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Sustainable Energy Policies Evaluation of Thailand

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  • 1. Sustainable Energy Policies Evaluation of Thailand By Choen Krainara1. Overview of Energy Structure of Thailand1.1 Supply of energy or supply side in the year 2006 Energy plays important role in driving Thai economy. It becomes necessary consumptionfor the everyday life of the people. In 2006, Thailand had supplied all types of energy at the totalamount of 114,121 thousand Tons of crude oil equivalent which comprise of 58,360 thousandTons of crude oil equivalent or about 55 % sourcing from external sources while approximate55,761 thousand Tons of crude oil equivalent or about 45% came from domestic sources(Ministry of Energy, 2006).The Office of the National Economic and Social Development Boardprojected that Thailand’s economic growth rate in 2006 had been at a rate of 5 % and theinflation rate at 4.6 %, with a slight surplus current account, and that exports had been the keydriving forces in 2006. Supply of Energy of Thailand in 2006 1 0 0 0 to n s o f C r u d e O il 80 70 E q u iv a le n t 60 50 Foreign Source 40 30 Domestic Source 20 10 0 r al e he il B io i ty s s er Co te n il eO as C o l Ga Ot t u ts ic sa ow L ig ct r N a uc -m ud en op ra od E le Cr nd dr Pr Hy m leu tr o Pe Energy types Figure 1: Supply of Energy of Thailand in 2006 In terms of distribution of external sources of supply of energy, approximately at 70.26 %were represented by crude oil, 2.48 % petroleum products, 14.53 % natural gas, 11.90 % coal,0.75 % electricity and 0.04% bio-mass, respectively. It is indicated that Thailand relied heavilyof energy particularly on crude oil from external sources which is rather not sustainable in acurrent surged oil price uncertainty. While distribution of domestic sources of supply of energyChoen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 1Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 2. comprised of 37.84 % natural gas, 6.57 % condensate, 11.52 % crude oil, 9.84 % lignite, 3.22 %hydropower, 30.36 % biogas and 0.62 % for others, respectively. It is a prospect that Thailandcan expand more energy diversifications from domestic sources especially on natural gas, bio-gasand hydropower which are leading towards clean and sustainable energy development. Regarding (Net) import of primary commercial energy was at 978 KBD of crude oilequivalent, a decrease of 0.2% from the previous year. Due to the increase in the exportpetroleum products by 78.8%, the ratio of energy import to consumption decreased from 64% in2005 to 63 % in 2006. Although the volume of energy import increased, the total expenditure onimported energy still increased, resulting from very high crude oil prices in the world market in2006. The total value of imported energy was, therefore, 919,144 Million Baht. The total volumehad increased at 16.9 % when compared with that in 2005 in which such import accounted forapproximately 15% of GDP, (Ministry of Energy, 2006). As a result of this, Thailand has beenfacing challenges on how to stabilize balance of payments due to high while continuing overalleconomic growth is developed in a sustainable development manner. Value of Energy Import 1000000 900000 800000 Crude Oil M illio n B a h t 700000 Petroleum Products 600000 Natural Gas 500000 Coal 400000 Electricity 300000 Total 200000 100000 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Year Figure 2: Value of Energy Import1.2 Demand of energy or demand side in the year 2006 In 2006, all types of total energy consumption were amounted at 63,180 thousand Tons ofcrude oil equivalent breaking down into 38% using as fuel for industrial development, 36% intransportation sector, 14% in household sector, 6% in businesses sector, 5% in agricultural sectorand 1 % in others e.g. quarrying and construction, respectively. (Please see details in Figure 2).Average prices of major fuel products have also been increasing for 50 % from 2002 to 2006except for NGV which remains rather constant. Whereas energy use efficiency is lowest intransportation sector. For the trend in 2007, demand for Gasoline and Diesel will be increasedand some car users may divert toward energy substitution e.g. LPG and NGV. Thailand againhas been confronting with the risk of energy price instability. This implies that Thailand shouldbetter improve energy utilization efficiency in almost major consumption sectors in order toChoen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 2Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 3. sustain continued economic growth while also help improve cleaner environment as well aswisely using natural resources. Energy Consumption by Sectors 70000 Industrial 60000 1 00 0 T o n s o f C ru d e O il E q u ip v a le n t Agricultural 50000 Transport 40000 Business 30000 Household 20000 Quarraying and 10000 Construction Total 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Year Figure 3: Energy Consumption by Sectors2. Thailand Sustainable Energy Policy Analyses for the Year 2003-20062.1 The Context of National Energy PolicesAs illustrated above, the energy sector has been currently undergoing in transition. It isnecessary to deepen our insight on what were the key chronological development and focus ofenergy policies in Thailand for the past 4 years so that such evaluation of extent of sustainableenergy development can be taken place. Previously, Thailand had formulated national energypolicies corresponding with the Five Years National Economic and Social Development Plans.But this study will focus the time duration for the year 2003-2006 as time series data due to therewere crucial shifts of policy elements. It should be noted that the key context of energy policiesstatements were mainly covered national energy strategies formulated in 2003 complementedwith respective annual energy policies which were increasingly become importantly periodicaladjustments when Thailand facing surge of oil prices in the global market. The key componentsof these policies are as follows: 1) Energy Strategies: Energy for National Competiveness of Thailand, 2003-2005, (Office of Energy Policy and Planning, 2003) The necessary to formulate the energy strategies were to strengthen national energy security aswell as promoting global competiveness. As a result, Thailand needs to firstly utilize energyefficiently, accelerate development of potential domestic renewable energy to substitute fossilfuels which were limited reserve including wisely management of existing energy resources forlong-term utilization. The strategies comprised of 4 key aspects as follows:Choen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 3Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 4. • Efficient utilization of energy. In the past 15 years, energy intensity of Thailand slightly increased while most of developed countries tended to decline. Energy elasticity of Thailand was at 1.4:1 (It represents 1.4 % increase of energy utilization will lead to 1% increase of economic growth; USA had energy elasticity at 0.8:1 and Japan at 0.95:1). In this regard, Thailand set to reduce energy elasticity from 1.4:1 to 1:1 by 2007 by introducing selected measures to reduce energy consumption growth particularly in transport and industrial sectors. This included promoting multimodal transport, modal shift from car to rail mode as well as improving public transport, energy saving car, applying tax and incentives in transport and industry as well as promoting co-generation in industrial estate. • Renewable Energy. Increase renewable energy ratio from 0.5% of primary energy consumption in 2002 to 8 % within the next 8 years. It also supports local participation in owning power plants generated by renewable energy. • Energy Security. Reserve adequate electricity to meet demand with reasonable price structures as well as taking care quality of life and minimize environmental impact to local community. Increase energy reserve to meet future demand from 30 years to 50 years. • Promoting Thailand as energy trading hub in the region.2) Strategies for Mitigating Energy Crisis of Thailand, 2005 Following to the continued fluctuation of oil prices in 2004, Strategies for Mitigating EnergyCrisis of Thailand was made available. It major features covered: • Accelerate utilization of alternative energy to substitute oil as well as promoting efficient use of energy. Its targets were to reduce overall energy consumption from 15% and 20% and in the year 2008 and 2009, respectively. (When the mass transport system is completed.) o Transport sector to be reduced oil consumption by 25% within the year 2009 by using other fuels to substitute oil e.g. NGV, Gasohol, Biodiesel including the improvement of logistics system, public transport and distribution system. o Industrial sector to be reduced oil consumption by 25% within the year 2008 by employing measures to directly stimulate businesses and industry and upholding natural gas to substitute oil particularly for industries which are located along the gas pipeline using Gas District Cooling and Cogeneration. o For Public Sector, immediate energy saving at 10-15% should be taken measuring by key performance indicators. • Sourcing of Energy. For long-term energy security, provisions of energy from neighboring countries e.g. hydropower and natural gas need to be secured. This also including exploring energy from other regions e.g. Middle East and Africa for sale and export back to Thailand. • Added value creation for energy resources. Within 4 years (2005-2008), there will be an investment amounting at 800,000 Million Baht on Biodiesel development and GasoholChoen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 4Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 5. which will lead to modernize agricultural sector as well expanding petrochemical industry development for enhancing gas value from the Gulf of Thailand.3) Policies and Energy Development Plan, 2006 It was taken Principle of Self-Sufficiency Economy of the King as a basis for development.Actually it continued some similar characteristics from the previous plan. It covers both short-term and long-term plans as follows: • Long-term plan (1 year). It was an urgent problem resolve with respect to restructure of energy management system, energy saving, renewable energy, appropriate price structure to promote fair competition, setting Clean Development Mechanism Standard (CDM) as well as promoting private sector and public participation in designing policies and measures on energy including community biodiesel production and utilization. • Long-term plan. Its objective was to lay down a basis for promoting sustainable energy management corresponding with the Principle of Self-Sufficiency Economy by designing measures to secure adequate energy supply and minimize import of energy including promotion of other sources of renewable energy e.g. fuel cell, nuclear, etc. Sustainable energy development to minimize environmental impact from energy business activities, efficient use of energy, fair energy business competition were other key goals.2.2 Analyses on Extent of Sustainable Energy PoliciesThailand has become aware of crucial role play by energy sector. Many efforts have been madeto bridge supply of energy with demand for economic growth. It is therefore indispensable toevaluate how far Thailand is approaching in promoting sustainable energy policies. In thisregard, SWOT Analysis is adopted. And the analysis is shown below: 1) Strengths • Quick turn towards sustainable energy policies by introducing plans and measures to reduce energy consumption in key sectors was apparent. • Planned improve multimodal transport, modal shift from car to rail mode as well as improving public transport, energy saving car, as well as applying tax and incentives in transport and industry. • Long-term energy planning from diversified resource endowments has been reinforced. • Renewable energy become important components in energy polices supported by measures to promote renewable energy trading, promoting local participation in owning power plants generated by renewable energy. • Efficient use of energy was given high priority with time frame monitoring and evaluation. • Institutional arrangements in terms of laws and regulations to support fair competition in energy business are being put in place. 2) Weaknesses • Social and environmental impacts of energy development projects and energy utilization have given moderate to low priorities.Choen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 5Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 6. • Lack of integration of health impact assessment into development and expansion of large industrial development projects, e.g. at Mab Ta Phut Industrial Estate • Moderate awareness on capacity building to strengthen access to all types of energy services of the poor. 3) Opportunity • There can help generate livelihood opportunity for the poor in rural areas in taking part of planting biodiesel development projects. • Environmental quality could be improved from extensive use of renewable energy toward cleaner environment and better quality of life of Thai people. 4) Threats • Current, uncertainty of oil prices in the global market may affect economic growth of overall performance of Thai Economy.2.3 Analyses of Programs and Its ImpactWhen translations of those policies had been or have been made through programs. It isnecessary to evaluate its progress and impact. It should be noted that such program may havetaken before the study period and might partly contribute the results in the study time duration.There are 3 dimensions of indicators used for programs analyses covering economic,environmental and social aspects as follows:1) Economic Dimension Energy supply is very important sustainable economic development. While the price ofcrude oil equivalent continues to rise and is expected to be depleted before the next century,Thailand is now looking for alternative energy, renewable energy and energy saving methods.Energy security is become a serious issue and the country cannot afford to have a shortage or insufficiency of energy supply. One of the programs the government is to promote the alternativefuels for motor vehicles, for example, gasohol and NGV. The government has used price policyto encourage the use of gasohol and NGV as the prices of the two latter types of fuel are lowerthan gasoline. The price of gasoline premium or ULG95 in 2007 is 32.89 baht and ULG91 is 31.59 perLitre while the price of gasohol 95, 28.89 baht per Litre, gasohol 91, 28.09 baht per Litre andNGV, 8.50 baht per kilogram. The indicator used to evaluate the program is the rate of theuse of gasohol and NGV. Please details in appendices1-5. According to the annual report 2006 of the Ministry of Energy, the demand for gasoholincreased from 12 KBD (thousand barrels per day) to 22 KBD or 89.5 percent in 2005-2006.However because the limited amount of ethanol, the production rate of gasohol remained at 21-23 KBD in 2006 but is increasing in 2007 as the production of ethanol has increased to meet thedemand. As for NGV, amount of vehicles used NGV in 2005 increased to 25,371 or 68.8 percentand the number of service stations opened in that year was 99 but mostly in Bangkok. The highrate of the use of gasohol and NGV would slow down the rising cost rate of transportation whichChoen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 6Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 7. would slow down the rise of inflation and the cost of living. It could be said that the program hasa moderate tendency toward sustainability. Another program to be evaluated is the promotion of the use of bio-diesel. Since there is astrong relationship between energy and economy, strategies to diversity energy mix and energysources by developing renewable energy from indigenous sources for producing liquid fuelcalled bio-diesel. The indicator is the amount of the consumption compared to the planedtarget. The Ministry of Energy has set a target for bio-diesel production and consumption toreplace 10 percent of total diesel consumption in 2012. It has planned to distribute 5% bio-dieselblending (B5) to 290 service stations throughout the country. Because of the price incentive bysetting the price of bio-diesel 0.70 baht per Litre lower than the price of ordinary, the number ofservice stations which sell bio-diesel is 770 in 2007 and the amount of selling of bio-diesel B5 isalmost 2 million Litre per day. Although the production and consumption of bio-diesel are at theinitial stage, the high rate of consumption suggests a moderate tendency toward sustainability ofthe program.2) Environmental Dimension To evaluate the effectiveness or the impact of the program on environment, such as cleanenergy use program, we have set up indicators by using air pollution caused by energyconsumption. To be more precise the rate of CO2 produced by the energy use is used as anindicator. According to Ministry of Energy in 2002, CO2 emitted by the energy sector wasamounted 163,039 (103 tons) and has steadily been increased since then. In 2003 the amount ofCO2 emitted was 171,370 and in 2006,188,663. Although Thailand has produced very low rate ofgreenhouse gases by the world standard or 0.6 percent of the total emission of the greenhousegases by all the countries, the increasing rate of CO2 produced by the energy sector is a warningsign for the government that a lot more has to be done if it wants to make the clean energyprograms more effective. Another indicator is the rate of carbon monoxide or CO. Again according to Ministryof Energy the rate has been steadily increased. In 1999 the amount of CO caused by the energyconsumption was 2,722 (103 tons) and in 2003, 2,973 and in 2006, 3,078 (103 tons). Please seedetails in Appendix 6. Despite the fact the rate of energy consumption both oil and electricity is on the increasedue to economic growth as a result of expansion of industry, transportation, and agricultures, andan increase on the rate of air pollution seem to be inevitable, the continuing increasing rate ofCO2 and CO emissions as a result of energy use indicates that the clean energy program is stillineffective and weak in tendency toward sustainability.3) Social Dimension As for the energy use in the social aspect, we can say that Thailand does not have specificprograms on heath protection through energy consumption. But the program on the use ofunleaded gasoline for motor vehicles and the reduction of sulfur content in diesel with an aim toreduce air pollution can be considered as a program to help reduce heath hazard caused by energyuse. The number of the people who suffer with respiratory disease is used as an indicator.Please see details in Appendix 7. According to National Statistic Bureau, between 1991 andChoen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 7Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 8. 2006, the respiratory disease is the top among all the illness. In Thailand in 1991 the number ofpeople who suffered with the respiratory disease was 38.1 percent of all the patients and the ratecontinued to increase. In 2001 the rate is 39.9 percent and 2006, 44.3 percent. Although it is truethat respiratory illness is caused by various factors such as smoking, dust and unhealthyenvironment especially in factories, an increasing rate of air pollution caused by energyconsumption mentioned earlier is also a cause of this disease. Hence the program is still a longway to go toward reducing this disease and providing healthier environment. The government has been campaigning the efficient use of energy in order to provideknowledge regarding energy saving to the people. This involves a number of programs whichleads to a change of habit of the people as consumers. One of the programs is a campaign to usecompact fluorescent lamps no.5. It has adopted a slogan “For the Nation, Discard IncandescentLamps, Use Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs)” The indicator to evaluate the impact of theenergy saving campaigning program is the rate of power consumption. As regard the use ofCFLs, According to the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the use of CFLs isbe coming popular as between 1993-2001 the use of CFLs has reduced the rate of powerconsumption by 57.2 million watt hours, compared to total use of around 100,000 kilo watt hoursin 2001 it is expected that the use of CFLs will be increased which would reduce the rate of thepower consumption which mean that education and campaigning programs are rather effective.More people are willing to change their habit switching to use CFLs despite the fact the cost forunit is much higher than the incandescent lamps. CFLs cost 80 baht per one lamp while anincandescent lamp cost only 30 baht. Hence the campaign has a moderate tendency towardsustainability. Another social dimension is the gender equity in employment which there are noprograms regarding this issue. The indicator employed is the ratio of men to women in theenergy sector. Please see details in Appendix 8. According the National Statistic Bureau, thenumber of employees in the state enterprises and government owned companies in electricity,gas and water supply industries is 76.1 thousands and female employees is only 21.2 thousands.This wide gap between men and women in the energy sector can be explained that most of maleemployees are technicians, engineers and field workers and female employees are in theaccounting, finance and general administration departments. It is not easy to increase the numberof female employees since it is still a value of the management not to hire female engineers andtechnicians because they believe that the jobs for those professional people are not suitable forwomen. Nevertheless, if the energy policy and programs want to establish social harmony whichwill make the policy and development sustainable gender equity in employment in this sectormust be encouraged. At the moment, because of the gap, the gender equity has a weak tendencytoward sustainability.3. ConclusionsThailand has long been relied mainly on external sources of energy. This leads to huge negativebalance of payments. During the study period, Thailand realized that energy is central tocontribute to overall economic performance of the country. A quick turn of energy polices a bitan energy saving schemes. All these have shown that it might lead Thailand towards sustainableenergy policies economically. On the other hand, social and environmental dimensions areneeded to given more serious attention. It is worth mentioning that promoting of biodieseldevelopment projects can also help generate livelihood opportunities to the poor in rural areas.In this regards, Energy is central to sustainable development.Choen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 8Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 9. In terms of program analyses, it has shown some coherence in translating polices into real actionso that energy consumption reduction can be taken place. Again, it has also seen success inimplementing economic programs but for social aspect particularly on health needs to be takencare aggressively in order to ensure that human health is protected from environmental impactfrom such energy development or emissions. Likewise, environmental aspect should alsoinclusively be careful so that balanced development is upheld for the benefit access to cleanenvironment of all Thai people in society. ReferencesElectricity Generating Authority of Thailand, 2006, Report on the Campaign to Use CompactFluorescent Lamps no.5.Ministry of Energy, 2006, Annual Report 2006, BangkokMinistry of Public Health, 2006, Annual Report 2006, BangkokOffice of Energy Policy and Planning, 2003, State of Energy Policies and Measures of Thailand,BangkokOffice of Energy Policy and Planning, 2006, Annual Report 2006Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB), 2007, GrossDomestic Product, 2nd Quarter, 2007Internet websitehttp://www.energy.go.th/moenwww.nso.go.thhttp://www.un.orghttp://www.undp.orgChoen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 9Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 10. List of AppendicesAppendix 1: Comparison of Benzene 91 and Gasohol 91 ConsumptionAppendix 2: Comparison of Benzene 95 and Gasohol 95 ConsumptionChoen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 10Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 11. Appendix 3: Number of stations (2007) Station Country Large Small sellers PTT Wide Sellers Explore and Production Public Company Limited Gasohol95 3,603 3,481 122 1,197 Gasohol 91 700 700 - 273 Biodiesel 774 774 - 175 B5Appendix 4: Summary of the NGV Promotion ImplementationChoen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 11Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 12. Appendix 5: Promotion of NGV Used in Vehicles Progress Total number Total number in 12 accumulated in months September 2007 (Oct 06-Sept 07) Number of vehicles that 44,657 23,445 use NGV 38,087 18,986 - Benzene 4,612 1,998 - Diesel 1,958 1,861 - NGV (OEM) Number of NGV 183 112 stations Number of provinces 35 21 that provided NGV stations Total sale of NGV 26.9 6,717 MMSCF (MMSCFD)Choen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 12Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 13. Appendix 6: Estimated Air Pollutant Emissions by Types from Energy ConsumptionChoen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 13Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 14. Appendix 7: Percentage of patients separated by diseases (1991-2006)Source: Report on the health survey, National Statistic BureauDiseases 1991 1992 2001 2003 2004 2005 2006Respiratory Disease 38.1 45.7 39.6 40.2 44.8 45.0 44.3Muscle and Tendon 15.7 13.2 14.0 14.9 11.8 12.2 11.4DiseaseDigestive Disease 15.4 11.3 10.0 10.3 9.1 9.3 9.4Heart Disease 3.0 6.6 6.6 6.3 5.2 5.9 6.3Endocrine Disease 1.4 3.3 4.7 4.4 3.1 4.4 4.1Infectious Disease 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.3 2.1 1.7 0.9Urinary Tract Infection 1.4 1.8 1.3 1.3 1.1 0.9 1.0DiseaseAllergic Disease 0.7 1.5 1.8 2.1 1.8 1.9 2.3Mental Illness 0.8 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.9 2.1Derma Disease 3.2 1.2 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.4Genital Disease 1.4 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7Choen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 14Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 15. Appendix 8: EMPLOYED PERSONS BY WORK STATUS, INDUSTRY AND SEX, WHOLE KINGDOM QUARTER 1: 2007, Unit X 1,000 Work Status Own Unpaid Members of Government Private Account Family Producers Total Employer Employee Employee Worker Worker Cooperatives MALE 19,343.2 829.8 1,713.8 7,675.7 6,927.7 2,166.4 29.8 1. Agriculture, 6,931.1 221.3 86.9 1,237.1 4,118.2 1,265.4 2.3hunting and forestry 2. Fishing 359.1 11.6 - 98.8 204.0 44.4 0.3 3. Mining and 57.8 4.1 - 47.6 5.3 0.8 -quarrying 4. Manufacturing 2,707.3 113.2 10.0 2,173.3 330.4 75.0 5.5 5. Electricity, gas 79.6 - 76.1 3.4 - - -and water supply 6. Construction 2,070.6 163.6 46.0 1,728.9 91.6 23.7 16.9 7. Wholesale andretail trade, repair of 3,012.3 206.1 1.9 1,165.7 1,142.1 494.9 1.7motor vehiclesmotorcycles andpersonal andhousehold goods 8. Hotel and 856.3 35.4 0.0 234.8 364.6 220.9 0.6restaurants 9. Transport, storage 920.8 13.2 95.5 331.7 469.4 11.0 0.0and communication10. Financial 146.3 1.6 22.7 115.7 5.5 0.8 -intermediation11. Real estate,renting and business 406.8 38.3 30.5 252.1 75.9 9.6 0.4activities12. Publicadministration and 815.9 - 815.9 - - - -defense, compulsory socialsecurity13. Education 413.7 2.8 354.2 52.6 3.0 1.1 -14. Health and social 148.2 3.6 104.1 29.4 9.9 1.0 0.2work15. Othercommunity, social 344.4 15.1 69.4 133.4 107.1 17.6 1.8and personal serviceactivity16. Privatehouseholds with 33.6 - - 33.6 - - -employed persons17. Extra-territorialorganizations and 1.7 - - 1.7 - - -bodies18. Unknown 37.5 - 0.7 36.0 0.9 - - FEMALE 15,909.5 258.7 1,381.5 5,877.8 4,267.3 4,099.5 24.8 1. Agriculture, 5,354.7 86.5 28.9 965.7 1,731.0 2,539.2 3.3hunting and forestry Choen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 15 Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT
  • 16. 2. Fishing 102.0 0.7 - 9.9 36.5 54.8 - 3. Mining and 16.1 1.1 - 8.9 1.5 4.6 -quarrying 4. Manufacturing 3,067.9 29.6 10.5 2,347.6 446.2 215.9 18.2 5. Electricity, gas 22.5 - 21.2 1.2 - - -and water supply 6. Construction 370.9 8.2 11.0 320.3 1.5 29.9 - 7. Wholesale andretail trade, repair ofmotor vehicles 2,707.4 57.8 1.8 805.8 1,058.7 781.4 1.8motorcycles andpersonal andhousehold goods 8. Hotel and 1,518.8 45.6 0.3 403.9 674.5 393.2 1.2restaurants 9. Transport, storage 159.8 2.6 33.4 88.0 25.0 10.8 -and communication10. Financial 168.9 0.2 22.4 140.8 3.6 1.8 0.1intermediation11. Real estate,renting and business 274.5 8.5 21.1 192.2 31.8 20.8 -activities12. Publicadministration and 404.3 - 404.3 - - - -defense, compulsory socialsecurity13. Education 614.8 0.5 475.4 133.4 4.7 0.8 -14. Health and social 456.7 1.6 322.6 101.4 25.9 5.1 0.2work15. Othercommunity, social 448.7 15.6 27.6 138.1 226.5 40.9 0.0and personal serviceactivity16. Privatehouseholds with 196.3 - - 196.3 - - -employed persons17. Extra-territorialorganizations and 1.6 - - 1.6 - - -bodies18. Unknown 24.0 - 1.1 22.5 - 0.3 -Source: The Labor Force Survey Whole Kingdom Quarter 1 January - March 2007, National Statistical Office, Ministry ofInformation and Communication Technology Choen Krainara : Sustainable Development Theories and Practices Course 16 Regional and Rural Development Planning Field of Study, SERD, AIT

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