong, Tonni Kurniawan, PornpunPinwehaPathumthani: Asian Institute of Technol...
UEM STUDENT RESEARCH SUMMARY           1998-2003 Urban Environmental Management Field of Study UEM REFERENCE MATERIAL No.1...
PrefaceAs an institution of higher learning and research, master and doctoral students routinely doresearch and are requir...
This compendium includes 124 abstracts (122 master and two doctoral students’ researchcompleted during 1998 to 2003) under...
Table of Contents                                                                                     PagePreface         ...
1999Air Pollution Monitoring System: Evaluation and Improvement for Map Ta PhutIndustrial Estate, Rayong Province, Thailan...
Market Potential for Compost Industry in Hyderabad, India: Necessary Strategies forPublic and Private Cooperation         ...
Management of Transportation and Environmental Issues for Sustainable TourismDevelopment in Yogyakarta, Indonesia         ...
Industrial Wastewater Management at Local Level: A Case Study of two IndustrialEstates in Yangon, Myanmar                 ...
Effects of Redevelopment Project: A Case Study of a Relocated Urban Community inHanoi, Vietnam                            ...
Selected Issues in Tripartite Partnerships for Basic Services Delivery to UrbanUn-/Under-serviced Areas                   ...
Formalization of Land Tenure and Living Environment in Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamSince the Economic Renovation             ...
APPENDICESIndex of Subjects                             137.Index of Keywords/Phrases                     139Index of Citi...
STUDENT RESEARCH ABSTRACTS             BY    YEAR OF COMPLETION                             1
1998       2
Developing a Community Infrastructure System for a Low-Income Settlement:                      A Case of Sastrynagar, Chen...
Formal and Informal Sector Linkages in Waste Recycling:                    A Case Study at Prawate District in Bangkok, Th...
Framework for Developing an Urban Environmental Management Plan                              for Tiruppur Town, India     ...
Industrial Wastewater Pollution Management at Local level:                         A Case Study of a Tannery Site in Bangl...
Land Use Consideration in Urban Environmental Management in Pokhara, Nepal:        A Study to Manage the Environment of Ph...
Models for Private Sector Participation: A Study of Water Supply and Sewerage                                 in Kolhapur ...
Role and Contribution of the Community, Informal Sector and                    Municipal Government in Solid Waste Managem...
Scope of Improving Environmental Infrastructure Services through           Greater Reliance on User Charge: A Case Study o...
Solid Waste Management in Yangon, Myanmar: A Focus on Hospital Waste                                   Yu Lay Sein & Willi...
Study to Explore Applications of Regulatory and Economic Instruments                        in Solid Waste Management in D...
Travel Demand Management Techniques Applicable to Urban Transport Problems in                 Bangkok Metropolitan Area   ...
Urban Solid Waste Disposal: A Case Study of the City of Phnom Penh, Cambodia                                   Chea Sarin ...
1999       15
Air Pollution Monitoring System: Evaluation and Improvement for                 Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong Prov...
Analysis of Road-Users Perceptions on                          Traffic Management Measures in Colombo City                ...
Application of Economic and Regulatory Instruments for Emission Management:            A Case Study of Diesel and Electric...
Application of Regulatory and Economic Instruments to Control Air Pollution       in Dhaka City: A Focus on Major Pollutio...
Banks and Environmentally-Friendly Practice in Bangkok Metropolitan Region:                              The Need for Chan...
Challenges and Constraints Faced by Women NGOs in                     Urban Solid Waste Management in Kathmandu Valley:   ...
Determination of Cost Efficiency for Pricing of Water Supply Systems:                         A Case Study of Four Cities ...
Developing a Strategy to Increase Participation of Hotels in Environmental                      Management Programs in Pan...
Development of a Strategy for Municipal Solid Waste Disposal:                          A Case Study of Hanoi City, Vietnam...
Environmental Awareness and Regulations in Banking Practices:                           A Case Study in Ho Chi Minh City  ...
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
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Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary
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Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Students Research Summary

  1. 1. UEM STUDENT RESEARCH SUMMARY A.T.M. Nurul Amin Nowarat Coowanitwong Tonni Kurniawan Pornpun Pinweha Urban Environmental Management Field of Study School of Environment, Resources and Development Asian Institute of Technology Pathumthani, Thailand 2004
  2. 2. Edited by: A.T.M. Nurul Amin, Nowarat Coowanitwong, Tonni Kurniawan, PornpunPinwehaPathumthani: Asian Institute of Technology, 2004, 171 pp.ISBN: 974-229-627-8Urban Environmental Management Field of StudySchool of Environment, Resources and DevelopmentAsian Institute of TechnologyP.O.Box 4, Klong LuangPathumthani, 12120ThailandPhone: +66-(0)2-5245777Fax: +66-(0)2-5162126,5161418Email: uemapplications@ait.ac.thInternet: www.serd.ait.ac.th/uem/sea-uema.html
  3. 3. UEM STUDENT RESEARCH SUMMARY 1998-2003 Urban Environmental Management Field of Study UEM REFERENCE MATERIAL No.1 A.T.M. Nurul Amin Nowarat Coowanitwong Tonni Kurniawan Pornpun Pinweha Asian Institute of Technology Pathumthani, Thailand 2004
  4. 4. PrefaceAs an institution of higher learning and research, master and doctoral students routinely doresearch and are required to produce thesis for fulfilling graduation requirement aftercompletion of course work. Students of science and engineering fields mostly do laboratory-based research, some do collect field level data too. Nearly 100 percent of students in theenvironment and development fields go to their respective country/city for conducting fieldwork. This unique opportunity has enabled the production of a large number of theses at AITwhich contain potentially valuable data/information and imaginative recommendations forpublic policy and actions to promote sustainable development in the developing countries ofAsia. This potential however remains largely untapped because of inadequate dissemination ofthis wealth of information, findings and policy recommendations stocked in the library shelves.It is well-known in the academia that every piece of research output cannot be published injournal article and book forms for wider dissemination.With the above in view, we have from time to time attempted to produce and publishcompendium of students research abstracts (e.g. HSD Students Research Summary 1975-1992and Summary of Doctoral Research 1989-1998 of Rural and Urban Fields of Study) so thatthere will be greater whetting for making use of theses completed at AIT in our respectivefields of study. Always this has not been possible because of time and financial constraints.Fortunately, the present CIDA-AIT partnership for implementation of South East Asia UrbanEnvironmental Management Applications (SEA-UEMA) Project 2003-2008 has created anopportunity, among others, to produce publications through one of its project components: TheApplication of Research Results and Lessons Learned (ARL). The present compendium ofUEM Students Research Abstracts (1998- 2003) is the first UEM reference material that we arebringing out for contributing as an aide to the other SEA-UEMA Project components: AlumniDemonstration Project, Joint Action Research, UEM Sub-sector Networks and ProfessionalSupports Program.We are very much aware of our limitations. Yet we thought these limitations in terms ofEnglish proficiency and scholarly requirements should not be allowed to deprive our fellowresearchers, next generation of UEM students and potential public policy makers to benefitfrom the basic intellect and ideas of our students as stored in their respective thesis. Therealistic approach in making use of this compendium should be not to take any its content as amodel for any purpose but for conveniently accessing a referred thesis that would appear tocontain needed information and analysis. To facilitate the selection of a thesis according to aparticular need, we have prepared indexes of authors, subjects, key words/phrases, andcountries/cities. Our experience shows that such reference materials become very handy sourcefor locating research on a particular topic and country when researchers, professionals andstudents contact us for getting reference on the research that have been done at AIT.Other than the above time-honored role of such reference material, we expect this as a goodsource for SEA-UEMA project partners to get information and draw lessons for undertakingADP and JAR projects and for producing materials for professional training programs andpolicy dialogues that have been planned for the project period. ii
  5. 5. This compendium includes 124 abstracts (122 master and two doctoral students’ researchcompleted during 1998 to 2003) under the supervision of nine SERD faculty (of whom eightare of UEM FoS). The nine UEM FoS faculty have also served as members or co-chair inmany committees other than the ones they chaired. A good number of faculty from other fieldsof study of SERD as well as other three schools also made valuable contribution to these 124pieces of successfully completed research. We gratefully acknowledge their selflesscontributions based on their respective invaluable individual expertise. In many of these 124theses, two common recurring themes have been ways and means to promote gender equalityand poverty reduction. Topics covered in these theses include solid waste management, waterand sanitation, air pollution, urban built environment, environmental management plan,environmental management measures (EMM), environmental management systems (EMS),urban governance, community-based environmental management, tourism destinationmanagement, economic instruments, financing and cost recovery of urban infrastructure andservices, absorption of rural migrants in urban economy and environment, involving theinformal sector in local environmental management, conflict resolution, green banking, public-private partnership, cleaner production, environmental assessment (EA), environmental impactassessment (EIA), measuring affordability and willingness to pay, urban transportation, urbanrenewal and conservation, land use, traffic management, foreign direct investment (FDI) forurban environmental infrastructure and services.In doing this work we have incurred debt to many. Particular mentions must be made to ourpartners in the CIDA head office in Ottawa and field office in Bangkok, especially to Mr. BobOdeh who in his usual mind of thoughtful support advised to adopt an inclusive than anexclusive approach for topic or country coverage in this particular material so that thecompendium is a comprehensive one to include all UEM graduates. The strong support ofProfessor Chongrak Polprasert, Dean, SERD, for any publication endeavor has been a sourceof inspiration to undertake this venture. We also thankfully acknowledge the enthusiasticsupport of UEM FoS faculty, SEA-UEMA Project Management Team (PMT), intelligentassistance of Project Associates (Mrs. Sabitha Popuri, Mr. Bimalendu Mohanty, Mrs. FarhatJahan Chowdhury and Ms. Rutmanee Ongsakul) and UEM PhD student, Ms. Lalita Rammont.We also thankfully acknowledge the assistance of Mrs. Rachel Conejos. Finally, specialmention must be made of UEM staff Mrs. Vantana Pattanakul and Mr. Lachan Khamta fortheir careful recording, storing and providing us with all UEM students’ completed thesisinformation without which such work could not have been even initiated. A.T.M. Nurul Amin iii
  6. 6. Table of Contents PagePreface iiTable of Contents ivMaster Student Research Abstracts by the Year of Completion1998Developing a Community Infrastructure System for a Low Income Settlement:A Case of Sastrynagar, Chennai, India 3Formal and Informal Sector Linkages in Waste Recycling: A Case Study at PrawateDistrict in Bangkok, Thailand 4Framework for Developing an Urban Environmental Management Plan forTiruppur Town, India 5Industrial Wastewater Pollution Management at Local level: A Case Study of aTannery Site in Bangladesh 6Land Use Consideration in Urban Environ-mental Management in Pokhara, Nepal:A Study to Manage the Environment of Phewa Lakeside-Baidam Area 7Models for Private Sector Participation: A Study of Water Supply and Sewerage inKolhapur City, India 8Role and Contribution of the Community, Informal Sector and MunicipalGovernment in Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of a Low-Income Settlementin Colombo, Sri Lanka 9Scope of Improving Environmental Infra-structure Services through Greater Relianceon User Charge: A Case Study of Jamal Khan Ward, Chittagong, Bangladesh 10Solid Waste Management in Yangon, Myanmar: A Focus on Hospital Waste 11Study to Explore Applications of Regulatory and Economic Instruments inSolid Waste Management in Dhaka City 12Travel Demand Management Techniques Applicable to Urban Transport Problems inthe Bangkok Metropolitan Area 13Urban Solid Waste Disposal: A Case Study of the City of Phnom Penh, Cambodia 14 iv
  7. 7. 1999Air Pollution Monitoring System: Evaluation and Improvement for Map Ta PhutIndustrial Estate, Rayong Province, Thailand 16Analysis of Road-Users Perceptions on Traffic Management Measures in ColomboCity 17Application of Economic and Regulatory Instruments for Emission Management:A Case Study of Diesel and Electric Tempos in Kathmandu City 18Application of Regulatory and Economic Instruments to Control Air Pollution in DhakaCity: A Focus on Major Pollution Emitting Transportation Mode 19Banks and Environmentally-Friendly Practice in Bangkok Metropolitan Region:The Need for Change 20Challenges and Constraints Faced by Women NGOs in Urban Solid Waste Managementin Kathmandu Valley: An Analysis from a Gender Perspective 21Determination of Cost Efficiency for Pricing of Water Supply Systems: A Case Study ofFour Cities in Lao PDR 22Developing a Strategy to Increase Participation of Hotels in EnvironmentalManagement Programs in Panjim, Goa, India 23Development of a Strategy for Municipal Solid Waste Disposal: A Case Study of HanoiCity, Vietnam 24Environmental Awareness and Regulations in Banking Practices: A Case Study inHo Chi Minh City 25Environmental Awareness Regarding Domestic Disposal Behaviour in Yangon,Myanmar 26Environmental Impact Assessment in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines: Issues andChallenges 27Environmental Planning and Management for Urban Industry; Case Study of PublicHealth Effects of Industrial Air Pollution in Map Ta Phut Community, RayongProvince, Thailand 28Environmentally-Friendly Food Packaging: Comparative Patterns and Trends in Indiaand Thailand 29Framework for Developing an Urban Environ-mental Infrastructure Management Planfor Phnom Penh City, Cambodia 30Integrative BOD Model for Municipal Wastewater Control to Maintain WaterQuality in the West Lake of Hanoi City 31 v
  8. 8. Market Potential for Compost Industry in Hyderabad, India: Necessary Strategies forPublic and Private Cooperation 32Mitigating NIMBY (not in my backyard) Syndrome as Barriers to Landfill Siting:A Case Study of Economic and Regulatory Measures for Gokarna Landfill Site,Kathmandu, Nepal 33Public Awareness on Environmental Issues in Urban Management in Pakse City,Lao PDR: A Case Study of Solid Waste Management of the "Secondary TownsIntegrated Urban Development Project 34Revitalization of Kankeswar Heritage Site through Local Urban EnvironmentalManagement Action Plan for Bishnumati Corridor of Kathmandu, Nepal 35Strengthening Recycling by Promoting Waste Separation at Source: A Case Study ofPhnom Penh Households and the Informal Sector 36Study on Cost-Recovery Options and Needs Assessment of Household Water Supply:A Case Study of Paksane Town, Borikhamsai Province, Lao PDR 37Study to Explore Application of Regulatory and Economic Instruments in SolidWaste Management in Hanoi City 38System Dynamics Approach for Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Case Study ofNam Dinh City, Vietnam 39System Dynamics Approach to Environ-mental Planning and Management of SolidWaste: A Case Study of Yangon, Myanmar 40Urban Transport and the Environment: Integrating the Financial Sector into UrbanEnvironmental Management through Lending Practice 412000Assessment of Regulatory and Economic Measures in the Management ofHanoi’s Sewerage System 43Emergence of the Informal Sector in Waste Recycling in Chinese Cities: A Case Studyof Wuhan City 44Formal and Informal Sector Linkages in Waste Recycling: A Case Study of HouseholdSolid Waste Management of Dong Da District in Hanoi, Vietnam 45Identification of Strategies for Organic Waste Separation to Achieve Better Compost:The Case of Da Nang City, Vietnam 46Improving Public Bus Service for a Better Urban Environment: A Case Study inHo Chi Minh City, Vietnam 47Local Environmental Management for Improving Quality of Life: A Comparative Analysisof Service Delivery to Two Urban Poor Communities in Chittagong City, Bangladesh 48 vi
  9. 9. Management of Transportation and Environmental Issues for Sustainable TourismDevelopment in Yogyakarta, Indonesia 49Proposed Strategic Planning Approach for Sustainable Tourism Developmentin Yala Municipality, Thailand 50Proposed Strategies and Action Plans for Sustainable Tourism Development alongthe Mekong River Bank in the Vientiane Prefecture, Lao PDR 51Residential Water Demand-Side Management in Nakorn Rayong Municipality,Rayong Province, Thailand 52Solid Waste Management System with a Focus on Waste Disposal by Land Fill:A Case Study of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 53Towards Developing Strategies for Improving Urban Environmental Management:The Case of Street Food Vending Activities in Yala Municipality, Thailand 54Transformation of an Industrial Zone into Eco-Industrial Park in Hanoi, Vietnam: TheCase of Sai Dong-B Industrial Zone 552001Assessment of Impacts of Implementing ISO 14001- Environmental ManagementSystem for Certified Industries in Thailand 57Community Participation in Urban Solid Waste Disposal Management: A Case Study ofthe City of Phnom Penh, Cambodia 58Community Wastewater Management: A Case Study of Sue-Trong Garden Real Estatein Saima Sub-District, Nonthaburi, Thailand 59Comparative Study on Environmental Management and Awareness in ISO 14001 Schooland Non-ISO 14001 School: A Case Study of Pakkred Secondary School (Nonthaburi)and Chainat Pittayakom Secondary School (Chainat), Thailand 60Degree of Knowledge and Skills for Sustainable Urban Management in Financial Institutionsin Colombo City, Sri Lanka 61Developing Policy Guidelines for Open Space in Vientiane, Lao PDR 62Earthquake Risk Management in Urban Planning and Development in Kathmandu,Nepal 63Flood Risk Management in Low-Income Settlements: Exploring Planning Optionsfor Phnom Penh, Cambodia 64Improving the Urban Living Environment through Open Space Management: A CaseStudy of the “36 Old Streets” Quarter of Hanoi, Vietnam 65 vii
  10. 10. Industrial Wastewater Management at Local Level: A Case Study of two IndustrialEstates in Yangon, Myanmar 66Integrated Public Bus Systems: Transport Policy and Possibilities in Chiang MaiMunicipality, Thailand 67Land Use Control for Urban Environmental Management: A Study of the Conflictsin Land Use for Tourism along Nam Song Riverbank, Vang Vieng, Lao PDR 68Minimizing the Impact of Tourism on the Aquatic Environment of Halong Bay, QuangNinh Province, Vietnam 69Problems of Inter-Organizational Coordination in Managing Air Quality in DhakaCity, Bangladesh 70Strategies for Improving the Wastewater Management in Thuong Dinh Industrial Areain Hanoi, Vietnam 71Strategies to Promote Composting in Namdinh, Vietnam 72Study for Improving the Cost Recovery of Water Supply in Dhaka City, Bangladesh 73Sustainable Urban Tourism in an Asian Mega-City: A Case Study of Kawasan JalanJaksa (Jaksa Street Area) Jakarta, Indonesia 74Towards the Rehabilitation of the Open Space and Footpaths in a Residential Estate:The Case of Khlong Chan Residential Estate, Bangkok, Thailand 75Transportation Management System in Yangon: A Focus on Easing the TrafficCongestion 76Urban Environmental Management Issues: Water Transportation on Om Canal,Nonthaburi Province 77Urban River Water Quality Protection: A Focus on Management Measures andInstitutional Requirements for Buriganga River, Dhaka, Bangladesh 782002Administrative Decentralization to Improve Urban Environmental Infrastructure:A Case Study of a Secondary Town in Lao PDR 80Application of Tourism Carrying Capacity to an Urban Heritage Destination:Vigan (Philippines) 81Delivery of Environmental Services in Slums and the Decentralization Reform inLocal Administrative System in Aurangabad, India 82Disaster Risk Management in Urban Areas of Vientiane: A Study with Special Referenceto Management of Fire Disaster in Residential and Commercial Areas 83 viii
  11. 11. Effects of Redevelopment Project: A Case Study of a Relocated Urban Community inHanoi, Vietnam 84Environmental Awareness and Information System in Improving Industrial WastewaterManagement of Small Scale Industries in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 85Environmental Conflict Situation and Participation Problems in Urban Anti-FloodProgram in Hat Yai Municipality, Songkhla Province, Thailand 86Environmental Impacts of Tourism-Based Urban Development on the Protection Zoneof Angkor Area, Siem Reap Province, Cambodia 87Environmental Reform in Puerto Princesa (Philippines): A Best Practice Case of LocalAgenda 21 88Impact of Subway Construction on the Local Economy and Environment of Luohu,Shenzhen, China 89Improving Cost Recovery for Better Water Supply System in Yangon City, the Union ofMyanmar 90Improving Urban Services Delivery for Environmental Management: A Study of PoorSettlements in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh 91Interventions for Improving Urban Poor’s Living Environment: Focus on WomenParticipation in Projects in Khulna City Slum Area, Bangladesh 92Local Environmental Management for Improving Environmental Infrastructure Servicesof Low-Income Settlements in a Myanmar Town 93Preparing the Ground for Tourism Development on a Local Level: A Case Study ofKampot, Cambodia 94Promoting Public Awareness on Urban Environmental Management: A Case Studyon Wastewater Management in Nampasak Canal, Vientiane, Lao PDR 95Proposed Strategies and Action Plans for Sustainable Tourism Development of Cox’sBazar, Bangladesh 96Prospects for Community Participation in Delivery of Water Supply for Km 52 Villagein Vientiane Province, Lao PDR 97Public-Private Partnership for Controlling Air Pollution: The Case of Dhaka UrbanTransport Project 98Recent Changes in Context and Basic Policy Affecting Urban Slum DwellersCommunities in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and Implications on Participatory Approachin Ongoing and Future Relocation Programs 99Role of Environmental Education in Improving Urban Environment: A Case Studyof Environmental Education in Secondary Schools in Hanoi, Vietnam 100 ix
  12. 12. Selected Issues in Tripartite Partnerships for Basic Services Delivery to UrbanUn-/Under-serviced Areas 101Service Performance Evaluation of Metropolitan Waterworks Authority (MWA)of Bangkok Metropolitan: Integrating Customer Perspective into the EvaluationProtocol 102Study of Industrial Participation in Cleaner Production for Industrial Efficiencyin Samut Prakarn Province, Thailand 103Study of Trends and Major Determinants of the Level of Official DevelopmentAssistance (ODA) for Urban Environmental Management (UEM) Local Projectsin Thailand 104Sustainable Design and Management of Community Green Space: A Case Study ofWangjing A5 Community, Beijing, China 105Towards a Sustainable Preservation Strategy for Safeguarding the Character of LuangPrabang, Lao PDR 106Towards Sustainable Development of Urban Renewal in Seoul: Evaluation and Effectsof Government Housing Renewal Program 107Urban Agriculture as a Municipal Waste Reduction Strategy: A Study of CommercialFarms in Suan Luang District, Bangkok Metropolis 108Urban Environmental Governance for Religious Tourism in Selective Pilgrim Townsin India 109Urban Environmental Management Policies to Improve the Living Condition in SlumSettlements: A Case Study of Tau Hu Canal Settlement, District 8, Ho Chi Minh City,Vietnam 110Urbanization Impact at Local Level: A Study of a Migrant Community in Beijing 1112003Analysis of Household Affordability and Willingness to Pay for Improved WaterSupply in Two Towns of Lao PDR 113Capacity Building for Sustainable Tourism Development in the Golden Triangle(Bhubaneswar-Puri-Konark), Orissa, India 114Constraints in Implementing Urban Development Policy in India from the Perspectiveof International Development Professionals: Study of Sustainable Cities Program inChennai 115Development of Regulatory and Economic Measures in the Management of Yangon’sSewerage System: A Case Study of Downtown Area in Yangon, Myanmar 116 x
  13. 13. Formalization of Land Tenure and Living Environment in Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamSince the Economic Renovation 117Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on the Agricultural Activities inPathum Thani Province, Thailand: A Study with Reference to Land Use and WaterUse Conflicts Land 118Improvement of Water Supply for the Poor: A Case Study of the Dangkao District ofPhnom Penh, Cambodia 119Integration of Environmental Assessment into Slum Improvement Programs: A CaseStudy of Infrastructure Projects in Two Slums of Dhaka 120Issues and Possibilities in State, Voluntary Organizations and Business Sectors’Synergy in Environmental Protection: A Case Study of Hudiara Drain PollutionProblem in Lahore, Pakistan 121Land Conversion in BMR Peri-Urban Area: Impact on Water Resource and Implicationson Public Management 122Needs Assessment for Basic Infrastructure in a Post Conflict City: A ComparativeStudy of Unplanned and Planned Areas in Kabul, Afghanistan 123Potential of Reducing Poverty through Urban Environmental Management Practices:A Case Study of a Poor Community in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India 124Revitalization of a Water Based Community: Koh Kred Island, Nonthaburi,Thailand 125Strategic Intervention for Achieving National Goals of Sustainable Development:A Study with Special Reference to the Green Building Program of PWD Malaysia 126Uncertainties Associated with the Planning Stage of Railway Projects in Ho Chi MinhCity and Their Impacts on the Living Environment of an Affected Community 127Urban Environmental Management for Heritages Conservation and Cultural Tourism:A Case Study in Bat Trang-Hometown of Traditional Ceramic in Hanoi, Vietnam 128Why Informal Sector Counts in Urban Mass Transport System: A Study of Phnom PenhCity’s Bus Experiment 129Doctoral Student Research AbstractsDeveloping Alternative Solid Waste Management Practices in Local Governments:A Case Study of Yala Municipality, Thailand 130Foreign Direct Investment-Led Development for Better Urban EnvironmentalManagement: The Case of Hanoi, Vietnam 133 xi
  14. 14. APPENDICESIndex of Subjects 137.Index of Keywords/Phrases 139Index of Cities/Provinces/Countries 142Index of Research Scholars 144Index of Research Supervisors 147List of Abstracts by the Year of Completion 148 xii
  15. 15. STUDENT RESEARCH ABSTRACTS BY YEAR OF COMPLETION 1
  16. 16. 1998 2
  17. 17. Developing a Community Infrastructure System for a Low-Income Settlement: A Case of Sastrynagar, Chennai, India Ravindra Sanagavarapu & Bernard G. Lefebvre AbstractOver the past few decades, the accelerated growth in urban areas widened the gap in the delivery of urbanservices, such as water supply, sanitation, and solid waste disposal, to low-income settlements. Various newapproaches have emerged in recent years to attain the sustainability of the infrastructure in urban areas withincreasing beneficiary community involvement in planning and management.The present study aims at identifying appropriate methods of planning, financing, and implementation ofcommunity infrastructure systems, particularly water supply and sewerage system for a low-income settlement,Sastrynagar of Chennai. The lessons drawn from the successful implementation of the slum networking projectin the city of Ahmedabad are incorporated in the proposed management system for Chennai. The micro levelanalysis conducted addresses the design issues in water supply and sewerage as well as their integration with thecitywide systems. The financial analysis in the form of a simple water tariff model is proposed to be used by thecommunity for fixing the water tariff. Mechanisms to address legal and institutional issues are provided to makethe community play a major role in the decision-making process through the formation of a registered societywith a legal status. The study deals with the complex issues of ownership of land, assets and the institutionalroles in the proposed system. A framework is proposed which adopts community initiatives with citywide planswhen multiple agencies are involved in service delivery.Keywords/phrases: Urban Services, Water Supply and Sanitation, Low-Income Settlement 3
  18. 18. Formal and Informal Sector Linkages in Waste Recycling: A Case Study at Prawate District in Bangkok, Thailand Paveena Thepkunhanimitta & A.T.M. Nurul Amin AbstractThe Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) has a policy of an “integrated approach for recycling” thatintends to minimize waste production and maximize waste recycling. This bears the potential of reducing thevolume of garbage that eventually has to be dumped in increasingly scarce landfills or burned in costlyincinerators.In Prawate district, the area of this study, there are two systems in waste recycling: one is formal and the other isinformal. Waste collection is a duty of the municipal waste collectors (formal) who separate wastes and sellthem to the junk shops. The other is done by the informal sector (such as street ragpickers and dumpsiteragpickers) who play major roles in waste separation. Waste recycling and reprocessing is almost entirely in thehands of junk shops (buyers of waste), street ragpickers, dumpsite ragpickers, and collection crews who togethermake up a complex network involved in collecting, sorting, reprocessing and distributing waste materials to themanufacturers who use them as raw material. Households are central in this process as waste generators/sourcesof domestic waste.This study identifies the need for public awareness towards recyclables in households and the link of thecollector (formal as well as informal) to pass the recycled wastes to the recycling shops (both formal andinformal) and to the intermediaries, such as wholesalers (mostly formal). The latter then deals with themanufacturing (formal sector) units located in the outskirts of Bangkok which use the recycled items as rawmaterials to cut production costs. Materials reprocessed include glass, plastics, papers, aluminum, metals, andhousehold appliances. The extent and strength of this whole process depends on the demand for these processedproducts.This study proposes effective linkages between formal and informal sectors for better recycling of waste inPrawate. The recommendations are made to improve the future policy formulations linking both the sectors andto develop feasibility in an organized recovery materials system in the future to support each other in the wastechain.Keywords/phrases: Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Waste Minimization, Informal Sector 4
  19. 19. Framework for Developing an Urban Environmental Management Plan for Tiruppur Town, India Aruna Gopalakrishnan & Bernard G. Lefebvre AbstractUrbanization and industrialization has accelerated worldwide and various environmental problems haveemerged. The Brown Agenda lists the most critical environmental problems, such as lack of water supply,inadequate waste management, insufficient pollution control, land use problems and the interrelationshipsamong them. The old forms of urban management and industrial regulations are inadequate to mitigate localenvironmental problems; thus, revealing that the majority of actions required to achieve a sustainabledevelopment needs to be taken at the local level. For such a purpose, one of its major recommendations is thateach local authority should develop program and action plans complying with the Local Agenda 21. To respondto such initiatives, an Urban Environmental Management Plan (UEMP) at the municipal level is required toattain sustainable development.Tiruppur, a special grade Municipality in Tamilnadu State, India is a rapidly growing town with a strongeconomic base due to the concentration of textile and knit wear industries. The study reveals that Tiruppur, likeany other town, is facing rapid urbanization and that industrialization is the host to a number of environmentalproblems from both domestic and industrial sectors. No cohesive integrated approach to solve the environmentalproblems had been attempted by the municipal authority and other related institutions. However, the initiativeshave started to facilitate a formulation of sound urban environmental management plans at the local level withrecent amendments to the constitution. The 74th Amendment to the constitution assigns environmentalprotection at the local level to the local authorities with active citizen participation. In addition, theEnvironmental Action Program of India focuses on environmental policies pertaining to environmentalmanagement by the local bodies.The feasibility of an UEMP for Tiruppur is explored as the theme of this study. As a part of the study, theexisting environmental situation due to infrastructure deficiencies is analyzed based on the norms adopted by thestate government. New projects are proposed to meet the gaps. This study also discusses the existing initiativeswith respect to private sector participation for the Water Supply and Sewerage Project. In addition, it exploresand identifies key potential components, which may contribute to the framing of an UEMP and action plan. Thetwo critical components of the UEMP that have been analyzed are the environmental policy that envisagesprotection of the environment and the legal framework, which facilitates the same. It describes the systematicsteps in formulating an UEMP and attempts to detail the responsibilities of the various institutions and agenciesinvolved.Keywords/phrases: Brown Agenda, Urbanization, Agenda 21 5
  20. 20. Industrial Wastewater Pollution Management at Local level: A Case Study of a Tannery Site in Bangladesh Khawja Abdul Latif & A.T.M. Nurul Amin AbstractRapid industrialization has been taken by the Government of Bangladesh as a part of its strategy to developeconomy, increase employment growth for alleviating widespread poverty and reducing reliance on limited landfor sustainable farming. The economy of the country is thus changing from an agricultural base to a service andindustrial one. So far, the country has little industrial base. Industry is primarily raw materials based. Most ofthose are highly polluting to the environment.In an effort to industrialize the country, the government is now considering pollution control managementthrough a two-pronged approach: one is for the new industries that are coming up now and the other is for theexisting industries. One such old industry is leather, which produced from rawhides widely available in thecountry. The biggest cluster of tannery factories is located at Hazaribagh - a suburban area of the capital city-Dhaka. This cluster produces 75% of the total production of the country. The significance of this identity lies inthe fact that it accounts for about five percent of the total export earnings of the country. However, theindustry’s very survival is at stake because of severe pollution from tanneries and spatial constraints, due to itslocation in a densely populated suburban area.Dhaka City Corporation clears off only 20% of the solid waste from the area. It is estimated that 32,000 tons ofsolid waste per year from tanneries putrefies around the area. The total polluted water of about 10,000 m3 perday flows through the drains and accumulates in depressions before emptying to the Buriganga River that hasbeen the lifeline of the city dwellers for ages.Recently, the government has formulated rules and regulations and established organizations to managepollution from industries in general. Yet, organizational strength is meager and it is difficult to monitor andenforce at a local level. The recently enacted pollution control regulations are so rigid as to penalize the factoriesand ultimately, close their operation in Hazaribagh area. Although such actions will prevent pollution, thecountry can hardly afford it.Effective application of the rigid legal provisions in combination with economic incentive based approaches canhelp to solve the problem of pollution, accommodating technical and managerial support required by the tannersfor reduction and prevention of pollution over time.The research for investigating the problem and seeking its solution included a sample survey conducted amongfour groups of people identified as of central importance for the study. Field observations, a questionnairesurvey, secondary information collection and informal discussions with technical persons and sources andgovernment officials related with the industry are the methods for collecting required information and data.The study reveals that the problem has three dimensions viz., technical, behavioral and managerial. Thetechnical problem arises from the lack of expertise for better collection, storage and processing of the rawhides.The behavioral problem originates from the lack of incentive for the adoption of better process and lack ofdemand for quality environment.Based on the existing situation and present extent of the application of regulatory instruments to managepollution from tanneries in Hazaribagh, recommendations are made for constituting a self-sustainingorganization, encompassing the standard economic and regulatory instruments in different stages of collectionof hides and process at tanneries as identified. Suggestions are also made to solve the technical problems relatedto the pollution. Above all, participation of government, local bodies and residents in the area are also suggestedwith due consideration to reach a comprehensive solution to the problem.Keywords/phrases: Industrialization, Water Pollution Control, Regulatory Instrument 6
  21. 21. Land Use Consideration in Urban Environmental Management in Pokhara, Nepal: A Study to Manage the Environment of Phewa Lakeside-Baidam Area K. C. Shambhu & Willi Zimmermann AbstractUrbanization is an inevitable process in developing countries, such as Nepal. The urban population of Nepalreached 2.3 million by the end of 1997, which is about 11 percent of the total population. The urban populationof Nepal is increasing at a rate which is more than three times that of the national average growth rate of 2.6percent. The present population of Pokhara town is about 150,000 and increasing at the rate of 7.5 percentannually.The study area is particularly focused on the Phewa Lakeside-Baidam Area of Pokhara town in which attemptsare being made to analyze the relationship between Baidam Area settlements and its impact on Phewa Lakesidenearby. A qualitative research approach is being adopted to analyze the problems. The study is also based onsemi-structured interviews. The semi-structured questionnaires are distributed among local inhabitants, electedmunicipal authorities, officials, planners and experts as well as foreign tourists visiting Pokhara. Secondary dataand information are also taken into consideration. The study focuses on two issues: the present environmentalsituation of Phewa Lakeside of Baidam Area including Baidam settlement itself and the urban land use practiceswith zoning and building regulations in Phewa Lakeside-Baidam Area.The results of this study reveal that the pollution level has tremendously increased in Phewa Lake and in PhewaLakeside-Baidam Area. It was also found that ineffective implementation of building regulations and poornetwork infrastructure, such as storm water drainage, sewerage and poor sanitation facilities, results in thedegradation of the environment of Phewa Lake and Baidam Area and that there is a positive correlation betweenpresent land use practices in Phewa Lakeside-Baidam Area and Phewa Lake water quality, resulting in increasedlake water pollution.To minimize the level of water pollution in Phewa Lake and improve the urban environmental situation ofPhewa Lakeside-Biadam Area, management options in the form of action plans are also presented in this study.Planning interventions have been proposed to manage the situation for sustainable tourism and urbanenvironmental problems. The land use planning can be helpful for improving the urban environment bydirecting urban growth in planned ways. Since the landowners, developers, and tourism entrepreneurs are foundto gain more benefits from the tourism sectors, they should contribute more for necessary network infrastructureand controlling the level of pollution.Keywords/phrases: Urbanization, Developing Countries, Urban Environment 7
  22. 22. Models for Private Sector Participation: A Study of Water Supply and Sewerage in Kolhapur City, India Pawar Dhanshree Bhagwat & Willi Zimmermann AbstractIncreasing population pressure, depletion of resources such as fresh water, and inadequate management of theinfrastructure systems are some of the major constraints causing progressing deterioration related to urban watersupply and sanitation. Provision of infrastructure has traditionally been considered as a social responsibility ofpublic agencies. The municipal bodies in Kolhapur City, a fast growing city in India, who are already plaguedwith problems of finance, lack of technical expertise, and inefficient management, find it increasingly difficultto cope with an ever-increasing need to provide the services to the urban population, whereas, private companieshave indicated a keen interest in provision of these services. The inability and lack of willingness on the part ofthe municipal bodies on one hand, and the willingness on the part of the private companies to develop urbansanitation services on the other hand is leading to the growing trend of the privatization of urban environmentalinfrastructure.This study aims to look into the key issues like appropriate pricing, unbundling of services, the role of privateand public agencies related to Private Sector Participation (PSP) in the provision of water supply, sewerage andsewage in the city. The key focus of the study is to assess the financial and institutional feasibility of PSP, withspecial emphasis on the economic viability, political and administrative will, technical and institutionalfeasibility and social acceptability. A financing and operating plan for water a supply with sensitivity analysismodel has been developed as an institutional framework for selection of appropriate private sector participationoption. These models are applicable to Kolhapur City, but may also be applied to other similar urban areas inIndia.Keywords/phrases: Private Sector Participation, Water Supply and Sanitation 8
  23. 23. Role and Contribution of the Community, Informal Sector and Municipal Government in Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of a Low-Income Settlement in Colombo, Sri Lanka Delgollage Senevirathne & A.T.M. Nurul Amin AbstractThe increasing quantity of solid waste is a serious environmental problem in the city of Colombo in general andin its low-income settlements in particular. The attitude of viewing waste collection, disposal and recycling as alargely technical issue has been counter-productive for waste management in the city of Colombo. Today,considerations, such as recognition of the role of community and the informal sector and their incorporation inthe decision-making process by using participatory mechanisms as development tools are influencing solidwaste management. This is the paradigm shift in views and policies related to innovative waste managementoptions for the future.As a backdrop, this study focuses on some persisting dilemmas that arise with the changing approaches to wastemanagement. This is illustrated by investigating solid waste management in a Colombo low-income community,where they have managed to overcome the problem of collection and disposal of waste with the involvement ofone of the NGOs in Sri Lanka. The methodology of the study involves collection of data and informationthrough field surveys, interviews and round table discussions with the key stakeholders. The results of thefindings are used to make the case that community based solid waste management system at local levels have tobe strengthened by formulating new policies. These policies should lead to increasing acceptance of the role ofthe community and the informal sector in management of solid wastes on their own with close cooperation withColombo Municipal Council (CMC)The CMCs role at the local community level (low-income settlement) on waste management has to be changedfrom provider to facilitator and from promoter to supporter. A step towards this is to provide basic urbanservices by involving the community as a key deciding factor of waste management. In addition, theinvolvement of the informal sector, the private sector and NGOs are important for mobilizing various existingresources and services. With these ideas and the backup of the studys findings, a waste management system atthe community level is proposed involving all stakeholders.Keywords/phrases: Solid Waste Management, Low-Income Community, Informal Sector 9
  24. 24. Scope of Improving Environmental Infrastructure Services through Greater Reliance on User Charge: A Case Study of Jamal Khan Ward, Chittagong, Bangladesh Tapan Kumar Nath & A.T.M. Nurul Amin AbstractThe provision of urban basic services is essential to continue urban productivity, alleviate urban poverty, andprotect the urban environment. Agenda 21 has emphasized the promotion of integrated environmentalinfrastructure services of water supply, sanitation, drainage, and solid waste management. This research focuseson the scope of improving such services through a greater reliance on user charge for cost recovery of thoseservices at a community level in the Jamal Khan Healthy Ward of Chittagong City Corporation (CCC).The data of household surveys and interviews suggest that there is willingness to pay for the improved services.However, the public utility departments and local governments have not fully exploited this opportunity.Furthermore, the findings of this research reveal that inadequate pricing level, inappropriate pricing system,corruption and mismanagement in the local government and in the public utility departments have widened thegap between the service need and service offered. In addition to not making use of user charge, the prevailingservice delivery system has also failed to make use of the opportunity of gaining from large scale economies inthe provision of these environmental services.CWASA supplies water through household connection to the consumer and charges monthly bills as per ratefixed for per unit consumption. It can expand its service delivery by utilizing natural monopoly characteristic tomeet the increasing demand of water even to the poor by providing it within a marginal cost. CCC is the mainlocal government authority that provides sanitary, drainage and solid waste management services to the citizensfor which it charges a total of 7% holding tax, 3% lighting charge and 7% conservancy charge (total 17%) basedon the valuation of the building assets. However, the result of this study shows that this valuation is not properlydone and the collection of taxes and charges can be improved significantly. Self-assessing valuation is suggestedto be able to improve the collection process.The study findings also suggest that CCC can introduce conservancy services to its other non-conservancywards by introducing rickshaw vans. The community and the citizens are willing to pay extra money (they arealready paying for rickshaw van service for garbage collection) and even to volunteer their services to the localgovernment organizations, CBOs and NGOs. The only incentive they need is the recognition of theircontributions, which may be an enormous input for easy service delivery and timely revenue collection from thearea. Volunteer services can compliment the user charge in a few selected services like cleaning ofneighborhoods. Women’s voluntary participation in group discussions for the healthy wards’ environmentalpractices and a motivational campaign to keep the ward clean are real examples of the community’s willingnessto protect and improve the urban environment in the study area, which should be replicable in the other wards ofthe city.Interviews and group discussions in this study also unveil the fact that the record keeping and accountingsystem, information dissemination, accountability and transparency of the service-delivering authorities arequestionable. The system losses can be reduced in an acceptable limit if regular maintenance and monitoring aredone properly. The officials usually face financial, administrative, legal and political problems, whiledischarging their duties to deliver services. The people are not at all satisfied with the present situation of basicservice delivery and hence, they, even the poorest section of the community, are willing to pay for the improvedservices. Objective reality at the ground level will allow for a greater reliance on user charge for extending basicservices. The study makes a set of recommendations for levying user charge appropriately.Keywords/phrases: Urban Poverty, Urban Services, Urban Environment 10
  25. 25. Solid Waste Management in Yangon, Myanmar: A Focus on Hospital Waste Yu Lay Sein & Willi Zimmermann AbstractThe environmental issues on the hospital waste management system in Yangon City are manifold. The YangonCity Development Committee is responsible for solid waste management in the city. The hospital waste is notseparated and is disposed together with the other hazardous and domestic waste in Yangon City. Most of thewastewater generated by the hospitals is also discharged to the sewage systems without proper treatment,affecting human health and the environment.The inadequacies in the current hospital waste management practices in Yangon are mainly defined in theaspects of ineffective segregation at source, inappropriate collection methods, and unsafe storage of waste. Inaddition, the inappropriate practices of disposing hospital waste together with general waste in municipallandfill sites compound the problem. The other issues that need to be considered are a lack of appropriateprotective equipment and lack of training and clear lines of responsibilities between the departments involved inhospital waste management.As a start, an adhoc or temporary emergency management system could be used to eliminate the inadequacies inthe present hospital waste management (HWM) system. This system is simple, easy and not costly to manage.The inadequacies in the present system are in the form of lack of specific policies, guidelines and standards withrespect to hospital waste management. To fill these gaps, recommendations are made to formulate a hospitalwaste management system, delineating responsibilities for the various actors.It is prudent to formulate the policies and strategies based on the guidelines proposed by WHO for developingcountries for an efficient HWM system. To formulate national and local level policies on HWM, specificcommittees at different levels - national, state and local, are recommended to facilitate policy formulations andimplementations. In addition, an action plan is proposed to initiate the process until the recommendations andimplementation mechanisms of the committees are adopted. An action plan detailing the specific objectives, keyindicators and responsible actors has been formulated, which can be adopted as a model for other urban areas inthe country. This can also constitute an important component of the policy on HWM for Myanmar.Keywords/phrases: Hospital Waste Management, Sewage System, Developing Countries 11
  26. 26. Study to Explore Applications of Regulatory and Economic Instruments in Solid Waste Management in Dhaka City Nurul Quadir & A.T.M. Nurul Amin AbstractThe population of Dhaka has swelled phenomenally from 3.4 million in 1981 to about 6.4 million in 1991.Unplanned growth of urban population causes reckless generation of solid wastes and exerts tremendouspressure on the existing services. The traditional concept of providing solid waste service virtually free ofcharge by the city corporation and poor management of solid waste aggravates the waste management problem,causing more than half of the generated solid wastes to remain uncollected and disposed making theenvironmental scenario of the metropolis quite gloomy and dismal for the future.Effective application of regulatory and economic instruments has emerged as one of the approaches to addressthe growing problem of solid waste management. This study reviews the current solid waste managementsystem in Dhaka and explores the application of regulatory and economic instruments in the said service forbetter waste management performance. The research of this study includes a household survey conducted in fourselected areas of Dhaka city.The results of this study reveal that Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) has failed to provide adequate solid wastemanagement service. Only about 50 percent of the generated solid wastes are collected and disposed by theDCC. The reasons are identified as lack of proper policy planning, financial inadequacy, lack of coordinationamong the actors involved in solid waste management (SWM), the absence of incentives for reducing wastes,virtual absence of polluters pay principle, and lack of regulations and their enforcement.This study shows that the present application of regulatory and economic instruments is very limited for SWMin Dhaka. There are no specific charges or fees for solid waste collection and disposal except an indirect taxcalled ‘rates’. There is no comprehensive and specific legislation for SWM in Dhaka as well. Although the DCCAct 1983 and the Municipal Corporation (Taxation) Rules 1986 deal with responsibilities of DCC regardingsolid waste collection and disposal, SWM ‘rates’ and penalties concerning SWM, they are not clearly definedand enforced as yet. Those acts do not contain reference to standards, deposit refund system, incentives, solidwaste plans, subsidies, charges, and fees - the common tools used in developed countries.Based on the existing situation and the extent of application of the instruments, recommendations were made toapply collection and disposal charges/fees, strengthen the deposit refund system, provide incentives, applystandards in different stages of SWM, prepare a solid waste plan, and impose restrictions and bans for improvingsolid waste management of Dhaka.Keywords/phrases: Regulatory Instruments, Economic Instruments, Solid Waste Management 12
  27. 27. Travel Demand Management Techniques Applicable to Urban Transport Problems in Bangkok Metropolitan Area Manoj Kumar Sharma & Bernard G. Lefebvre AbstractThe numbers of private automobiles are fast escalating in Bangkok. Meanwhile, the spiraling cost ofconstruction and maintenance makes it difficult to satisfy the increasing travel demand through newinfrastructures. Thus, the need to implement Travel Demand Management (TDM) cannot be ignored. So far,attempts to alleviate the traffic problems in Bangkok have failed to provide efficient solutions. Not only do thetraffic problems cause long travel delays and environment pollution, but they also aggravate social costs. Inspite of various TDM measures that have been recommended, Bangkok is still struggling in attempting toimplement TDM measures for such a purpose. This study highlights the findings on how Bangkok comparesitself internationally to a large sample of other Asian cities in terms of transport related problems andrecommends the possible TDM techniques applicable in Bangkok Metropolitan Area.Research on comparisons of Bangkok to other Asian cities is conducted in terms of transport infrastructure,transport use patterns, energy consumption in transport, transport economics, and transport externalities.Studies on the status of planned and on-going mega-projects for urban transportation in Bangkok are conductedto establish their interrelations with the existing transport infrastructure.In terms of transport economics, the comparative study reveals that per capita road expenditure in Bangkok ismuch higher than that for all developing Asian cities. However, driving in Bangkok is relatively cheap, which ismost likely a contributing factor to the high level of private vehicle use. Private transport energy use per capitain Bangkok is the highest among the Asian cities. The rate of transport-related deaths in Bangkok is also amongthe highest of all Asian cities. Moreover, the rate of per capita emissions from transport in Bangkok is very high,with the highest levels of SPM, HC, and SO2.Among the various TDM measures, 32 potential measures are short-listed to evaluate for Bangkok. Eachmeasure is evaluated in terms of 11 different criteria with four different aspects, such as environmental, social,economical, and technical.It is found that public transportation improvement techniques secure the highest score. Provision of Mass RapidTransit stands in the first rank, where formalization of motorcycle taxi, contra-flow bus lanes, with-flow buslanes, transit priority at traffic signals attains the second, to fifth rank. The ride sharing strategy is assessed onthe seventh to 12th rank. The peak period dispersion measures are appraised on the sixth and 11th rank.The proposed traffic constraint measures are the most unpopular among the people in Bangkok. Introduction ofparking fees in government offices is the most unacceptable measure, whereas an incremental tax on cars/pick-ups is the second most disliked measure. The attitude of people towards physical measures demonstrates thatthey do not want to pay for improvements of transportation facilities, although the majority of them condemnthe bad traffic conditions in Bangkok.Keywords/phrases: Urban Transport, Travel Demand Management, Public Transportation 13
  28. 28. Urban Solid Waste Disposal: A Case Study of the City of Phnom Penh, Cambodia Chea Sarin & Bernard G. Lefebvre AbstractThe rapid urbanizing process, fueled by rural to urban migration and population growth, has given rise to a hostof urban environmental problems. These include problems related to limited access to basic environmentalinfrastructure and services, pollution from urban wastes and emissions, and loss or destruction of natural andcultural resources. The quality of the environment is thus a matter of growing concern. In this context, SolidWaste Management (SWM) becomes one of the top priorities.The purpose of this study is to review the existing laws and regulations related to environmental protection withspecial attention on the SWM in Cambodia, while assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of these laws andregulations. Studying the present situation of the SWM system and identifying the problems related to thissystem with particular focus on the disposal part are also two main objectives of this study.This results of this study show that there is only limited law and regulations concerning environmentalprotection; especially there is a significant lack of rules and regulation regarding solid waste management. As aresult, the present performance of solid waste management is a laissez faire approach.In the present context, SWM has become one of the most serious problems in Phnom Penh City, as thepopulation increases from time to time. An integrated approach has become important for solving solid wasteproblems in the city and especially options for solid waste disposal. Little attention is paid by the municipalityand the PSBK. At present, the PSBK pays more attention to solid waste collection and transport so that the citybecomes cleaner. However, this approach transfers the problems from one area to another. If an integratedapproach is not initiated immediately, the city may suffer from sanitation and health hazards.Based on these findings, this study recommends an action plan for SWM of Phnom Penh City. It alsorecommends a management plan for improving the conditions of the present landfill which is seriouslyenvironmentally polluted. It was recommended that the present landfill needed to be closed in 2000; however,this study recommends closing it in early 2004 due to the low progression of selecting and lack of capability todesign and plan the new landfill. This study suggests a guideline for new landfill selection, design and operationand post-closure care. Since there is a limited option for the solid waste disposal method, the study alsorecommends promoting a composting system for waste minimization prior to final disposal.Keywords/phrases: Solid Waste Management, Urban Environment, Urban Services 14
  29. 29. 1999 15
  30. 30. Air Pollution Monitoring System: Evaluation and Improvement for Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong Province, Thailand Pawinee Sunalai & Nguyen L. Bach AbstractMap Ta Phut Industrial Estate has been established since 1981, aiming to promote industrial development anddecentralize the economy. As the government is more inclined toward economic development and industrialinvestment than environmental protection, the severity of environmental problems has been increasing over thepast few years. Given this government inclination, air pollution in Map Ta Phut has become a seriousenvironmental concern. To address this concern, this study focuses on investigating the ambient air qualitymonitoring system for Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate and determining who, what, when, where and how oftento monitor the pollutants and their impacts on the environment.It is found that air monitoring for the industrial estate is ineffective for producing accurate and consistentmonitoring data. Furthermore, data availability and dissemination to the public there is not satisfactory in termsof data content, presentation, reliability, and quality. To improve the existing monitoring system for Map TaPhut, a comprehensive quality assurance/quality control program needs to be developed for enhancinginstrument performance accuracy and ensuring reliable and high quality monitoring data. The programs foremission inventory development and meteorological condition measurements (especially mixing height data) arerequired for identifying air pollution problems accurately and increasing the accuracy level of modeling forassessment purposes. Such activities can support and strengthen the air quality monitoring and improve thecapability of the authorities to control air pollution in Map Ta Phut area.Keywords/phrases: Air Pollution Monitoring, Air Quality Monitoring, Emission Inventory 16
  31. 31. Analysis of Road-Users Perceptions on Traffic Management Measures in Colombo City W.M.M.G.D. Wijekoon & A.T.M. Nurul Amin AbstractTraffic congestion has been increasing rapidly in the fast growing city of Colombo. It causes a huge loss ofmoney, property, time, energy, and human health. Congestion originates from various sources, however, theincreasing number of vehicles of the city is the primarily cause. Geographical location and surroundings of thecity and centralization of administrative services are also causes for pulling more and more vehicles intoColombo. Uncontrolled land use and the poor management of infrastructure services are also seen ascontributors to congestion. The Government of Sri Lanka has formulated several management measures toovercome this problem. The success of any kind of management measures primarily depends on the willingnessof people to cooperate. Thus, their involvement is important to implement any management measure.With the above in view, this study focuses on analyzing the road-users’ perceptions towards the roadenvironment in general and traffic management measures in particular in Colombo. The research issues coveredinclude the willingness to pay congestion charges, the responsibility of traffic management of the city, and thepresent conditions of the road network of the city. A questionnaire survey is conducted to determine road-users’perceptions and views from the three types of road-users (pedestrians, drivers, and street vendors). Through thequestionnaire, they are given the opportunity to express their views, attitudes and make suggestions to ease thetraffic congestion in Colombo. Checklist interviews are also conducted to obtain expert opinions and views ofthe management officials including the traffic police. Basic information in relation to the traffic volume, numberof vehicles, and pollution level is collected by reviewing documents and reports.The results of the study specify several findings. The perceptions of the road-users towards the effects of trafficcongestion and the road environment vary according to the time of the day. The busy hours clearly fare worst incharacterization of traffic congestion (always congestion, very noisy and not safe). Most of the road-users havemore positive attitudes to regulatory instruments (RIs) than to economic instruments (EIs). One of theimplications is that the road-users are not agreeable to the economic instruments and their potential role inreducing traffic congestion and better traffic management. It may be due to the fact that the use of economicmeasures may require the road users to pay congestion charges. This is indeed the case, as reflected in thefindings: a majority of respondents do not like to pay for congestion charges. They view the responsibility oftraffic management as the Colombo Municipal Council’s and they would rather use regulatory measures forreducing congestion. The road-users’ perceptions and views have, thus, provided valuable insights fordeveloping guidelines to make decisions, policies and management measures (by combining RIs and EIs) toease the prevailing traffic congestion in Colombo.Keywords/phrases: Traffic Management Measures, Regulatory Instruments, Economic Instruments 17
  32. 32. Application of Economic and Regulatory Instruments for Emission Management: A Case Study of Diesel and Electric Tempos in Kathmandu City Babu Ram Rai & A.T.M. Nurul Amin AbstractMetro Kathmandu is facing the menacing problem of vehicular emissions, which poses a serious environmentalproblem. Vehicular emissions particularly originate from diesel Tempos (three wheeler vehicles). It is one of themajor causes of air pollution in the Metro area. Absence of land use planning, poor vehicles maintenance, weakenforcement of regulatory measures, low fuel quality, and import of old vehicles are known to be the othermajor sources of vehicular emissions. This study focuses on the scope of greater use of regulatory and economicinstruments to abate the emissions for improving the air quality of Kathmandu thus, contributing to the urbanenvironmental management of the city.The increasing urban population is a major cause of massive increase of vehicles in the city. The urbanpopulation of the Metro was 150,402 in 1971 and it rose to 235,160 in 1981. By 1991, the population soared to421,258. As a result, the demand for transportation services has increased rapidly. To respond this situation,demand of Tempos in the city has been increased as the source of cheap transportation services. However, thatthis cheap service takes place at environmental cost is not commonly understood by all involved.Most of these vehicles also use diesel as their fuel and most diesel Tempo drivers have old vehicles. These arecreating more pollution in the Metro. Yet, almost no diesel Tempo owners and drivers are willing to payenvironmental or pollution charges. In the absence of economic and regulatory instrument applications, thissituation remains unchanged. Conversion of diesel Tempos into electric vehicles is highly desirable to managethe problem of emission in Kathmandu. One barrier for such a purpose is the high cost of conversion from DVsto Evs.The regulatory and economic instruments are studied in this research with respect to the above issues. Mostpeople would like to see the reduction of emissions even by banning the use of Tempos. However, once theyapply the regulatory and economic measures, these instruments appreciate their role to contain pollution.It is suggested that the government might provide a subsidy, tax incentives and soft loans for theenvironmentally friendly electric vehicles’ operations and promotions. The number of these highly preferredvehicles, however, is not sufficient due to high initial investment and operating costs. The government plans toprovide soft loans to the battery charging operators. However, it did not act properly until January 1999.Making emission standards compulsory and strict enforcement are required for non-complying vehicles with theprovision of higher emission charges and registration fees for high polluting vehicles. The government couldprovide incentives and subsidies for EV operations and promotions, specifically the government providing soft-loans for conversion of DVs into EVs.Keywords/phrases: Economic Instruments, Regulatory Instruments, Emission 18
  33. 33. Application of Regulatory and Economic Instruments to Control Air Pollution in Dhaka City: A Focus on Major Pollution Emitting Transportation Mode Md. Nasir Uddin & A.T.M. Nurul Amin AbstractThe urban air quality in Bangladesh is fast deteriorating and has reached an alarming level. In Dhaka, the levelsof Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) range 2 to 4 times the national standards, but up to 12 times worse thanthe WHO guidelines in the most heavily polluted traffic corridor. Ambient sulfur dioxide levels (SO2) are nearlyfive times higher than the national standards in commercial areas and nearly ten times higher than the WHOguidelines. Lead levels in Dhaka are also high by the WHO standard. Lead pollution reaches its highest level inthe air of Dhaka during the dry season. The density of lead in Dhaka’s air in November-December-Januarycomes to 463 nanograms per cubic meter, which is higher than even cities like Bombay and Mexico City.Air pollution in Dhaka is worsening rapidly due to the rapid increase in vehicle imports and use, particularlytwo-stroke engine vehicles. Motor vehicles, especially the two-stroke engine vehicles (Baby Taxis and Temposare the two common ones) are responsible for the increase in emissions of both local pollutants and green housegases. The rapid growth in their numbers, poor maintenance, excessive commercial use, fuel adulteration, andlubricant oil quality and quantity are additional reasons that have made these vehicles most polluting. The sharesof the Two-Stroke Engine Vehicles (TSEV) in total vehicular emission of PM10, HC, CO, and CO2 are 40, 77,44, and 13%, respectively.The program of air quality management in Bangladesh is at the early stage of its development in all areasranging from the scientific understanding of the magnitude to institutional structure. The Department ofEnvironment (DOE), Dhaka division, with its limited man power started air quality monitoring in 1995 at fewplaces in the City. Regarding emission inventories, mobile source emissions have been prepared. An inventoryof industrial and area emissions does not exist. To pursue an effective program of air quality management, DOEneeds to be strengthened in terms of trained staff, facilities, and equipment, as it also faces legal and inter-organizational coordination barriers to conduct an effective vehicles inspection program as well as to take actionagainst the polluters. In the absence of these, the vehicles inspection program tends to be more sporadic thansystematic.Analysis of existing laws and regulations exhibits weakness in the legal system that seeks to control vehicularpollution in the country. It needs specific regulations to cover all aspects of vehicular emissions: vehicles, trafficmanagement, fuels, and inspection and maintenance. Although some positive steps have been adopted by theGovernment of Bangladesh by promulgating the Environment Conservation Act 1995 and the EnvironmentConservation Rules 1997, these acts and rules are not specific enough to combat the air pollution situation in theCity. Presently, no economic instruments are being applied as the mechanism of providing incentive or levyingpollution charges for controlling vehicular pollution. This study attempts to make a case of applying theregulatory and economic instruments as management measures for improving the air quality in Dhaka.Air pollution emission process and control mechanisms are identified by analyzing secondary data/information,questionnaire surveys and discussions with the concerned officials/experts. The questionnaire surveyrespondents are households, serviceholders, roadside small traders, and Baby Taxi/Tempo owners and drivers.The results of the study reveal that the existing vehicular pollution management system is very weak withrespect to policy instruments, emission standards of vehicles, standards of fuel and lubricants, traffic rules,inspection and maintenance, public awareness as well as the organizational capacity of DOE. Recommendationsare made for vehicular air pollution control in general and Baby Taxis/Tempos emission control in particular byproposing economic and regulatory measures targeting DOE, vehicles, fuels, lubricant, alternate fuel, trafficmanagement and inspection and maintenance and implementation.Keywords/phrases: Regulatory Instruments, Economic Instruments, Air Pollution 19
  34. 34. Banks and Environmentally-Friendly Practice in Bangkok Metropolitan Region: The Need for Change Beatriz Mayer & Willi Zimmermann AbstractToday the world experiences an acceleration of environmental degradation accompanied by an increasedinvolvement in environmental issues. Banks and financial institutions, who lend the capital for investment incommercial and industrial development, become more aware of their customers’ involvement in environmentalissues.This new involvement is not attributed to a sudden increase in environmental awareness or consciousness “forpreservation of the environmental and/or conservation of natural resources”, but it is rather due to the financialexposure of the banks to the environmental liabilities of their customers. Thus, the banks have a new financialrisk associated with the accountability and exposure of their industrial customers, whose production processes orproducts bring negative impact on the environment through the use or production of toxic, infectious, orhazardous materials. Hence, the banks are indirectly responsible and financially accountable for environmentaldegradation.This paper studies the level of awareness and the current responses of both local and international banks in theBangkok Metropolitan Region to environmental issues and environmental risks. What responses are the banksgiving to the increased significance of environmental issue? The study includes a survey of over 30 banks inBangkok. Results indicate that banks are being slow to follow this international trend. The study also analyzesthe growing need that banks in Bangkok will be facing, as new scenario changes may take place.Keywords/phrases: Environmental Risks, Environmental Degradation, Environmental Awareness 20
  35. 35. Challenges and Constraints Faced by Women NGOs in Urban Solid Waste Management in Kathmandu Valley: An Analysis from a Gender Perspective Muna Basnyat & Willi Zimmermann AbstractMost often local governments are held responsible for providing daily services like solid waste management andare blamed for any kind of failures and inadequacies that prevail. Due to lack of resources and commitmentfrom their part solid waste most often emanates as a major environmental problem in urban areas. KathmanduMetropolitan City (KMC) and Lalitpur Sub Metropolitan (LSM) have been the victims of solid wastemanagement problem in recent years, with a trend of generating more volume and complicated waste stream inthe coming years. Acknowledging the inadequacies of the local government, informal sector, private sector andNGOs have emerged to supplement their activities.This study focuses on analyzing the relevance of NGOs in urban solid waste management in the presentscenario, with an objective to envisage their roles and functions in providing supplementary service to themetropolitan/sub metropolitan areas. This study further focuses on assessing on how women’s NGOs operateand how they are perceived by the community and the local government. Out of the three roles of women,productive, reproductive and community management, the latter role is not adequately acknowledged and mostoften thought as an extension of the reproductive role. Thus, this study aims to find out the scope of this role infilling up the voids that the local government has in providing its services. Assessing one women’s NGOsexternally and internally explores the possibilities of its replication in other areas. Based on this result,strategies are formulated on how their roles should be highlighted and what functions are they expected to playin addressing the issue of solid waste management in the future. Moreover, based on the critique of genderanalysis, this study analyzes the additional role that women’s NGOs are expected to play in attaining genderequity in relation to cultural and social structures within the periphery of ‘waste management’.Keywords/phrases: Solid Waste Management, Gender Equality, NGO 21
  36. 36. Determination of Cost Efficiency for Pricing of Water Supply Systems: A Case Study of Four Cities in Lao PDR Sisangouane Sirithasack & Nguyen L. Bach AbstractWater supply is one of the basic urban services desirable to reach every household in the urban areas. In spite ofthe economic hardship, Lao government has managed to arrange for a significant amount of investment in theurban sector. However, even an investment of US$ 96 million in 1994, could bring about a potable-piped watersupply to only 54% of the urban population. The study is conducted in four main cities of Lao PDR, namely:Vientiane, Luang Prabang, Pakse, and Saravane.In the present context, the cost for operation and maintenance exceeds the revenue, due to the low incomegenerated by tariff. As a result, cost-efficient service is not being provided to the whole of the urban population.In this study, estimation is made to determine the cost efficiency for the water pricing of water supply systemsin Lao PDR. This study focuses on proposing a solution to reduce the gap between revenue and expenditure ofthe three cities, namely: Luang Prabang, Pakse, and Saravane. Similarly, affordability and willingness of thepeople to pay for these services are also taken into consideration. Based on the finding of this study,recommendations are made for total capital investment, along with various ways through tariff to provideservice to different income groups.Keywords/phrases: Cost Efficiency, Water Supply, Basic Urban Services 22
  37. 37. Developing a Strategy to Increase Participation of Hotels in Environmental Management Programs in Panjim, Goa, India Pallavi R. Mandke & Walter Jamieson AbstractThe increasing number of tourists received at many destinations has encouraged a number of accommodationfacilities to be built in and around the destinations. This activity has drawn attention the world over with aspecial reference to environmental sustainability. Environmental management programs for hotels areimmerging as a response to political and social pressure for sustainability. Some examples are Green Globe,Green Leaf Program, the Blue Flag and individual efforts by hotel chains like ECOTAJ. The primeenvironmental issues in hotels are solid waste, water and energy management, which are also pivotal urbanissues. Thus, developing environmental management programs and ensuring participation of hotels in theseprograms becomes important from the point of view of urban environmental sustainability.This research examines successful experiments in environmental management of hotels and draws valuablelessons for their replication in Panjim, Goa. It further assesses the awareness, willingness, and perception ofhoteliers to adopt environmental management programs. A stakeholder analysis is necessary to study theexisting and expects the roles of stakeholders in the program.The strategy addresses a range of issues at two levels, at the hotel level, training and awareness, floating staffissues, target audience, and hardware solutions for making physical changes in hotels. At the stakeholder level,expected roles and coordination is discussed. The solutions to encourage hotels to participate in the program aresought through a regulatory, incentive or disincentive approach.Keywords/phrases: Stakeholder, Environmental Management, Urban Environment 23
  38. 38. Development of a Strategy for Municipal Solid Waste Disposal: A Case Study of Hanoi City, Vietnam Pham Duc Thai & A.T.M. Nurul Amin AbstractIt is observed that more growth of economic activities and population growth in urban areas lead to more urbanenvironmental problems. The environmental problem with respect to the volume and complexity of wastes hasincreased in general. Particularly, inappropriate disposing of municipal solid wastes has become a serious threatto the environment and public health in Hanoi. The increase in waste generation and lack of planning fordisposal sites compounds the problem. While the Hanoi Urban Environmental Company (URENCO) isprimarily responsible for planning the disposal sites along with overall solid waste management for the city,planners look for various alternatives for efficient solid waste management in Hanoi, due to the problem-risingmagnitude and, most urgently, the existing dumpsite has alarmingly reached its capacity.With respect to the views above, this study focuses on various aspects that are important for developing astrategy for municipal solid waste disposal in Hanoi. This requires thorough investigation on the currentsituation of municipal solid waste management and disposal practice. The data collection method of the studyinvolves field survey, interview, as well as the obtained data results from analyzing waste samples in the studyarea. Recent literature on solid waste disposal in Hanoi is also reviewed. Data analyzed include compositionalvariations of total wastes in Hanoi over the last five years.The results of this study show a rapid increase in the total amount of municipal waste and significantcomposition changes. These are related to the increase of population and living standards in Hanoi in the lastfew years. In Hanoi, the total daily amount of municipal waste has increased from 700 tons in 1995 to about1,400 tons in 1998. It is estimated to reach 3,500 tons per day by 2020.Until now, the large proportion (65%) of municipal solid waste in Hanoi has been transported to the one existingopen dumpsite. Only a small portion (5%) is used as the input waste of a Cau Dien pilot composting plant,although the component of organic matter is 62.5% of the total waste generated. The amount of the dischargedhazardous waste without treatment is still high. This causes considerable pollution in Hanoi. The lack of budgetand inefficiency in operation and management of the responsible organizations also contributes to the problemof municipal solid waste management in Hanoi.To overcome the existing problems, an integrated approach comprising a new sanitary landfill and a compostingplant is suggested for such a purpose. It also includes policy and planning measures for the improvement of thepresent dumpsite and the composting plant. To deal with the requirements of operation and management in thefuture, and for strengthening the capacity of the responsible organizations, a restructuring of URENCO is alsorecommended. In addition, reduce, reuse, recycling programs, the application of regulatory and economicinstruments, and programs for raising people’s awareness are suggested as measures to reduce the volume ofmunicipal solid waste generated and help reach reasonable efficiency in municipal solid waste treatment anddisposal.Keywords/phrases: Solid Waste Disposal, Regulatory Instruments, Economic Instruments 24
  39. 39. Environmental Awareness and Regulations in Banking Practices: A Case Study in Ho Chi Minh City Dao Hao Yen & Willi Zimmermann AbstractIndustrialization and urbanization though vital for the development of a country, carries heavy environmentalimpacts, which are not often acknowledged until they reach the level of severity. Vietnam at this stage seemsmuch concerned with the development process, but cares little for the environment. Careful consideration for theenvironment would have positive repercussions for the future.Banks have been identified as one of the components that can play an intermediary role in keeping the balancebetween the economic activities and conserving the environment. This study aims at finding the banks’ interestsin supporting environmentally friendly projects and their policy. It also investigates the awareness amongst theclients and their desire to implement such projects.The overall analysis has looked into the constraints faced by the government and then, comes up with proposalsfor reforms in banking systems to support environmentally friendly projects. Similarly, an assessment has beenmade of how banks can get such projects implemented and how awareness amongst the people can be raised toattract them towards such projects. Thus, this study is expected to help in creating a linkage between the policymakers, banks and the clients so that economic development can be achieved along with environmentalprotection. From this study, a new concept of environmental concern has also been introduced in the bankingsystem to contribute to environmental protection activities. Moreover, policy makers can use the obtainedinformation to establish environmental policy for a banking system.Keywords/phrases: Environmental Protection, Economic Development, Environmental Awareness 25

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