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Decentralized Rural Development Planning : A Case Study of  Khok Charoen District, Lopburi Province, Thailand (Part I)

Decentralized Rural Development Planning : A Case Study of Khok Charoen District, Lopburi Province, Thailand (Part I)



Introduction, Natural Resources and Environment Sector and Agricultural Sector

Introduction, Natural Resources and Environment Sector and Agricultural Sector



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    Decentralized Rural Development Planning : A Case Study of  Khok Charoen District, Lopburi Province, Thailand (Part I) Decentralized Rural Development Planning : A Case Study of Khok Charoen District, Lopburi Province, Thailand (Part I) Document Transcript

    • Rural Regional Planning Workshop January – May 2008 Workshop Report Development Planning ofKhok Charoen District, Lopburi Province Submitted to Asso. Prof. Dr.Soparth Pongquan Professor J.K. Routray Mr. Vitoon Nil-Ubol Submitted by Rural regional Development Planning Student Rural Regional Development Planning Field of Study School of Environment, Resources and Development Asian Institute of Technology Thailand
    • AcknowledgmentsFirst, we would like to express our deep gratitude to Prof.J.K.Routray, School ofEnvironment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, and Dr. SoparthPongquan, Associate professor, School of Environment, Resources and Development, AsianInstitute of Technology for their kind and field and class room guidance, comments, and theirtechnical assistance in preparing this report and to learn a valid practical social researchmethodologies.This report and field work was become successfully possible due to Mr. Vitoon Nil-ubol,RRDP Field Laboratory Supervisor, School of Environment, Resources and Development,Asian Institute of Technology. We heartily acknowledged his efforts in preparing schedules,organizing filed surveys and trips and data collection. We also extend our thanks to all thesenior Thai students who acted as translator and made our job easier while data collection andeven in data organizing.Finally, our greatest appreciation is given to local people of Khok Chareon district and TAOofficials, and other officials at the district and provincial level for their warm contribution andsupport. ii
    • Workshop Participants1 Mr. Abdul Waheed Pakistan2 Mr. Abid Hussain Pakistan3 Mr. Alam Mohammad Pakistan4 Mr. Amar B. Thing Nepal5 Mr. Bashirullah Khpalwan Afghanistan6 Ms. Chaba Srisuno Thailand7 Mr. Choen Krainara Thailand8 Mr. Imran Taj Hassani Pakistan9 Mr. Junaid Alam Memon Pakistan10 Mr. Khampu Phoyyavong Laos11 Mr. Mahtab Ahmad Pakistan12 Mr. Mizan ul-Rahman Bangladesh13 Ms. Naw Pe The Law Myanmar14 Ms. Nay New Myanmar15 Ms. Poonam Sharma Nepal16 Mr. S.Apichatthanapath (seng) Thailand17 Mr. Sarawuth Wattatham Thailand18 Ms. Sirinath Matra (Noi) Thailand19 Mr. Sothy Va Cambodia20 Ms. Tran Thi Bach CUC Vietnam21 Ms. Yupa Naw Myanmar22 Mr. Zhang Jun China iii
    • TABLE OF CONTACTSChapter Title Page Acknowledgment і Workshop Participants іі Table of contacts ііi List of Table vi List of Figures x List of Maps xiii 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Study Area Identification Phase 2 1.2 Preparatory Phase 2 1.3 Field Investigation Phase I 2 1.4 Data Analysis Phase I 2 1.5 Field Investigation Phase II 2 1.6 Data Analysis Phase II 3 1.7 Planning Phase 3 1.8 Synthesis 3 2. Natural Resources and Environment Sector 5 2.1 Over view and outline 5 2.2 Topography and Climate 6 2.3 Soil 11 2.4 Land 19 2.5 Water 23 2.6 Forest 26 2.6a Case Study of Tambon Yangrak Community Forestry 28 2.7 Minerals 30 2.8 Environmental Issues 32 2.8a A Case Study on Pollution from Open Sugarcane Burning in 33 Tambon Nang Makha 2.9 Relevant Government Policies and Strategies on NRE 35 2.10 Sectoral Analyses and Interrelation of Key Issues 37 2.10.1 Conclusions 40 3. Agricultural Sector 42 3.1 Land for Agriculture 3.2 Water Resources 50 3.3 Soil for Agriculture 3.3a Water Management: A case study on water users’ organization 53 3.4 Crops 55 3.5 Livestock and Poultry 66 3.6 Fishery 72 3.7 Agricultural Employment 74 3.8 Khok Chareon District Agriculture Office 74 3.9 Agriculture Extension Service 74 iv
    • 3.10 Tambon Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre 76 3.11 Case study on Integrated Farming System 78 3.12 Case study on chemical free vegetable plantation 80 3.13 Case study on paddy farming group 82 3.14 Agricultural Credit 83 3.15 Agriculture Policies 84 3.16 Problems and prospects 86 3.17 Conclusions and recommendations 874. Non Agricultural Sector 88 4.1 Industrial Sector 91 - Thai Hand Weaving Group, Tambon Khok Charoen 103 - Thai hand weaving group, Tambon Khok Samae San 105 - Thong Muan production, Tambon Nong Makha 106 - Basketry group – Wang Thong 109 4.2 Trade and Commerce 116 4.3 Tourism 133 4.4 Problems and Potential Analysis of Non-Agriculture Sector 138 4.5 Conclusion and Recommendation 1405. Infrastructure Sector 143 5.1 Introduction 143 5.2 Settlement 144 5.3 Connection network: Time distance and accessibility 147 5.4 Public transportation (Bus) 152 5.5 Water Supply System 153 5.5.1 Case study 154 5.6 Power supply systems 155 5.7 Telecommunication 156 5.8 Overall Development 1586. Social Sector 161 6.1 Population 161 6.1.2 Population Structure 161 6.1.6 Population Projection 165 6.1.11 Migration 170 6.1.13 Policies and Programs on Poverty Alleviation 171 6.2.1 Health policies and strategies 174 - Public Health Station - Tambon Yang Rak 183 - District hospital, Khok Charoen – A case study 185 6.3 Education - Case Study on Yang Rak Vittaya School 206 - Case Study of Village Development Fund Project in Supporting 208 Students’ Study 6.3.10 Non-Formal Education 210 6.3.13 Vocational Training 214 6.4.1 Thailand’s Administrative Structure 218 6.4.3 Community Planning Process of Tambon 223 6.4.6 The Community Development Department (CDD 228 - A Case study on Weaving Group 230 v
    • - Saving group case study in Tambon Khok Charoen 231 - Village Development Funds Case Study on Village 232 Development Funds village no.of 8 Tambon Wang Tong 6.4.12 Social Welfare and Issues 235 6.4.15 Summary of problems and potentials for the Social sector 2367. Project proposals 237 - Awareness Raising Project on Natural Resources and 237 Environmental Problems - Promoting Community Forestry in Tambon Wangthong 243 - Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre Strengthening Project 248 - Enhancement of Area under Cassava Cultivation 250 - Cooperative weaving centre 252 - Formation of Weaving Training and Demonstration Center as a 258 Culture Tourism - Provision of Community Shallow Tub-well 265 - Skill improvement program for OTOP groups in Khok Charoen 267 district References 270 Appendices 272 vi
    • LIST OF TABLETable Title PageTable 2.1 Classification of Major Soils in Khok Charoen district 11Table 2.2 Soil quality with reference to the villages in the district 13Table 2.3 Soil Suitability analysis of Khok Charoen District with reference to Tambons 14Table 2.4 Types and Number of Land Ownerships in Khok Charoen District 20Table 2.5 Details of the Natural Sources of water in Khok Charoen District 23Table 2.6 Overall Policies of Natural Resources and Environment Sector 39Table 3.1 Total cultivable agricultural land, households and average land holding size 43Table 3.2 Land area and percentage of land occupied by agriculture and others 43Table 3.3 Agricultural Land Use by Tambon Wise 44Table 3.4 Upland and Lowland Crop by Tambon Wise 45Table 3.5 Factors affecting crop performance and suitability 47Table 3.6 General Soil Observation 47Table 3.7 Soil Fertility Analysis 48Table 3.8 Available water storage resources 50Table 3.9 Situation of cultivable area and available stored water resources 52Table 3.10 Cropping pattern 56Table 3.11 Cropping Calendar 57Table 3.12 Cropping Intensity 57Table 3.13 Average Yield 58Table 3.14 Benefit Cost ratio calculation of major crops 59Table 3.15 Comparative statement of livestock and agriculture production 64Table 3.16 Human resource of livestock department in Khok Charoen District 67Table 3.17 Poultry Population in District Khok Charoen 70Table 3.18 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas 72Table 3.19 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas 72Table 3.20 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas 73Table 3.21 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas 73Table 3.22 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas 73 vii
    • Table 3.23 Summary information about the three Financial Institutions 83Table 4.1 General information of Lop Buri province 88Table 4.2 Breakdown of income generated by sector 88Table 4.3 Comprehensive picture of Non-agricultural sector in Khok Charoen district 90Table 4.4 Summary of supporting institutions of industries and OTOPs 91Table 4.5 Industry situation in Lop Buri province 94Table 4.6 Current situation in Khok Charoen district 95Table 4.7 Number of agricultural household per one agro-processing industry 95Table 4.8 Change in number of OTOP projects in different districts between 2006-07 98Table 4.9 Comparison of income generated from OTOPs among different districts 99Table 4.10 Comparison of successful OTOPs (4 stars or more) in different districts of 99 LopburiTable 4.11 List of OTOPs in Khok Charoen district 100Table 4.12 Comparison among OTOPs 108Table 4.13 List of main problems in the industrial sector 114Table 4.14 List of potentials of industrial sector in Khok Charoen 115Table 4.15 Distribution time and place of weekly market in Khok Charoen district. 117Table 4.16 Distribution of total shop by Tambon 119Table 4.17 Distribution of Shops by Tambon 120Table 4.18 Ratio of Population under the Service of Shops in Tambon 120Table 4.19 Markets, Location and Time Spent of Inflow Products 125Table 4.20 Markets, Location and Time Spent of Outflow Products 128Table 4.21 Number of Clients and Loan Amount Disbursed 130Table 4.22 Department of Business Development Strategy (2008-2012) 132Table 4.23 Internal Tourism Statistics of Lop Buri Province 133Table 4.24 Attractive tourist place in Lop Buri by share of visitors in 2004 134Table 4.25 SWOT analysis of tourism 138Table 5.1 Population Density and Settlement Pattern of District Khock Charoen 145Table 5.2 Average time 147Table 5.3 Roads density 148Table 5.4 Cumulative road density 148Table 5.5 Accessibility to facilities 151 viii
    • Table 5.6 Construction and maintenance 151Table 5.7 Individual transport 152Table 5.8 Water availability 153Table 5.9 Case study 154Table 5.10 Power supply 155Table 5.11 Telecommunication 156Table 5.12 Overall development 158Table 6.1 Households size change by Tambon, 2004-2007 161Table 6.2 Population Density by Tambon 161Table 6.3 Population by gender, 2007 163Table 6.4 Comparison of Male and Female Sex Ratio 164Table 6.5 The dependency and dependency ratio 165Table 6.6 Population projected by Tambon 2015 and 2020 166Table 6.7 The population growth rate Khok Charoen district, 2003-2007 166Table 6.8 Birth and Death Rates Khok Charoen district, 2007 167Table 6.9 Household income 168Table 6.10 Poverty rate by Tambon in 2004-2007 168Table 6.11 Type of poverty problems 169Table 6.12 Tambon wise out - migration 170Table 6.13 Tambon wise in - migration 171Table 6.14 Accessibility of public health stations/hospital 176Table 6.15 Distribution of health facilities with respect population 177Table 6.16 Detail of health personnel 178Table 6.17 Details of major disease in the district 180Table 6.18 Distribution of Education Institutions by Tambons 194Table 6.19 Ratio of Student-classroom Khok Chareon District 194Table 6.20 Ratio of Students-classroom in Pre-primary Education Khok Chareon District 196Table 6.21 Ratio of Student-classroom in Primary School, Khok Chareon District 196Table 6.22 Ratio of Students-classroom in Lower Secondary Education, Khok Chareon 197 DistrictTable 6.23 Ratio of Students-classroom in Upper Secondary Education, Khok Chareon 198 District ix
    • Table 6.24 Number of Teachers by Qualification in Khok Chorean District, Academic Year 198 2006Table 6.25 Students-teacher Ratio by School 199Table 6.26 Students-teacher Ratio by Lower Secondary and Upper Secondary School 200Table 6.27 Percentage of Dropout by Schools 200Table 6.28 Time of Distance to a Particular School Service by Foot and by Bike 203Table 6.29 Schedule of English Teacher of Anu Bann Khok Charoen School 204Table 6.30 School Assessment by External Education in Khok Charoen District 205Table 6.31 Number of Villages Reached at Progressive Level of Studying Continuation 206Table 6.32 The Students-to-computer Ratio, Yang Rak Wittaya School 206Table 6.33 Number of Students in Yang Rak Wittaya School by Gender and Grade 207Table 6.34 The Distribution of Scholarship in Khok Charoen District, 2008 209Table 6.35 The Rate of Illiteracy by Tambons in 2007 211Table 6.36 Non-formal Education Projects’ Plan and Budget, Khok Chaoren District, 212 2007Table 6.37 Community Learning Centers in Khok Charoen District 214Table 6.38 Report Fiscal Year 2007: Education and Training to Improve Vocational 215 SkillsTable 6.39 Human Resource of the Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO) 221Table 6.40 Income and Expenditure by Tambon in Khok Charoen District, 2007 221Table 6.41 Local Revenues by Source of income in TAO, 2007 222Table 6.42 Expenditure of TAO 222Table 6.43 List of Development Projects in Khok Charoen District 223Table 6.44 Percentage of Local People’s Participation in Khok Charoen District 225Table 6.45 Institutional support from Line Ministries in Khok Charoen District 227Table 6.46 List of Community Groups in Khok Charoen District by Tambon 229Table 6.47 Finance group and the budget in five Tampons, 2007 230Table 6.48 Detail of assistance provided to needy people 235 x
    • LIST OF FIGUREFigure Title PageFigure 1.1 Rural and Regional Planning Workshop Methodology 4Figure 2.1 Percentage Distribution of the Area by Tambon 7Figure 2.2 Rainfall Data Lopburi Metrological Station (1988-2006) 9Figure 2.3 No of Rainy Days, Lopburi Metrological Station (1997-06) 9Figure 2.4 Average Max/Min Temperature 9Figure 2.5 Average Humidity, Lopburi Metrological Station (1988-2006) 9Figure 2.6 Percentage distribution of the soil under major groups 13Figure 2.7 Alternative for Planting in Khok Charoen District 18Figure 2.8 Villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water 25Figure 2.9 Villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water for Domestic Uses 25Figure 2.10 Villages with Access to water for agricultural purposes 26Figure 2.11 Utilization and appearance of Perlite 30Figure 3.1 Land Use 42Figure 3.2 Upland and low land crop area 44Figure 3.3 Upland and Low land crop by Tambon 45Figure 3.4 Agricultural land use by Tambon 46Figure 3.5 Soil Fertility Level 49Figure 3.6 Tambon wise percentage of total water storage capacity 50Figure 3.7 Comparison of cultivable land and water resources 52Figure 3.8 Area under the different cropping patterns 56Figure 3.9 Cropping Intensity 58Figure 3.10 Gross Benefits vs Production Cost (per rai) 60Figure 3.11 Benefit cost ratio analysis of major crops 60Figure 3.12 Number of Livestock (cattle- Buffalo, Sheep, Pig) in 2008 67Figure 3.13 Livestock population in Tambon Khok Charoen 67Figure 3.14 Livestock population in Tambon Yang Rack 68Figure 3.15 Livestock population in Tambon Nong Makah 68Figure 3.16 Livestock population in Tambon Khok Samae 69Figure 3.17 Comparison of Tombon wise livestock population percentage 69Figure 3.18 Percentage of Production System 70 xi
    • Figure 3.19 Khok Chareon district Agriculture Organizational Chart 75Figure 4.1 Employment status at provincial level 89Figure 4.2 Breakdown of employment by sub-sector in Lopburi 89 (in number of worker)Figure: 4.3 Industrial Development and Planning Zone of Thailand 92Figure 4.4 Percentage distribution of cottage industries by location/Tambon 95Figure 4.5 Distribution of cottage industries (rice mills) 96Figure 4.6 Distribution of OTOPs among different districts 97Figure 4.7 Distribution of OTOPs by location/Tambon 101Figure 4.8 Distribution of OTOPs by function among Tambon 101Figure 4.9 Distribution of OTOPs by function among different areas within 102 Khok Charoen districtFigure 4.10 Marketing channels for weaving products 105Figure 4.11 Marketing channels of Thong Muan production 107Figure 4.12 Marketing channels for handicraft basketry 110Figure 4.13 Marketing channels of dried cassava. 111Figure 4.14 Marketing channels of products from rice mill. 111Figure 4.15 Density of Population to Private Shops Map 121Figure 4.16 Distribution of Weekly Market Map 122Figure 4.17 Market Linkage 123Figure 4.18 Marketing Chanel of cloths 126Figure 4.19 Marketing Chanel of groceries 126Figure 4.20 Marketing Chanel of House ware products 127Figure 4.21 Marketing Chanel of Electric ware Products 127Figure 4.22 Distribution of Tax revenue of Khok Charoen District in 2006 129Figure 4.23 Tax Revenues Generated from Private Shop by Tambon in 2007 129Figure 4.24 Tourist Map in Lop Buri Province 135Figure 5.1 Size of Household 145Figure 5.2 Individual transports 152Figure 5.3 Availability of water 153Figure 5.4 Power supply 155Figure 5.5 TOT and cell phone 157 xii
    • Figure 5.6 Overall development 158Figure 6.1 Population Distributions by Tambon 162Figure 6.2 Population by age and gender 163Figure 6.3 Gender balance 163Figure 6.4 Population pyramid 164Figure 6.5 Population Growth Rate 167Figure 6.6 Achievement of households have saving by Tambon 169Figure 6.7 Location of public health station 176Figure 6.8 Distribution of health facilities 177Figure 6.9 Distribution of nurses in the district 178Figure 6.10 Resident environment 180Figure 6.11 Health and Hygiene conditions 181Figure 6.12 Distribution of health volunteers in four Tambons 181Figure 6.13 Organization Structure Khok Charoen Hospital 185Figure 6.14 Details of health awareness schemes 187Figure 6.15 Organization of the Present School System in Thailand 191Figure 6.16 Education Administration and Management Structure 193Figure 6.17 Percentage of Classrooms by Education Level 195Figure 6.18 Percentage of Students by Education Level 195Figure 6.19 Percentage of Villages Achieved Progressive Education Level by Tambons 203Figure 6.20 The Changing of Numbers of Students by Gender and Grades 207Figure 6.21 The National and Local Government Structure in 218Figure 6.22 TAO Administrative Chart 220Figure 6.23 Development Project of TAOs 224Figure 6.24 People’s Participation in Social Activities by Five Tambon 226Figure 6.25 Community Development Department working 228Figure 6.26 Number of villages becoming sufficiency economy village 228Figure 6.27 Number of villages having Public Information Centre in Khok Charoen 228 District xiii
    • LIST OF MAPSMap Title PageMap 2.1 Topographic map of Khok Chareon District 8Map 2.2 Villages Affected by Storm in Tambon Khok Charoen 11Map 2.3 Soil Type 16Map 2.4 Soil Suitability Map, Khok Charoen Disitrict 17Map 2.5 Land Use Pattern 19Map 2.6 Land Reformed in Tambon Khok Samae San, Khok Charoen District 21Map 2.7 Drainage Map Showing Water Bodies 24Map 2.8 Distributions of Land and Forest Resources in Khok Charoen District 27Map 3.1 Distributions of Water Resources 51Map 3.2 Showing water reservoir in the study district 53Map 3.3 Demonstration Farm Sites 77Map 5.1 Settlement pattern of Khok Chareon 144Map 5.2 Population density of Khok Charoen district 146Map 5.3 Population distribution 146Map 5.4 Road network 147Map 5.5 Flow map 149Map 5.6 Distribution of Facilities 150Map 5.7 Accessibility of facilities 150Map 6.1 School Distribution in Khok Charoen District 202 xiv
    • CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTIONThis report is prepared by the students who participated in the Rural and Regional PlanningWorkshop which was conducted form January to May 2008 as part of the Masters andDoctors Program at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT). The objective of this report is tounderstand the current situation and development level of the district, and then to provide anyrecommendations or suggestions for future district development planning to the localauthorities or any other relevant organizations. The report is based on both primary andsecondary data sources. Main sources of secondary data have been NRD-2C and BMN aswell as statistics and documents provided by the local government offices and organizations.The study area of Khok Chareon District is situated in Lobburi Province and had thefollowing features. The district (King Amphoe) was created on March 9th, 1987 by splittingoff four tambon from Khok Samrong District. It was upgraded to a full district on November4th, 1993 with total area of 317.14 Km2 or 198212 rai with five subdistricts (tambons) and 53villages.Socio-economic Characteristics of the study area • The main occupation is agriculture • Hospital: 10 bedrooms, 2 doctors, 1 dentist, 28 nurses, 1 pharmacist, 11 public health officers • None of bank • None of department store • There are 16 Primary Schools • 2 Secondary Schools: (Khok Charoen Withaya School and Yang Rak Withaya School) • 1 Research Station: Kasetsart University in Moo 4, Tambon Yang Rak • Total households 7142 • Total Population 24457 • Agriculture and industry î Main agricultural goods: maize, sugarcane, potato, sorghum î Main water sources: Sub Song Stream, Ma Deu Stream î None of industry • Tourist Attractions î None of ancient remains and antiques î Tourist Attractions: handmade silk center, Chang village headman’s grape field 15
    • î Hotel: Sak Thong Phra Narai Resort î None of guest house î Restaurant: J’ Lek Restaurant next to the Khok Charoen District Office• Significant natural resources of Khok Charoen District î Perlite mineral in Tambon Khok Samae San and Tambon Yangrak1. Methodology:Rural and Regional Planning Workshop has various steps (Figure 1.1). These steps weregrouped into phases.1.1Study Area Identification PhaseFaculty and staff identified the study area for the workshop. In this case Khok Charoendistrict was identified. The faculty and associated proceeded with the collection ofsecondary data about the study area.1.2 Preparatory PhaseIn this phase objectives of the workshop were formulated. Different literatures werereviewed such as the study area profile, the previous workshop reports and planningreports. Conceptual framework was prepared from these studies.1.3 Field Investigation Phase 1Study area reconnaissance survey was done in this phase. This survey was intended to getan overall picture of the situation of the district through field observation, Rapid RuralAppraisal (RRA) with local groups and project activities in the study area. During thevisit secondary data and information were obtained from district and sub-district levels.Key problems and issues encountered in the sub-district and district levels were identifiedfrom primary and secondary sources.1.4 Analysis Phase 1Data and information collected during the reconnaissance survey, the local groups andproject activities, the NRD-2C database by village on selected aspects (general,economic, education, health, labor and social), BMN of the sub-districts and othersecondary data were analyzed and key problems were identified into difference sectors.The data requirement, data sources and data gaps were worked out for detailed survey. 16
    • 1.5 Field Investigation Phase 2 During the field investigation, the participants were assigned to 5 separate sector groups namely: I. Natural Resources and Environment Sector II. Agriculture Sector III. Non-agriculture Sector IV. Infrastructure Sector V. Social SectorThe respective groups collected data and information of study area, i.e. the problems, needs,potentials and key issues, focusing on their sectors. Data such as descriptive statistics, annualreports, provincial plans, sectoral plans, line department plans, district plans, sub-district(Tambon) agriculture plans, Tambon administrative organization development plans, maps,topographic sheets, and others, were collected from line agencies, departments and otherprimary sources of information. The participants were presented the main problems andneeds of study area at the district and provincial meeting room and got the feed back fromthese officials.1.6 Analysis Phase 2From the data and information gathered during the field study such as Tambon Profile,district profile, district development guidelines, government policies, existingproject/activities and other primary data, the respective sectoral group analyzed the situationof the study area for their sectors. Therefore, the problems, needs, potentials and key issues ofthe sectors were identified and prioritized.1.7 Planning PhaseBase on the identified and prioritized sectoral problems and needs, projects were identified.The result of secondary data analysis, people’s perception, government policies, andinformation on existing projects of the district were taken into consideration for theformulation of new projects.1.8 SynthesisEach sectoral group completed a final report of the respective sector. The final report wascompiled and arranged strategically to contain the following chapters: Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Natural Resources and Environment Sectoral Study Chapter 3 Agriculture Sectoral Study Chapter 4 Non-agriculture Sectoral Study 17
    • Chapter 5 Infrastructure Sectoral Study Chapter 6 Social Sectoral Study Chapter 7 Project ProposalsA workshop is organized in Khok Charoen District to present the outcome of the planningworkshop. The participants were the representatives from the study area: Provincial, District,and Tambon officers of Khok Charoen District, during the workshop. The respect five groupspresented their sectoral projects. Questions were raised concerning the projects presented andwas courteously and promptly answered by the presenters. Suggestion and comments werealso raised. This final report was prepared incorporation all the comments and suggestionsmade.Problems and ConstraintsThe workshop was conducted within four months and participants encountered variouspersonal and professional related concerns. But despite everything, the plan was cohesivenessof the group was developed. The following were the major problems and constraintsidentified: a) All data and information were collected through PRA or RRA, which needed extensive discussion with the local community. Local people speaks Thai language only, which some of the students don’t understand. Faculty, staff and Thai friends worked very hard to solve the language problem. b) Data requirement for a purpose was found different. Some of the required data were not available for the sectoral planning at sub-district and district levels. 18
    • Time Frame Major Steps Techniques - Identification of the Study Area - Collection of Secondary Data - Primary Survey on Sample Tambon/ Village (Pre-workshop period) - Objective of the Workshop and Literature Review • PRA/RRA - Introduction of the Study Area Preparatory Phase • Observation • Group Discussion (2 weeks) • Discussion with - Review of Different Plans and people and Gov’t Literature officials - Conceptual FrameworkField Investigation Phase 1 - Reconnaissance Survey (Macro and Micro Study Groups) • PRA/RRA (3 days) • Presentation Before the District and Provincial Identification of Problems Officials Analysis Phase 1 • Tambon Council Meetings Identification of Data Requirements, Data • Meeting with Sector (3 weeks) Sources and Data Gaps OrganizationsField Investigation Phase 2 2 Field Investigation Phase - Field Investigation - Data/Information Gathering (6 (6 days) days) • Structuring of Problems and Potentials Analysis Phase 2 - Regional and Sectoral Analysis • Projection/Spatial Analysis (4 weeks) • Quantitiative and Development of Problems Based on Potential Mapping Planning Phase 2 Finalization of the Planning Report (3 weeks) Synthesis - Final Presentation Before the District and Provincial Officers (2 weeks) - Discussion and Adjustments Source: Routray, J.K., (1995) Figure 1.1: Rural and Regional Planning Workshop Methodology 19
    • CHAPTER II NATURAL RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENT2.1 OverviewThe part of the study analyzes the state of natural resources and environment (NRE) andhighlights its problem potential, need and constraints. Subsequently it also attempts topropose important project to address the problems and develop the potentials that willcontribute to overall development of the district by creating opportunities for the well being ofthe local people. This sector will broadly cover topography, land, soil, water, forest, mineralsand environment. The relevant policies at all scales are also reviewed and the strategiesadopted by the district and Tambon offices are also reviewed in detail to streamline theproject with programs and policy to enhance their relevance and practical application.Basedon the analysis of the sector, it is observed that the state of environment and natural resourcesin the district is not very much satisfactory. The district is not very rich in terms of naturalresources in their present state. Given some natural constrains, the potential however exist inthe area that can be developed for the overall improvement of social, economical andenvironmental aspects for long-term and sustainable development of the district.Each of the above mentioned sectors has some problems and potentials needs and constrainswhich sketch the outline for the development planning of the district. The land is available inthe district with relation to population. The per-capita land availability of the district is about7.5 rai but the most of the land in the district comes under the reserve forest area. The landdistribution is also a major problem. The state of water for some basic needs like drinking andother domestic usage is satisfactory however the water shortage in dry season coupled by poorquality of aquifer is the main problem in the area. The water perennial supply of agriculturewater is utmost need of the area and has important implications on the development of thedistrict. Forests are the most prominent feature of the district in general and Tambon WongThong and Yang Rak in specific and are development potentials of the area. But thedegradation of the forest to considerable extent needs immediate attention. The communitybased forestry management practices are already introduced in Tambon Yang Rak and itsresults are promising. So community forestry is considered to be a potential that cansubstantially applicable in Tambon Wong thong as about 90% of the total area of Tambonarea classified as reserve forest area. In terms of soil quality, the poor soil texture is the mainproblem. Due to the lack of compactness in soil structure, the water run-off during the rainyseasons and flooding causes soil erosion problem. The issues related to soil are on particularfocus of national and provincial level priorities. The land development department has the soildoctor project with a soil doctor in every village and the demo project on soil conservationthrough vitiver gross in Tambon Nong Makha. However the services of scope of theseinitiatives are not very much satisfactory. The district level authorities can take initiative tostrengthen these existing services to cope with the serious problem of soil erosion because thenational and provincial policy and program framework is in complete harmony. The issuescorresponding to soil are addressed in proposed general awareness raising project. In theenvironmental analysis though the district has got relatively clean environment but theperiodical and ad-hoc based problems like illegal farm burning from sugarcane and emerging 20
    • problems or solid-waste in residential areas are also highlighted for future implication ofenvironmental conscious planning as a part of sustainable development strategy.The overall sectoral plan provided by the planning team is not a one-off action plan rather aflexible cyclic activity. It is neither a recipe that is complete in-itself to ensure thedevelopment of the district nor it is a complete replacement version of the existing planningmethodology in the district. Rather it’s a supplement to the existing planning mechanisms.District level planning personals can add-remove following the empirical and practicalexperience acquired through close interaction with the area. This report represents the sectoralstatus of the Natural Resources and Environment and sectoral development plan projectproposals for the Khok Charoen district. The sectoral report covers the following sections: 1. Topography and Climate 2. Soil 3. Land 4. Water 5. Forest 6. Minerals 7. Environmental Issues 8. Relevant Government Policies and Strategies 9. Sectoral Analyses and Its Interrelation of Key Issues 10. Conclusion and recommendations2.2 Topography and Climate2.2.1 Geographical Location Area and TopographyLocationDistrict Khok Chaoren is located between North 15o 15 & 15o 30 latitude and East 100o 45 &101o 0 longitude in the upper central region of Thailand. It is situated at the distance of 80 kmfrom provincial hall Lopburi and 182 km away from Bangkok, the capital of Thailand.Positioned in the top of the Lopburi province, it touches Phai Sali District of Nakhron SamanProvince in its North and Si Thep District of Phetchaboon Province in its east, whereas insouth-east and south-west, neighbors two of its siblings: District Sa Bot and District NongMuang respectively.Area and AdministrationThe district covers an area of 317 km or 198,212 rai in the upper part of Lopburi province. Itis administratively divided into five tambons namely Tambon Khok Charoen (45,573 rai),Tambon Yang Rak (41,075 rai), Tambon Nang Makha (69,268 rai), Tambon Wong Thong(15,833 rai) and Tambon Khok Same Sam (26,463 rai) with district Khok Charoen is thedistrict head quarter. 21
    • Figure 2.1: Percentage Distribution of the Area by Tambon Tambon Wise Area Distribution Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province 8% 23% 13% Khok Chaoren Yang Rak Nang Ma Kha Khok Samae San 21% Wang Thong 35%Source: District Administrative organization, Khok Charoen DistrictPhysical Settings/TopographyThe district is the part of Pasak river basin which is the important tributary of Chao Pharayaand Mekong river basins. Various Land features appear in the district ranging from lowland toupland and highlands. Highland and upland mostly exists in Tambon Yangrak where theelevation level varies from 80 m to 560 m above mean sea level, with more than 40% of theland area having a slope gradient of 0-2%, while 4.7% has slope gradient of 40%. However,some small patches of high and upland are also sparsely scattered in rest of four tambons. Thelowland exists in Tambon Khok Charoen, Tambon Khok Samae San and Tambon NongMakha. The per-capita land availability in the district is about 7.5 rai. The main land uses areagriculture forest and residential. Around 54.5% of the total land in the district comes underreserve forest are mostly located in Tambon Yang Rak and Tambon Khok Samae San. 22
    • Map2.1: Topographic Map of Khok Charoen DistrictSource: District Administrative organization, Khok Charoen District2.2.2 Seasonal Composition, Rainfalls, Temperature and HumiditySeasonal CompositionThe seasonal composition of the district is similar to the general seasonal patterns of thecentral region in Thailand with three seasons a year. Generally, the summer rests for threemonths, starting from the February to April, which is less hot than the summer of the North orNortheast of the country due to the influence of the ocean and the trade winds from the oceanbetween February and April. The Rainy season rests for six months starting from May to endof October, when the southwest monsoon winds and depression storms exert their influence,while the winter retains for more or less three months starting from November to the end of 23
    • January, when the northeast monsoon winds exert their reduced influence and thus is not ascold as the winter of the district of the North or Northeast region of the country.RainfallThough the available data is not district specific and is representative of the entire jurisdictionof Lopburi metrological station but data shows that the area has got less precipitation muchlower than Thailand and also significantly lowers than rest of the central region of Thailand inwhich it is located with few exceptions in year 1996 and 1999. The average rainfall of thearea comes about 1077 (mm.). There is almost no rain in the area during December to march.The range of rainy days varies between 77 days to 121 days between the period 1996-2007with 121 days in 1996 and 77 days in 2004 and 96 days in 2006.Figure2.2: Rainfall Data Lopburi Figure2.3: No of Rainy Days, LopburiMetrological Station (1988-2006) Total Raining days 1997-2006 140 120 121 100 104 108 93 92 96 88 91 88 80 77 Raining days 60 40 20 0 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Metrological Station (1997-2006)Source: LopBuri Metrological Station 2007Temperature and Humidity /climateThe area is tropical hot and humid and has almost constant temperature ranges. The trend formore than decadal time series data (1997-2007) shows that the average maximum temperatureranges between 32Co to 35Co whereas the average minimum temperature ranges from 23Co25Co. The average relative humidity in the area as of the period (1997-2007) ranges from67% to 73 % with July, August, September and October as most humid months in a year.This is significantly high in comparison to the universal recommendation of 30%-60% as astandard for comfort to human beings. Due to high humidity sweating is less effective sopeople in the area feel hotter. Please refer annex 1 (2, 3 and 4) for details. 24
    • Figure 2.4: Average Max/Min Figure2.5: Average Humidity, Lopburi Metrological Average Max/MinTemperature (1996-2007)40 Station (1988-2006)35 Average Humidity 1996-20063025 73 max 72.69 72.44 72.4420 min 72 71.8715 71.48 71105 70 70.05 70.14 Average 69.770 691996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 68.36 68 67.52Temperature 67 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008Source: LopBuri Metrological Station 20072.2.3 Flood, Draught and Storm –Case Study AnalysisFloodThe district has occasional flash floods rounds with the frequency of once in three years andrests for a maximum period of 10 days, however does not cause significant economic andhuman losses. As per qualitative information obtained during the interviews and FGDs thelast flood occurred 3 years ago for 10 days at the month of October. The magnitude was lowhowever affected 400-4500 rais of sugarcane land however no human and livestock losses areassociated with this phenomenon.Though no documentation is available in the district regarding the occurrence of floodshowever it is observed that in Tambon Nang Makha, flood occurs every year, while in KhokSamae Sam it occurs once every three years. However no flood occurs in Tambon Yang Rakand Wang Thong.StormThough minor storms usually occurs the study area but the severity of the phenomena isTambon Khok Charoen specific where it causes considerable economic and human loss.Though the data for frequency and other matters was not readily available in Tambonhowever the damages caused by last storm were properly noted down. During the Groupdiscussion and meetings with Tambon officials it was observed that due to the direction of thewind in association with the location of the villages the storms have impacts in Khok Charoentambons. Based on available data, a case study has been conducted as given below. 25
    • Case Study.1: Storm in Tambon Khok Charoen Tambon Location: Khok Charoen Year of Occurrence: 2007 Occurrence Period: December to January of every year Villages Affected: Village number 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9&12 Household Affected: 59 households Economic Loss: 178217.38 bhat Storm is an annual event in Tambon Khok Charoen, so the people of this Tambon are facing storm problem every year. The time of the storm was from December to January. The storm of 2007 was massive one and so taken as a case for study in our report. 58 households of 7 villages namely village number 1,2,3,6,8,9,&12 were affected by the storm, and among them village number 8 was greatly affected in which a total 32 Households out of total 56 households were affected by the storm. In village number 2, 12 household, in village number 12, 1 household, in village number 6, 2 household, in village number 1, 7 household and village number 9, 5 household were affected. In average, 80 households are affected per year from the storm. The Map 2.2: Villages Affected by Storm in Tambon Khok CharoenSource: RRDP Workshop, 2008 26
    • 2.3 Soil 2.3.1 Soil Type and Classification Like other central districts of the country, Khok Charoen consist variety of soil series. The standard classification of soil in Thailand is based on the standard soil classifications by the major soils of south Asia by R.Dudal and FR Moornam, the Jour of Trop Geog vol 18 1964. Following these standards there are 15 major soil series found in the Khok Charoen District and can be categorized under 6 major groups. About 42% total district soils are classified as low humic gley soils which makes 42% of total soils of the district followed by red yellow podozolic soil 20%, hydromorphic, non calcic gely soil 18%, Sedimentary rocks 11.22%, Alluvial Soils 7% and Redish Brown Lateritic soils 2.5%. The details of each of the soil types are given in Table 2.1: and percentage distribution of the soil is given in figure 2.1. Table 2.1: Classification of Major Soils in Khok Charoen DistrictClassification Soil % of Drainage Permeability Surface pH Slopeof Soil Series it total Run Value contain district range Soil Moderately 6.0 toAlluvial Soils 1 7% well Moderate Moderate <2 7.0 drainedHydromorphic, Moderately 25, 25B, 5.5 toNon Culcic 18% well Moderate Moderate 1-20 31, 55 8.0Gley Soils drained 16, 28, 28B, 28/47, SomewhatLow Humic 5.0- 28/54, 42% poorly Moderate Slow 0-2Gley Soils 8.0 28B/47B, drained 29, 33B, 30Reddish Well 4.5 toBrown 52, 54 2.5% Moderate Rapid 2-16 Drained 6.0Lateritic Soil 46, 46B,Red Yellow Well Moderate 4.5- 47, 47B, 20% Moderate 4-16Podzolic Soil Drained to Rapid 6.0 47CSedimentary 62 11.22 Well Moderate Rapid 5.0- 3-16 27
    • Rocks Drained 8.0 Source: Land Development Office, Lopburi Province, 2008 The overall picture of the soil of the district shows that about 33% of the soils are well drained; about 25% of the soils are moderately well drained while 42% of the soils are somewhat poorly drained. The permeability of the entire of the district is moderate. The surface run data shows the patterns in flow of rain water. The map 2.1 shows the area under each type soil in the district. When we locate the data on map and compare it with NRD-2C data we can observe that due to the fact that the considerable part of the low humic gley soils are located at Khok Charoen, the soil erosion problem is not found in this Tambon because none of the top fertile soil is lost due to slow surface water run. We can observe that the most of the low humic soils which are poorly drained are located in Khok Charoen district. Due to slow surface run on these the soil problem is not appear ant in this Tambon. In the case of Yang Rak the soil erosion is a problem in the area where the surface run is moderate or rapid. The same observations can also be calculated from the rest of the three Tambons. As its is oblivious from above analysis that the areas of the district with high run rate are more prone to the soil erosion problem one other factor is the lack of vegetations on the soil and land is left barren which cause soil erosion and top soil loss in the district. Figure2.6: Percentage distribution of the soil under major groups Percentage of the Soil under 6 Major Groups Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province 11% 7% Alluvial Soil 18% Hydromorphic, Non Calcic Gley Soil 19% Low Humic Gley Soil Redish Brown lateritic Soil 2% Red Yellow Podzolic Soils Sedimentry Rocks 43% Source: Land Development Office, Lopburi Province, 2008 2.3.2 Soil Quality No exclusive data set for soil quality exists in the district. However the NRD-2C provides some indication about the point with reference to village numbers where the soil quality is shown in the village which can extrapolated to nearby soils with reference to the type of soil upon which the villages exists. The summary of the NRD-2C data set for indicator No: 27 regarding soil quality is summarized in table 2.2 as given below which provides tambon wise general picture of the soils in the district. 28
    • Table 2.2: Soil quality with reference to the villages in the district Name of Tambon No of villages under particular Total Number category of soil of villages Fertile soil Silted/Eroded Gravel, Sandy Soil Soil Tambon Khok Charoen 12 - - 12 Tambon Yang Rak 5 4 3 12 Tambon N. Makha 7 2 3 12 Tambon Wong Thong 6 - 3 9 Khok Same San 4 1 3 8Source: National Rural Database-form 2C, 20072.3.3 Soil SuitabilityBased on the data and general guidelines of the land development office, the soil in thedistrict Khok Charoen can be categorized into nine groups. The location and topography ofthese groups is shown on map 2.2 which has been prepared to depict the overall picture of thesoil suitability in Khok Charoen district. The soil suitability, degree of fertility, limitation andrecommendation regarding the soil are summarized in below given table. It may beremembered that soil suitability may not be in complete harmony with the actual croppingpatterns adopted by farmers. However, if cropping patterns are somehow managed as perbelow given synthesis it shall result in the increasing productivity of the soil.The analysisrecommends for the cultivation of the selected crops on the group areas as shown on the map.Under this analysis different groups can be suitable for same crop but the conditions for thesuitability vary within groups.Table 2.3: Soil Suitability analysis of Khok Charoen District with reference to Tambons 29
    • Soil Found in Suitability Fertility Limitation Recommendationgroup TambonGroup − K.C − Paddy Crops Medium Annual Crops − Application1 − K.S − Annual can be of both chemical − WT crops/Cash Crops cultivated if and Organic − YR and Orchards the water is fertilizer 4 /5 Tambons available in dry seasonGroup − K.C − Paddy Very Low Sandy Loamy − ApplicationII − K.S Soil of both chemical − WT and Organic − YR fertilizer − NM − Burring 5/5 Tambons after harvest should be discouragedGroup − YR − Paddy on Low Low capacity − ApplicationIII − NM low land and to retain water of both chemical upland crops on and Organic high lands fertilizer 2/5 TambonsGroup − K.C − Fruits high Soil Erosion − ApplicationIV − K.S − Upland Problem at of both chemical − WT Crops high Slopes and Organic − YR − Perennials fertilizer − NM − Vegetables − Topography with high slopes should be covered with vegetation to 5/5 Tambons avoid soil erosionGroup − K.S − Upland Low to Soil Erosion − Rotation inV − WT Crops Medium by water Cropping − YR − Livestock pattern must be − NM grazing in low observed fertile areas − Application of both chemical and Organic fertilizer − Barren lands 30
    • should be covered with vegetation to avoid soil erosion 4/5 TambonsGroup − K.S − Upland High Soil Erosion − ApplicationVI − WT Crops Problem of both chemical − YR − Livestock and Organic − NM grazing fertilizer − High Growth − Should be Plants covered with 4/5 Tambons − Intercropping vegetation to avoid soil erosionGroup − K.S − Unsuitable for Low to High Slopes, − ConservedVII − WT any cash crop Medium Hilly Patches as forest or − YR water shed area − NM 4/5 TambonsGroup − K.C − Upland Crops High Alkaline Soils − ApplicationVIII − WT − Also Suitable of both chemical − YR for Chili, Cotton, and Organic Sugarcane, fertilizer Sorghum, Maize, − Alkaline Custard Apple, Resistant Tamarind Varieties should be introduced 3/5 TambonsGroup Misalliances group − − −IX Map2.3: Soil Type 31
    • Source: RRDP Workshop, 2008 32
    • Map 2.4: Soil Suitability Map, Khok Charoen33 Source: RRDP Workshop, 2008
    • 2.3.4 Alternative Analysis for Soil Suitability for Major CropsOn the basis of the data from land and development office the alternative analysis has beendone for the different crops in the province. Data shows that for different wide prevailingcrops the suitability varies considerably. For example only about the suitability for ricecultivation in the soil is low. Only 22% of the total soil is suitable for rice around 5 % of thetotal soil is less suitable while rest 73 % is not suitable at all for the cultivation of rice crop.The same sort of analysis has been made for rice corn sugarcane grapefruits papaya, Banana,Asparagus, Guava, Mango and Vegetable. The overall analysis is show in figure 2.7.Figure 2.7: Alternative for Planting in Khok Charoen District Alternative For Planting in Khok Charoen District Lopburi Province 100% Percentage of the the Area 90% 80% 70% 60% Not Suitable 50% Less Sutable 40% Suitable 30% 20% 10% 0% go t rn e ce ya a e va ui us an an bl Co ua an Fr Ri p ta ag Pa n rC gi M pe G Ba gr Ve ga pa ra Su G As Name of CropSource: Regional Rural Workshop, 2008 (Prepared on the basis of guidelines provided byLand Development Office, Lopburi Province)2.3.5 Problems, Constraints, Needs and PotentialsProblems• Poor quality of soil• Soil erosion• FloodingConstraints• Mismatch between soil suitability and existing cultivation practices• Lack of knowledge on soil conservationPotentials• Soil suitable for upland crops like sugarcane and cassava 34
    • • Soil doctor project is working at village level where a volunteer at village level provides technical assistance regarding soil problemsNeeds• Awareness raising among the local people regarding impacts of extensive use of chemical fertilizer and encourage them on use of bio fertilizer.• The public involvement in soil reclamation activities and land use planning• Establishment of local level soil erosion and flood control initiatives2.4 Land2.4.1 Broad Land Use PatternBroadly, land use pattern has been categorized into 5 types. These consist of humansettlement areas, other human settlement areas located in Pawangploeng-Pamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved Forest, agricultural area, Pawangploeng-Pamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved and land reform areas (in four villages of TambonKhoksamaesan). Pa means forest area. It can guide approximate utilization of the land inKhok Charoen District. Pawangploeng-Pamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved Forestextended over Tambon Yangrak, Tambon Wang Thong, and some parts of Tambon KhokCharoen and Tambon Nong Makha. Overall, there are 53 human settlements within KhokCharoen District. Out of these, nineteen settlements or 36 % of total settlements were locatedin the degraded reserved forest represented by 12, 6 and 1 communities in Tambon Yangrak,Tambon Wang Thong and Tambon Nongmakha, respectively. Land reform areas can only befound in Tambon Khok Samae San. While agricultural areas are widely noticed in TambonKhok Charoen, Tambon Khok Samae San and Tambon Nong Makha. And the trend ofsettlements will slowly be toward encroaching reserved forest. Please see detail of broad landuse pattern in the map below.Map 2.5: Land Use Pattern 35
    • 2.4.2 Land OwnershipKhok Charoen District has total area of 198,212 Rais. It has non-national reserved area of99,314 Rais (50.10 %) of total land area, of which land ownerships registered at 69,049.94Rais with 8,067 land plots. Title deed holders represented at highest share at 81.95 %,followed by N.S.3K at 16.49 %, while N.S.3 and Por Bor Tor 5 0combined at 1.54 %. Thisimplies that there are almost 69 % of people who live on non-national reserved area have landownerships whereas the rest 31 % of them did not have any types of land ownership at all.According to Natural Resources and Environmental Office of Lopburi Province, local peopleare upgraded and legally granted certificate of land ownerships from time to time when thegovernment has the policy to do so.Average land holding size varies from 2-4 Rais up to 50 Rais per household. There are fewpeople in almost all Tambons who have large size of hundreds Rais of land. Holding of landownerships allow local communities to use as collateral for access to formal credits so thatthey can utilize as household investment capital in productive farm and non-farm activities. Interms of government income from the land, in 2008, Khok Charoen Land District hasgenerated total revenues amounted at 165,761 Baht from land fee and tax. 36
    • Table 2.4: Types and Number of Land Ownerships in Khok Charoen District Types Number of Plots Rai % 1.Title deed 7,369 56,588.84 81.95 2.N.S.3K 653 11,392.73 16.49 3.N.S.3 1 28.83 0.04 4.Por Bor Tor 5 44 1,039.54 1.50 Certificate Total 8,067 69,049.94 100Source: Khok Charoen District Land Office, 2008In addition, lack of land tiles is commonly raised. Approximate 50 % and 10 % of totalhouseholds in Tambon Wang Thong and Tambon Khok Samae San did not have land titlesrespectively. This problem was partly due to communities encroached and now resided ondegraded National Reserved Forest Area. According to data from key informant interviews,landlessness is also significant problem in Tambon Khok Samae San and Tambon WangThong at about 6 % and 11 %, respectively, while in Tambon Nongmakha the landlessincidence is marginal. This is considered a part of the whole landless scenario in theseTambons. Some of them have land for settlements but do not have land for cultivation. Andsome are totally landless. Their coping strategies have been rented land both for settlementsand cultivation. Yet, actual magnitude of absence of land titles in Khok Charoen Districtcould doubtedly be higher than this if further investigation is to be conducted at householdlevel. Therefore, it is equitably necessary for TAO to render possible assistance to this groupof poor people through appropriate initiative so that their social and human securities areensured.2.4.3 Land Reform ActivitiesAt present, land reform was only carried out in Tambon Khok Samae San in order to legallymanage land which was long encroached to National Reserved Forest. A total of 305households were granted Agricultural Land Reform Certificates (ALRC) with the whole4,349.59 Rais of reformed land, or accounted for 2.19 % of Khok Charoen District area. Afterimplementing the project, the average land size was redistributed at 14.26 Rais/householdwith the maximum holding size at 50 Rais/household. It was undertaken in 4 villages asfollows: • Village 4 at 40 households of 604.68 Rais • Village 5 at 8 households of 106 Rais • Village 7 at 197 households of 2,785.62 Rais • Village 8 at 60 households of 751.77 Rais 37
    • Please see detail of already land reform area in the map 2.6Map 2.6: Land Reformed in Tambon Khok Samae San, Khok Charoen DistrictSource: RRDP Workshop, 2008Once households registered for land reform, they will be entitled to a package of governmentsupports for generating rural livelihoods consisting of agricultural extension and technologytransfer particularly on Sufficiency Economy practices, seedling, skill trainings,environmental and natural resources management as well as capitalization using ALRC ascollateral to borrow loan from Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC).According to interview with Office of Land Reform of Lopburi Province, the land reformactivities went well in terms of providing greater technical supports for enhancing localagricultural productivity. In fact, the government has a policy to establish a system governingland ownership and land zoning that is comprehensive and fair. And land reform is politicalissue and national agenda. Therefore, there is so far no clear policy on land reform atprovincial level. Though there are pros and cons (particularly those who have occupied largearea of land plot) existed on essence of land reform in other Tambons, many villagers 38
    • expressed their willingness to join government’s land reform scheme if they are to offer.Thus, there is potential to intensify land reform undertaking in other areas e.g. Tambon YangRak and perhaps in Tambon Khok Charoen so that equitable redistribution of land could helpincrease income through better local livelihoods situation and higher agricultural productivity.2.4.4 Problems/Constraints, Potentials and NeedsLand resource play crucial role in enhancing livelihoods of local communities. However,some problems existed need to be overcome in order to realize potentials in meeting the needof local villagers.Problems • Lack of land titles This is due to some communities are settled in degraded National Reserved Forest for quite long times. So they have the right to cultivate and settle but the government does not provide any land title. • Landlessness This is due to rapid population growth in Khok Charoen District causing some of them and the new settled migrants (2-4 years in migration) have become landless. • Misperception on non-commercial value of land reform certificate to use for borrowing loan from BAAC. Many local villagers misperceived that holding land reform certificates do not entitle them to access to formal credit. That is why some of them still feel against land reform provided by government. Many of local villagers only prefer N.S 3 or N.S.3K or land deeds which are difficult to obtain as by law their settlements are illegal. So government can not grant any land titles neededPotentials • Land reform has been successfully implemented in Tambon Khoksamaesan in terms of providing technical supports to farmers in to increase agricultural productivity. It could be expanded to other areas where there is potential to developed in order to optimize full capacity of the land value. • Agricultural water supply pipeline project originating from Pasak Cholasit Dam to serve some districts and terminate at Khok Charoen District opens up a prospect particularly in Tambon Khok Charoen to tap with this potential in intensifying cash crops e.g. paddy, sugarcane or cassava.Needs • Land titles Local villagers need land titles so that their land ownerships are secure. In addition, they can use land title as collateral to borrow loans from both BAAC and other commercial banks. • Land reform in Tambon Yangrak Local peoples want the government to carry out land reform activities as they realized its benefits and opportunity to increase agricultural productivity, gaining technology transfer and technical supports. 39
    • 2.5 Water2.5.1 Types, Numbers and Capacity of Natural Water ResourcesThe study area has acute water shortage every year specifically for agriculture usage. The dryseason starts from March to July, while it also suffers from flooding in rainy seasonparticularly during the months from August to October; however the frequency for flooding ismostly once every three year period. The drainage network of the district is given as Map 2.7.Though the area is receiving low precipitation in comparison with the central region and alsocountry as a whole, however, it has sufficient natural water resources but the scarcity ofreservoirs and weirs for storage of water is the main problem causing extreme situation ofdryness and flooding in peak seasons. The detail of the some of natural water sources is givenin Table 2.5.The water from aquifer is not suitable for drinking in all Tambons except some pockets ofpotable waters exists in Nong Makha sub district. Generally the underground water containshigh amount of limestone and other heavy nutrients which make it unsuitable for drinkingpurposes. As a result heavy reliance on rainwater is the only available option for potablewater. The water scarcity in dry season also substantially affects the agricultural productivityin all Tambons but the degree of scarcity varies among all Tambons. The over all picture ofthe status of water for above mentioned usages is given in the Table 2.5.Table 2.5: Details of the Natural Sources of Water in Khok Charoen District Pond Reservoir Weir Stream No. Cap. No Cap. No Cap. No. Cap. . . Tambon Name (M3) (M3) (M3) (M3) Khok Charoen 17 80,000 3 57,880 4 24,000 14 335,750 Yang Rak 22 105,000 3 300,000 15 72,000 19 360,000 Nong Makha 12 120,000 0 0 2 32,550 2 32,000 Wang Thong 19 307,200 3 2,640,000 14 492,000 14 492,000 Khok Samae San 3 44,800 1 128000 1 3,500Source: Irrigation Office, 2007 40
    • Map 2.7: Drainage Map Showing Water BodiesSource: RRDP Workshop, 20082.5.2 Water Availability for different Water UsesPotable WaterAs earlier said, the rain is the primary source of potable water in the district. Local peoplehave indigenous knowledge to collect and store the water in rainy season and use it in dryseason when water scarcity is on its peak. Mostly the water collected in rainy season is notsufficient for the entire dry season. In the case of shortage the villages receive the watersupply from district water supply Authority through respective TAO. However the drinkingwater is relatively not a major problem in the district. The state of drinking water in allTambons is shown in below given figure 2.8. 41
    • Figure2.8: Villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water Tambon wise status of villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water, Khok Charoen District Lopburi Province 6 11 11 8 12 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Tambon Khok Tambon Yang Tambon Nong Tambon Wong Tambon Khok Charoen Rak Makha Thong Samesan Clean Drinking water < 63 % Clean Drinking water > 63 but < or 90 Clean Drinking water > 95%Source: National Rural Database, 2007Water for Domestic UsageThe availability of water for domestic usages other than drinking is also satisfactory in almostall Tambons and also relatively better than the state of potable water in the district. Thevillage specific data shows that the need for domestic use water is also fulfilled. Peoplerelying on village water supply scheme for fulfilling the need for domestic usage. The state ofdomestic water in all Tambons is shown in figure 2.9.Figure 2.9: Villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water for Domestic Uses Tambon wise status of Villages with Access to Water for Domestic usage, Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province 11 12 12 9 8 0 1 0 0 0 0 Tambon Khok Tambon Yang Tambon W ong Tambon Nong Tambon Khok Charoen Rak Thong Makha Sames an < 63 % > 63 but < or 90 > 95%Source: National Rural Database, 2007Water for AgricultureThe dry season in the district considerably affects the availability of water for agriculturesector. Due to the scarcity of the water in dry season, the full potential of soil always remainsunder utilized. It has negative impacts first on the local economy and subsequently on theregional and national economy. The state of agriculture water in different tambons is shownin figure 2.10: 42
    • Figure 2.10: Villages with Access to Water for Agricultural Purposes Tambon wise status of villages for Access to Agriculture Water, Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province 0 0 2 1 3 2 4 2 0 1 8 3 7 6 7 3 2 1 0 Tambon Khok Tambon Yang Tambon Nong Tambon Wong Tambon Khok Charoen Rak Makha Thong Samesan Sufficient sufficient in rainy season Not sufficient for practicing cultivation DNASource: National Rural Database, 2007The water scarcity and shortage in dry season considerably affects agro-economy in alltambons in terms of damage to the crops cultivated. In Tambon Khok Charoen suffersrelatively high, since the Tambon is the most active in agricultural activities. The cropshaving high adverse effects due to shortage of water are cassava where as sugarcane alsosuffers due to water shortage but the severity is low due to its high water resistant capacity.In order to address the issue of scarcity of water for agriculture sector the government isworking on the irrigation project on Pasak River through department of agriculture at regionallevel. All Tambons of the district are likely to be benefited from this project. It is expectedthat this project will start providing the services to the area by the end of 2008.2.5.3 Problems, Constraints, Needs, PotentialProblems• Water scarcity in all tambons in dry season• Poor quality of underground waterPotential:• The topography ranging from high to low areas provide a cost effective way to build small scale check dams at various medium high slopes and thereafter distribute it through graduate flow2.6 Forest2.6.1 Forest Area, Boundary and EncroachmentAccording to Provincial Natural Resource and Environment Office, Pawangploeng-Pamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved Forest covers 447,081.25 Rais of land crossing 4districts namely Chaibadal, Sabot, Khoksamrong and Khokcharoen. Khok Charoen Districtalone shares a portion of 98,898 Rais of forest area or 49.90 % of total district area. Thisforest area was encroached by peoples for agricultural cultivation and other purposes at58,081 Rais or 49.30 % of total forest area, according to data as of 1991. Out of this, 16,922 43
    • Rais of encroached land were granted for farming, and 39, 673 Rais were under the processfor giving rights to use for making a living, settlement (by renting) with the condition thatreforestation must be accomplished. 1,416 Rais were utilized for roads, reservoirs and otherpublic uses. It is found that a large number of local villagers migrated from other provinces;then they settled down in Khok Charoen District by encroaching forest land for over 30 years.Right now, forest encroachment by local people is minimal; on the other hand particularly inTambon Khok Samae San, it is reportedly done by outsiders by cutting the trees as well ascollecting forest products e.g. mushroom and bamboo shoots. Forest encroachment could beworsened if collective efforts by local community to protect forest area are weak.Map 2.8: Distribution of Land and Forest Resources in Khok Charoen DistrictSource: RRDP Workshop, 20082.6.2 Community ForestryIn response to forest reserved area and community forest degradation, local communities havebeen practicing community forestry. It objectives were to provide basic needs, generateincome, and strengthen local capabilities to manage natural resources by raising awarenessand fostering right attitude, knowledge, and skills through participatory learning. Threecommunity forestry were promoted in Khok Charoen District. The first two communityforestry were set up in 2001 located in Ban Maisriubol at Village number 6 at 500 Rais andin Ban Khaosamyod at Villages number 7 at 650 Rais both in Tambon Khok Samae San. Thethird one was Yang Rak Community Forestry was launched in 2006. 44
    • Case Study of Tambon Yangrak Community ForestryYangrak Community Forestry covers an area at 60,625 Rais. This project is noteworthy interms of its essence as follows:Location: It comprises all 12 communities in Tambon YangrakBudget: Department of Forestry supported budget for 2006 fiscal year at 800,000 Baht inVillages number 1, 2,3,5,6, while the rest received provincial fund.Objectives:• To plant trees along roadsides and increase green area in the community.• To plant Eucalyptus in the field for making use at household and supply to paper factory• To plant edible trees e.g. labbeck tree, horse Radish tree, classod tree, Indian trumpet flower and gramineae, etc. along irrigation canals and community reservoirs.• To plant trees for providing shadow in the educational institutions, temples and government offices as well as cultivating gramineae for food and sale.Goals:• Plant along roadside for 5,000 trees.• Plant Eucalyptus in the filed at 50,000 trees/years.• Plant bamboo in every household at least 3 trees including encouragement extension for growing bamboo for sale.• Plants edible trees along irrigation canals and community reservoirs at 10,000 trees.• Educational institutions, temples and government offices have more green areas for using in various activities.Expected results:• Increase forest area along roadside in the community and enhancing greater humidity.• Have access to edible trees.• Develop as tourist attraction due to presence of a priest center in community.• Increase community income by selling Eucalyptus trees which are sellable every 5 year with productivity at 10 Ton/Rai (12,000 Baht/Ton) and contribute some income to community fund.• Local communities have access to bamboo products for food.• Generate related occupation by selling bamboo seedling.Lessons LearnedThis project is of importance in mobilizing community cohesion by jointly plantingcommunity forestry. It is found quite successful in providing alternative livelihoods for localvillagers, good source of foods, trees for household construction purposes, as well asenhancing pleasant surroundings. This is inline with national forestry policy to promote 45
    • community forestry both in public and private lands. Other Tambons can come and learn howto manage community forestry practice in Tambon Yangrak so that replicability can beenhanced.2.6.3 BiodiversityKhok Charoen District is not rich of biodiversity. Still, some plant species are found inPawangploeng-Pamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved Forest. This consists of bothvegetables and trees namely morning glory, elephant ear, neem tree, lead tree, Burma Padauk,and mahogany. Particularly in rainy season, local villagers will collect vegetables, bambooshoot, honey and mushroom for food while using valuable trees for household constructionpurposes. Selling surplus of forest products in the communities is another source of income tolocal people particularly for the poor. In addition, a wide range of wildlife species were foundnamely squirrel, rabbits, tree shrew, bullfrog, mongoose, flying lemurs, partridge, palm civet,wild chicken and deer. Local people do not frequently hunt for these types of animal.However, local villagers feel increasing scarce of forest products due to extensive use offorest resources by both local people and outsiders. Likewise low number and species ofwildlife were also recognized. Typically the way of local people lives depend very much onforest and local biodiversity. So it is necessary to enhance a richer biodiversity in thecommunity in order to help keep biological balance as well as promoting sustainable naturalresources management.2.6.4 Occurrence of Forest Fire and Forest Conservation ActivitiesOccurrence of forest fire is rare in the area. Local communities are partly capable to handlethe incidence. Public agreement among local people of not cutting trees is applied in TambonWang Thong which also exists good local initiative in monitoring both forest resources andforest fire. A tambon-wise voluntary group representing 6-8 members from respective villageswas formed to patrol local forest and being implemented in Tambon Khok Samae San.Capacity building for natural resources management and forest fire was rendered by TambonAdministration Organizations and relevant district and provincial level offices. This is a goodpractice. Nevertheless, overall public awareness on forest conservation is low to moderatelevel. It is then necessary to intensify additional activities including awareness building onforest management among local villagers.2.6.5 Problems, Potentials and NeedsIt is recognized among local communities that forest and forest products plays vital role insustaining their lives being as food bank, household uses, livelihood enhancement andkeeping environmental and biological balance. As a result, it is indispensable to overcome itsproblems, and uphold potentials in order to cater the specific needs of local communities.Problems/Constraints 46
    • • Persisted forest encroachment by outsiders by cutting trees and harvesting bamboo shoots. This has further deteriorated degraded Reserved Forest.• Forest vegetables are getting rare. This is due to extensive harvest by both local communities and the outsiders.• Disappearance of some wild animals. It is due to the loss of extent of wilderness. Local people expressed low number of wild animals existed.• Low public awareness on forest conservation and protection. Some local people do not feel the Reserved Forest belong to them. So they are not aware of likely extent of natural resource degradation.PotentialsAvailability of community forestry in Tambons Khok Samae San, and Yang Rak. There arevaluable examples of community forestry in these Tambons which can be replicated/extended to other Tambons.Needs • More community forestry should be established so that it can generate alternative source of livelihoods, food bank to local communities, as well as keeping environmental and biological balance. • Government should support on seedling for growing community forestry and reforestation. This can be incentive to promote community forestry and reforestation. • Wildlife number and species should be maintained and increased in order to maintain biological balance. • Public awareness building on forest conservation should be carried out so that local people will hold sense of local ownership of National Reserved Forest. • Joint voluntary network of forest monitoring should proactively be set up in all Tambons in order to form as self-help group for enhancing sustainable utilization and protection of natural resources.2.7 Minerals2.7.1 Types, Location of Mineral Resources and CoverageThere are no major mineral deposits found in the district. Therefore, no significant varieties ofthe mineral resources are available in the district. A few mineral resources like limestone andperlite are available in the district but due to specific soil texture sensitive to rapid soilerosion, the government is not encouraging its commercial utilization. The deposits of theperlites are estimated to 4.86 matric ton and it is found in all tambons of the district. Thepotential for commercial utilization of limestone only exists in Tambon Khok Chaoren.However perlite is processed and utilized for various purposes but the extent of utilization isvery insignificant and limited to local scale exploitation. The minerals and mines have nocontribution in the rural economy of the district. 47
    • Figure 2.11: Utilization and Appearance of PerliteLocationThere is no exact and reliable data available for location and estimation of available mineralresources in the district. Some idea about the location and stock available are abstracted fromthe interview with various Tambon officials and local people. Based on that qualitative dataand estimation as well as empirical knowledge it reveals that the Perlite deposits are found allTambons in Koch Chaoren District. In Tambon Yannk Rak, the area of perlite is 244 rai. InTambon Khok Chaoren and Nong Ma Kaa do not have exact area and stok estimationsavailable for Perlite. In Tambon Khok Samae Sam, the area of perlite is about 40% of thetotal area of the tambon. The area of perlite in Yambon Wang Thong is about 700 rai.(Source: Loburi Province, Industrial Office and Interviewing by Tambon AdministrationStaff)2.7.2 Agriculture Utilization of PerliteThe local people use perlite as an important ingredient of their crop fertilizer plan. It is usedas a power that is mixed with the fertilizer. The application of perlite is believed to be helpfulin improving the soil quality of the land and thereby increasing the agricultural productivity.Due to no major scale extraction and utilization the price mechanism of the resource is notestablished the prices vary on the basis of the availability of the recourse and the need inparticular time. It is also an optional component so many people just skip it and avoidincluding it as a regular agricultural input.2.7.3 Problems, Potentials, Needs and RecommendationProblems• Poor Soil Texture as an obstacle in extraction of perlite and limestone.• No clear usage of the mineral and its valuation has yet been initiated.PotentialsThe limestone and perlite resource are two potentials for the development of the district. Thecommercial utilization potential has to face a couple of obstacles as said above. On one handdifficulty in extraction as it is sensitive to land degradation due to poor soil texture and on 48
    • other hand limited market as people the full scale of the utilization of the perlite is also nothighlighted.Needs• The EIA to highlight the possible Environmental impacts from extraction of perlite and limestone and the ways to minimize these impacts may be carried out.• Explore the ways that these resources can be locally utilized to create income and economic opportunities for the district and tambons.2.8 Environmental IssuesOver the past few decades, Thailands dramatic economic growth has produced newenvironmental challenges in this once-agrarian society. The country now faces problems withair and water pollution, declining wildlife populations, deforestation, soil erosion, waterscarcity, and hazardous waste issues.In case of Khok Charoen district, interviews with concerned governmental officials,observations and interviews and meetings with villagers showed that the air pollution fromsugarcane burning is the only one major problems of the area and slid waste is an emergingproblem of the area. In case of air pollution, the sources and level of pollution varies in thisarea and this may be because of low economic growth in the area compared to overallnational economic development. The subsequent paragraphs deal with the types of theenvironmental problems in the area.2.8.1 Pollution Types and ImpactsAir Pollution: Sources and ImpactsAir pollution is the only one environmental problem in the area. Sugarcane burning is themajor source of air pollution in the Khok Charoen district. Sugarcane is planted in 36757 Rais(18.54% of the total area of the district). The sugarcane burning takes place about fourthmonths mainly from December to March, so the pollution problem remains during theburning time. Sugarcane burning is taking place in all Tambons. Awareness on impacts ofenvironmental problems like air pollution was its realization was found to be very low amongthe local people and TAOs officials. The subsequent paragraphs deal with the major impactsof air pollution in the area.ImpactsHuman Health• Respiratory problems : 26.5% visits of the total hospital visits are due to respiratory diseases• Skin allergies: 15.2% visits are due to skin allergiesFrom the above dada it can be said that the air pollution due to sugarcane burning have somecontribution in the hospital visits.Natural Resources 49
    • • Drinking water contamination from fly ashSocial• Disturbance (food, sales items and customers) in weekly market operation because of fly ash• Effects to local residence leading to conflict (Tambon Nang Makha Village number 8 and 1) and some complains to TAO 50
    • Location: Tambon Nang MakhaArea coverage of Sugarcane plantation in the district: Sugarcane is planted in 36757 raiwhich comprise, 18.54% of the total district areaBurning period: December to MarchReasons behind choosing for case study: The impacts are comparatively higher than inother TambonsThis is one of the major environmental pollution (air, drinking water) sources of the district.The severity of the problems caused by this found comparatively higher in this Tambon thanother Tambons; so this Tambon has been selected as a case study. This is majorly causing airpollution in the area further leading to health impacts (skim allergies, irritation). During theinterview, local people mentioned that it is very difficult for them to move around during theburning period which takes place during December to February. This is also pollutingdrinking waster, where drinking water through fly ashes is a major problem and have to relyon rainwater during draught period. This has further creating difficulties in business operation(weekly local markets) by polluting the market products and also distracting the customersdue irritation. Finally, this has further increased conflicts among local people, especiallysugarcane owner and local people near by sugarcane field, because of this; TAO is receivingcomplaints from the local people. It implies that sugarcane burning is one of the majorproblems in the area leading to different specific problems. The major impacts of sugarcaneburning in the area is depicted as followsMajor Impacts and Problems• Environmental Impacts- Air pollution• Health Impacts (skin allergies, irritation)• Drinking water pollution through fly ashes• Conflicts among local people and complaints to TAO• Business- mobile market- difficulty in operatingMajor Lesson Learned:• Provision of compensation for the victimized local people• Alternatives for sugarcane burning should be identified; such as using it for preparing manureSolid Waste: Sources, impacts, collection and management systemSince the district is not much economically developed as compared to the country’s economicgrowth, solid waste generation is very low. So solid waste is not a big problem in the area butan emerging issue since it was observed solid waste near by market areas during the visit, andalso the Tambon officials during the interview highlighted it as an emerging issue. Market isseen and recognized as one of the major source of solid waste in the area. When we look its 51
    • status, collection and disposing mechanisms at Tambon level, it varies from Tambon toTambon. In some TAO have solid waste collection system and disposing system (NangMakha), in Tambon Khok Charoen they have identified landfill site but lack collection systemat present but have future plan to systematize waste Collection system and going to makearrangement for vehicles for collection. Open burning is vey common as a solid wastehandling mechanism in almost of the Tambons.Solid Waste Management SystemOnly TAO of Nang Makha has solid waste collection system and they are practicing openburning far away from the villages by TAO. In case of other Tambons, they do not havecollection system and open burning is being practiced as solid waste disposing system. Inmany of the Tambons, there is practice of open burning of solid waste. Though this is notposing any serious problems at present but likely to have major impacts on health of localpeople and environment in long run. So there is need to be addressed the issue from the initialphase.2.8.2 Peoples’ Awareness on Environmental IssuesPeoples’ awareness on environmental problem found to be very low among the local peopleand Tambon officials in all Tambons. The criteria’s used for measuring the awareness levelwas whether they realize that there are some environmental problems, if yes, then whetherthey are taking precautions or curative measures for that and whether the local TAO officialshave taken some prevention and or curative initiatives for the reduction of environmentalproblems. The reasons behind low awareness might be because of low level of pollution, lowpopulation and low severity of pollution impacts in the area.2.8.3 Problems, Potentials and NeedsProblems• Air pollution due to open sugarcane burning is prevailing in all Tambon, with impacts on human health, polluting drinking water, conflicts among the local people and creating disturbance in operation of weekly markets.• Lack of awareness on environmental pollution among the local people and Tambon officials• Though solid waste is an emerging problem in the area, all Tambons except Nang Makha lack solid waste collection and deposing mechanism and except Tambon Khok Charoen, all other Tambons lack landfill site• Extensive use of pesticide is causing degraded soil fertility and spillover of pesticide affecting the physical growth and productivity of fruits and vegetables; like papayaConstraints• Though the district is experiencing some pollution problems and like to have increased pollution level in the days to come, TAOs have inadequate pollution control mechanisms and awareness raising programs 52
    • • Lack of availability of data on national database on ((NRD 2C, BMN) environmental problems further constraints to get the real picture of the environmental pollutionNeeds• Data on environmental pollution is of great need in order to get the real picture of the pollution level in the area• Awareness of environmental problems among the local people and TAO officials which will further help to take preventive measures for pollution control• In order to prevent and make the pollution control cost effective, there is great need of introduction of proper solid waste collection and handling mechanisms• Strict pollution control policies should be endorsed to prevent pollution in future with the growth of industries2.9 Relevant Government Policies and Strategies on NRENational policies on Natural Resources and Environment stated in the Policy Statement of theCouncil of Minister (January 2008), Sub-national level strategies issued by Natural Resourcesand Environment Office, district level strategies and Tambon level strategies are analyzed.The analysis is based on the following criteria’s:• how well the national policies have addressed the protection, conservation and management aspects of NRE sector• how well those national policy are reflected in the sub-national level strategies• how well the programs at local level are developed in line with policies to address the problems at the local levelNatural Resources (Soil, Water, Land, Forest) and Environment (NRE) policies are analyzedexcept mineral policy since there is no policies on mineral. The policy analysis has beencarried out in two phases; firstly sub-sector wise policies were analyzed and then the overallstatus of the problems was analyzed.2.9.1 SoilPolicies StrategiesConserve soil and forestry by ending illegal • To promote organic farming by usingfarm-burning and topsoil destruction; manure and reducing chemical substancereducing chemical use in agriculture; • To campaign farmer to reduce burningrehabilitating soil and preventing soil stumpdegradation by planting vetiver grass • To educate farmers regarding soil conservation • To convince farmers participate in decision-making of land use regarding its capacity 53
    • Programs• Small scale soil erosion control project through vetiver plantation only in some Tambon (Nang makha- approximately 200 Rais)• Soil doctor project supported by land development department – one doctor each village headed by one tabmon level doctor.Local level soil related problems Sugarcane burning widely prevalent in all Tambons• Extensive use of chemical fertilizer• Soil erosion• Poor quality of soilPolicy and Program AnalysisThe policy and strategies have adequately addressed the major aspects of soil; but districtlevel strategies and tambon plan has not addressed it well. In addition, but there is still lack ofadequate programs in line with the policy and strategies; like educate farmers regarding soilconservation measures/strategies; campaigning for reducing burning stump, promotingorganic farming by using manure and reducing chemical substance; because, soil erosion andextensive use of chemical fertilizer are widely prevalent in the area and recognized as majorproblems. In addition, National policy has recognized farm burning as illegal but it is widelyprevalent in all Tambons so it need effective law enforcement.AlternativeSugarcane residues and other vegetable residues can be utilized to prepare organic manure;which will have three benefits; higher price for sugarcane, reduction in pollution and reducinguse of chemical fertilizer. Since there is lack of sufficient data it need further research on itscost effectiveness.2.9.2 ForestPolicies StrategiesConserving and protecting mature forest; • To promote reforestation for rehabilitationsupporting forestation and forest of upstream forest economic forest,rehabilitation in accordance; supporting community forest, village forest and otherestablishment of community forests; afforestation in private and public land • To campaigns, training and providegrowing economic timber in suitable areas education about forest and wildlifeas determined by academic research conservation including forest fire protection to youth student and general population • To promote public participation by developing volunteer network 54
    • Programs• Existence of three community forestry in three Tambons• Plantation program- on the day of King’s birthday; but not intensive reforestation programs• Voluntary group at Tambon level engaged in patrolling of forest resourcesLocal Level Problems• Increasing forest encroachment and clearance• Low public awareness on forest conservation and protectionPolicy and Program AnalysisThe policy and strategy on forest have well addressed the local level forest related problems;but since the forest encroachment and clearance are high, campaigns for awareness raising,and trainings for capacity building, forest reforestation programs are needed to be intensifiedas the scope of these activities are found to be very limited. In addition, the policies andstrategies are in favor of growing forest with economic value and expand them in public andprivate land; but in reality programs on growing economic timber in suitable areas andincluding private and public land as are lacking. So these need to be addressed in the nearfuture.2.9.3 WaterNational Policies Provincial Level StrategiesPromoting community roles in water • to develop water source for village facingresource management water shortage for their consumption by improving natural source and water supply system both surface and underground water • to educate and enhance public participation regarding water management in water shortage area, moreover, consult and transfer technology of water supply improvement in sub-district levelDistrict Level Strategies • Sufficient water resources to meet local demandTambon Level Strategies • Provisioning and developing water sources for agriculturePrograms• Irrigation Water Supply Pipeline ProjectProblems• Shortage of water for agricultural purposes in dry seasonsPolicy and Program Analysis 55
    • National Policy is silent on making availability of drinking water and water for agriculturalpurposes at local level though people’s participation in water management has beenprioritized. Provincial and district level strategies have adequately addressed the drinkingwater issue but not for the agricultural purposes. Programs to address the water shortageduring dry season especially for agriculture, one of the major problems, are still inadequate.2.9.4 LandPolicies StrategiesFairly distributing and managing land NoownershipDistrict Level Strategies • Local people equitably have land titlePrograms• Land reform is taking place in one tambon among the five tambonsProblems• Lack of land titlePolicy and Program AnalysisSub-national strategies have not addressed the land issue but national and district levelstrategies have adequately addressed the issue. Land reform is ongoing only in one tambonand there is no reform policy for other remaining tambons. Since the problem of lack of landtitle for many people and landless is in existence in the area, there is need to address theseissues.2.9.5 Environmental Pollution and AwarenessPolicies Strategies• Implement an environment-friendly Air Pollution waste disposal system, and increase the capacity of local administrative • To enhance understanding in order to authorities regarding waste disposal and prevent and protect from air pollution wastewater treatment Solid waste• Raise environmental awareness • To promote 3R project • To promote community clustering for solid waste management. • To increase effectiveness of local community for solid waste management including collection, transfer and disposalPrograms 56
    • • No environmental awareness raising programs and waste management programs at Tambon levelProblems• Lack of awareness on environmental problems among local people and TAO Officials• Lack of solid waste collection and management system in almost all TambonsPolicy and Programs GapsNational policy has adequately addressed the awareness on environmental pollution and solidwaste management system which is one of the emerging issues in the area, the local peopleparticipation has been emphasized in the strategies. But programs to address the issues are notconducted in the local area. Indeed, lack of awareness on environmental problems among thelocal people and TAO officials is one of the major problems in the area and lack of solidwaste collection and management system in almost all Tambons also been recognized as aproblem. 57
    • Table 2.6: Overall Policies of Natural Resources and Environment SectorNational Level Policies Provincial Level Strategies District Level Tambon Level Programs/Projects/Local Initiatives Strategies Strategies• Implement an environment- Soil • Sufficient water • Provisioning and • Small scale soil erosion control friendly waste disposal • To promote organic farming by resources to developing water project through vetiver plantation system, and increase the using manure and reducing chemical meet local sources for only in some Tambon (Nong capacity of local substance demand agriculture makha- approximately 200 Rais) administrative authorities • To campaign farmer to reduce • Local people • Building awareness regarding waste disposal and burning stump equitably have in natural resources • Soil doctor project supported by wastewater treatment • To educate farmers regarding soil land title and environmental land development department –• Raise environmental conservation management one doctor each village headed by awareness • To convince farmers participate • Develop clean one Tabmon level doctor.• Conserve soil and forestry by in decision-making of land use environment with ending illegal farm-burning regarding its capacity proper management • Land reform is taking place in one and topsoil destruction; Forest of solid waste Tambon among the five Tambons reducing chemical use in agriculture; rehabilitating • To promote reforestation for soil and preventing soil rehabilitation of upstream forest • Existence of three community degradation by planting economic forest, community forest, forestry in three Tambons vetiver grass village forest and other afforestation• Conserving and in private and public land • Plantation program- on the day of protecting mature forest; • To campaigns, training and provide King’s birthday; but not intensive supporting forestation and education about forest and wildlife reforestation programs forest rehabilitation in conservation including forest fire accordance; supporting protection to youth student and establishment of community general population • Voluntary group at Tambon level 59
    • forests; growing economic • To promote public participation engaged in patrolling of forest timber in suitable areas as by developing volunteer network resources determined by academic Water research • No environmental awareness• Fairly distributing and • To develop water source for village raising programs and waste managing land ownership facing water shortage for their management programs at Tambon consumption by improving natural level source and water supply system both surface and underground water • To educate and enhance public participation regarding water management in water shortage area, moreover, consult and transfer technology of water supply improvement in sub-district level Land is NA Air Pollution • To enhance understanding in order to prevent and protect impact from air pollution Solid waste • To promote 3R project • To promote community clustering for solid waste management. • To increase effectiveness of local community for solid waste management including collection, transfer and disposal 60
    • 2.9.10 Overall Analysis of the policies and ProgramsThere is close link between national and provincial level policies on natural resourcesand environment sector. It means that comprehensive policy framework is already inexistence. At provincial level, well articulation of strategies to manage naturalresources and environmental quality has been done. However, there is a weak linkageof policies between provincial and district levels may be primarily due to lack oftechnical expertise and budget. This has resulted in somewhat loose coordination(gaps) for substantial natural resources development and their management.Increasingly, TAOs have realized its own local problems and needs by initiatingstrategies and plans and projects to respond such varied needs. It optimisticallyviewed that the TAOs are undertaking their task of planning and programming in aright way though they are existing in the place since only few years. It can now beseen functioning to serve its own people needs. But still there is a huge gap betweenpolicies and programs at local level. In conclusion, policies and strategies haveadequately addressed the local level problems in the NRE sector; but there areinadequate numbers of programs to address the problems. So there is immediate needto develop programs which adequately address the problems existing in the area.2.10 Sectoral Analyses and Interrelation of Key IssuesNatural resources and environmental degradation appears to be the Major problem ofthe sector, the root- cause such degradation is lack of environmental awareness amonglocal people and Tambon officials. This apparently simple cause and relation hasindeed complex inter and intra sectoral cause and effects linkages which finallyresults in overall environmental and resources degradation. The methodology forproblem analysis consisted of two steps. In first step a preliminary list containing 26problems corresponding to the NRE sector were highlighted in khok charoen district.The list of preliminary problem was then analyzed for the duplication andprioritization where finally it was shortlisted for 13 problems. Most of them were bothcause and effect. Each effect further led to a problem extending to result in the mainproblem of the district. Thus the team developed a matrix to find out cause and effectrelationship among the problem. The subjective evaluation of these relations enabledto rank and prioritize the list of problems were supposed to have maximum impacttherefore should be addressed first.The environmental awareness was the major problem that was given the first priority,soil erosion, water pollution and inadequate number and capacity of water reservoirswere ranked as second priority while lack of land title, landlessness, low involvementof people in forest conservation and protection activities, poor soil quality wereranked as third priority. However each problem in itself is a significant entity thatneeds individual attention. Once addressed from all aspect only, the major problemcan be dealt in sustainable manner. 61
    • The exercise of problem analysis was then presented as a loop or flow diagram givinga visual representation of direct as well as indirect relationship among cause andeffect. Some extra problems from other sectors of the study were also recalled tocomplete the cycle of the problem. The diagram provides a complete picture of causeand effects. However it is not close in itself there are many linkages which can bedeveloped among other sectors of the district. 62
    • 2.10.1 Summary of Sectoral Problems, Constraints, Potentials and NeedsProblems/ Constraints Potentials NeedsSoil, Topography and ClimateProblems • Soil suitable for upland • Awareness raising among crops like sugarcane and the local people regarding• Poor quality of soil cassava impacts of extensive use• Soil erosion • Soil doctor project is of chemical fertilizer and• Flooding working at village level encourage them on use ofConstraints where a volunteer at bio fertilizer. village level provides • The public involvement in• Mismatch between soil technical assistance soil reclamation activities suitability and existing regarding soil problems and land use planning cultivation practices • Establishment of local• Lack knowledge on soil level soil erosion and conservation flood control initiativesLandProblems• Lack of land title • Land reform have been • Land titleConstraints successfully implemented • Land reform in Tambon• Non existence of policy on in Tambon Khok Samae Yang Rak land reform San• Land owners do not pay land • Agricultural water supply tax pipeline project to serve• Misperception on non- Khok Charoen District commercial value of land particularly in Tambon reform certificate to use for Khok Charoen borrowing loan from BAACWaterProblems • The topography ranging • Water quality testing of from high to low areas rainwater• Shortage of drinking water provide a cost effective • Sufficient rain water and agricultural purposes way to build small scale storage during dry season check dams at various • Efficient and round year• Inadequate rain water storage medium high slopes and irrigation system capacity thereafter distribute it through graduate flow • Indigenous knowledge on storage of rainwater and its perverseness for uses during dry seasonsForestProblems• Forest encroachment and • Availability of community • More community forests clearance forestry in Tambon Khok to be established 67
    • • Low public awareness on Samae San, Wang Thong, • Increase public awareness forest conservation and and Yang Rak on forest conservation and protection protection • Government supports for the growth of community forestry and reforestation • Joint voluntary network of forest monitoring should be set up and intensifiedEnvironmentProblems • Severity of environment • Increase awareness on pollution is low; so it could environmental problems• Air pollution by sugarcane be managed even with less among the local people burning efforts which will further and Tambon officials• Lack of awareness on prevent pollution in future. • Provision of pollution environmental pollution control and waste handling among the local people and mechanisms in all Tambon Officials TambonsConstraints• Lack of availability of data on national database on (NRD 2C, BMN) environmental problems further constraints to get the real picture of the environmental pollution 2.10.2 Conclusion The livelihood of local communities in Khok Charoen District relied heavily on availability of natural resources. Local people both utilize potential natural resources for sustaining their lives and enhancing agricultural productivity which is the main occupation of local people. However rapid population growth and increasing agricultural intensity have driven interrelationship between local people and environment become complex putting high pressure on natural resources ranging from poor soil quality, soil erosion, forest encroachment, lack of land title and landlessness. Likewise increasing agricultural and household activities have brought about environmental pollution; like air pollution from sugarcane burning, solid waste, and impacts of extensive chemical uses to human and environment. These activities have partly posed health threat to local people due to lack of awareness. Apart from the problems, the district has also sufficient potentials. Availability of community forestry and successful implementation and probability of its promotion in other Tambons, topographical advantages which can lead to storage of high water and solve the problem of water shortage and promote agricultural productivity and existence of favorable national, provincial and district level policies are some of the potentials of the sector. But these potentials are not fully harnessed. 68
    • There exist favorable policies and plans at national, provincial, district and tambon levels toaddress the local problems, there is gap in design and implementation of programs as per theneed of local problems. Programs utilizing the potentials and solving the problems of thearea should be designed and implemented which need effective coordination among theprovincial, district and local level governments of the area.2.10.3 RecommendationsBased on above findings and conclusion, some relevant recommendations are made asfollows:General RecommendationPublic intervention, public involvement and integrated natural resources managementpractices at both district and Tambon levels are required to ensure that local livelihoodactivities will be making use of natural resources in a sustainable manner.Specific RecommendationsSoil• Increased use of organic fertilizer in agricultural farm should be promoted• Extensive use of vetiver grass plantation at the high slope areas should be promotedLand• Land Reform measure should be supported in Tambon Yank Rak. Additional land reform activities should also be executed in Tambon Khok Charoen in order to prepare the land for taking advantage of the implementation of Irrigation Water Supply Project originating from Pasak Cholasit Dam and ending in Tambon Khok Charoen. This will be exercised based on the needs of local people and resource potential so that optimum benefits and equitable distribution of the land can be realized• Lack of land title has been seen as major problem so it need to addressed adequately from national levelMineral Resource• Right usefulness of Perlite mineral should be disseminated to local villagers as well as conducting a research on coverage, quantity of its reserve in order to promote as ingredient for making organic fertilizer and if possible to promote larger scale industrial productionWater• Immediate action should be taken to solve the problem of water stortage during the dry seasonForest 69
    • • More community forestry should be expanded in other areas e.g. in Tambon Wang Thong Tambon Nong Makha, Tambon Khok Charoen so that it can become alternative source of livelihoods, being local food bank, as well as maintaining environmental and biological balance in local communities. Government supports on seedling for growing community forestry and reforestation activities should be provided• Market place and market channel for community forestry products should be in place• Measures and actions on maintaining wildlife numbers and species should be streamlined in all Tambons• Measures and actions on building public awareness for forest conservation should be carried out in all Tambons• Joint voluntary network of monitoring forest area should be set up in Tambon Yangrak, Tambon Nong MakhaEnvironmental Management• Awareness raising campaigns should be launched in order to make people and Tambon officials aware on prevailing pollution impacts and as well as to minimize the possible threats from future environmental problems.• Stringent measures on controlling and management of sugarcane burning activities should proactively be adopted. In addition, innovative techniques to clear the sugarcane filed should be sought e.g. using sugarcane leaf as compost manure. In addition, preventive measures for protecting environment should be made.• Solid waste is an emerging issue in the district. Therefore, all the TAOs should establish the solid waste collection and disposal system or applying clustering of disposal facilities in the district. 70
    • CHAPTER III AGRICULTURE SECTORIntroductionKhok Charoen is a one district of Lopburi Province lies in the northern part of it. This districtKhok Charoen has five Tambons and it covers in total 1980000 rai of land of which nearly 90percent is utilized by agriculture activities. Out of 7142, nearly 5189 families are involved inagriculture for their livelihood. Both upland and lowland crops are cultivating in this area.Paddy, maize, sugarcane and cassava are the major agricultural crops. In addition, livestockrearing is the second major sources of income of the people living in the area. Agricultureland and land holding size are different from one Tambon to another. Tambon Wang Thonghas the highest land holding size among the Tambons.District and Tambon Administration Office, District Agriculture Development Office,Agriculture Extension Office and Agriculture Technology Transfer Center are the majorinstitutions supporting farmers for agriculture and livestock development activities.Formal and informal both kinds of financial sources are available in the district. Bank ofAgriculture and Agriculture Cooperative, Agriculture Cooperative and Village DevelopmentFund are the formal sources of financial services while sugarcane factory and some middlemen also provide loan to its respective client farmers.3.1 Land for agriculture3.1.1 Land UseLand use classification is originally divided by land for agriculture and other areas formountain, hilly area, and water source area. It is observed that the land of this district hasbeen occupied by all sorts of resources. The data shows that 89% of the total land is used foragriculture purpose while for the mountain or forest purpose is 11%. Most of the area ofKhok Charoen District is mountain area. The table 3.1 gives the land utilization scenario ofthe Khok Charoen district. The land use is presented in Figure 3.1.Figure 3.1 Land Use 71
    • Source: Land District Department 20073.1.2 Land OwnershipIn Khok Charoen district, 176,134 rai is the agricultural land and 5189 number of householdsis engaged with agricultural occupation. 33.94 percent of average agriculture land holdingsize has been consisted of the whole Khok Charoen District. In Tambon Khok Charoen 27%of the total households have agriculture as the main occupation for their livelihood. InTambon Yan Rak 31% of households are involved in agriculture sector while in TambonNong Makha has 18 percent of household are working in agricultural sector and TambonKhok Samae San 13% of agricultural households and Tambon Wang Tong 11 % respectively.It is clear that Tambon Nong Makha has the highest level of land holding size 69 percent andmostly cultivated crops are upland crops. The cultivation area is very low and only 1% ofTambon Nong Makha has consisted of low land area and cultivated area for paddy is 430 rai.Hence, we can see that Tambon Wong Tong has the very minimum of total cultivated areaand number of land holding size for households is also the lowest level in this Khok CharoenDistrict. 92 percent of upland crops area has consisted of this Tambon Wang Tong. 72
    • Table 3.1: Total cultivable agricultural land, households and average land holding size Total Cultivated area No. of Households (rai) Average Land Tambon No. of Agri % Holding Size (rai) Area % H/H Khok Charoen 45,203 26 1,394 27 32.43 Yang Rak 29,970 17 1,634 31 18.34 Nong Makha 64,619 36 925 18 69.86 Khok Samae San 22,421 13 649 13 33.55 Wang Tong 13,921 8 578 11 24.08 Total 176,134 100 5189 100 33.94Source: Agricultural District Office 20073.1.3 Agricultural Land Use PatternIn Khok Charoen District, with the total area of 198,212.05 rai, most of land is agriculturalland i.e. 176,134 rai, and the rest 22,078.05 is others area like mountain and hilly area. 5,189agricultural households out of 6,457 total households were involved and it belonged to 80.36% of total household.Table 3.2: Land area and percentage of land occupied by agriculture and othersSN Description Land area (rai) %age land coverage1 Agriculture 176,134.00 89% Others (mountain, hilly area, water2 22,078.05 11% source) Total 198,212.05 100Source: Land Department District Office 2007According to the land use pattern by Tambon, it is clear that Tambon Khok Charoen has thehighest agricultural land use area and Tambon Khok Samae San has the lowest agriculturalland used area. Land Use by Tambon Wise is presented by Table 3.3 73
    • Table 3.3: Agricultural Land Use by Tambon Wise Agricultural Area Percentage of Land Use by Tambon Land Area (rai) (rai) Agri-land use Khok Charoen 45,573 45,203 99.19 Khok Samesan 26,463 22,421 72.96 Nong Makha 69,268 64,619 93.29 Yang Rak 41075 29,970 84.73 Wang Tong 15,833 13,921 87.92 Total Land Area 198,212 176,134 89Although the main career of Khock Charoen District is Agriculture but due to the insufficientof water for agriculture, there must have solution in order to have availability of sufficient ofwater. Present status of land utilization is shown by figure 3.2.Figure 3.2: Upland and low land crop area Upland and Low Land Crop Area (rai) 38% Rice Area Upland 62%Source: Land District Office 2007The land occupied by agriculture is mostly covered by upland crops in the district. Uplandand low land crops cover nearly 62% and only 38% of the agriculture land respectively. Themajor upland crops cultivated in this area are sugarcane, maize and cassava while paddy isrecognized as the low land crops. Vegetables constitute very low coverage of the land i.e.0.01%. The distribution of agriculture land and its size and the land covered by differentagriculture crops according to Tambon is given below in table 3.4 74
    • Table 3.4: Upland and Lowland Crop by Tambon Wise Tambon Up Land Crop by % Low Land Crop by % Khok Charoen 54 46 Yang Rak 27 73 Nong Makha 99 1 Khok Samae San 26 74 Wong Tong 92 8Source: Agriculture land use office 2007Figure 3.3: Upland and Low land crop by Tambon Upland and Lowland Crop by Tambon 99 92 73 74 54 46 27 26 Up Land Crop by % Low Land Crop by % 8 1 ha ng n en ak Sa ak To R ro M ae ha ng g on ng m C Ya Sa ok W No Kh ok KhSource: Land District Office, 2007 75
    • Figure 3.4: Agricultural land use by TambonThe above mentioned upland and lowland cropping pattern, Tambon Nong Makha has thehighest level of upland crop area 99% and second largest of upland crop area is TambonWong Tong which has 92%. Tambon Khok Samae San has the lowest upland crop areawhich is 26% respectively. Lowland crop area, Tambon Khok Samae San has the highestlevel of 74% and followed by Tambon Yang Rak 73%. Tambon Nong Makha has only 1% oflowland crop area.Different types of crops have been cultivated in different area according to the diverse natureof topographical and climatically conditions of the area. Two types of land reclamationschemes are conducted in Thailand for the agricultural land namely Up land and Lowlandarea. Lowland Area is suitable for rice cultivation and other crops such as vegetables andorchards. In addition to this there has not sufficient water especially in dry season so wherepaddy cultivation is not feasible.The above figure shows that paddy plantation is only 65,212 rai out of 176,134 rai ofagriculture land area. In upland area, four major crops are mostly cultivated in this regionsuch as Sugarcane, Cassava, and Maize. Moreover, the characteristic of this district is mostlyupland area so that the main crops such as maize, cassava, and sugarcane become majorcrops. However, insufficient of water for paddy plantation and betterment of income forsugarcane plantation, many farmers of the area practice shifting cultivation paddy tosugarcane. 76
    • 3.2 Soil for agriculture3.2.1 Soil type and fertilityIn Khok Charoen district, the structure of land is not good. Due to porous structure of soil thewater holding capacity of land is poor but if we see the presence of nutrients is the soil, itlooks suitable for agriculture. All kinds of major crops are being cultivated in this district.Actually success of crop depends on abiotic, biotic and economic factors. Deficiency or poormanagement of any one of these factors would directly affect the performance of crop andincome level of farmers.Table: 3.5: Factors affecting crop performance and suitability Biotic (pathogens + parasites + beneficial Economic (market + Abiotic (climate + soils) organisms + genetic political + cultural) variation) Climate SoilAnnual Texture* (1) Beneficial and Capital farmers have,precipitation* Drainage* harmful organisms suchGrowing days* pH* as insects, fungi and Supply, demand, seed bacteria. supply laws,Daily air government policy andtemperatures* (2) Genetic variation social acceptance,Winter minimum within a crop. marketing channels, temperature* infrastructure, properSolar intensity Depth, prices.Light duration Cat ion Exchange,Daily precipitation Water holdingSoil temperature Capacity, Fertility, Organic matterIf soil texture is poor it does not mean soil is barren. Soil fertility is another factor whichconfines presence of sufficient level of macro and micro nutrients in the soil. Organic matteris another factor with especially related to fertility and water holding capacity of soil. Greaterthe level of organic matter in the soil, greater will be its fertility level and water holdingcapacity. If we say soil quality is poor, it means soil texture and structure is poor due to slowweathering process or excessive erosion of soil. In Khok Charoen district soil quality is poorbut fertility level is good that is why crop production level is also satisfactory. A good soilquality can add more to production of crops by increasing its water holding capacity andsaving the soil from intensive leach down of soil nutrients. During field visit soil 77
    • characteristics were observed practically. Soil of district is easy for tillage practices due topoor cohesion of particles. It happens where soil is silt loam or sandy loam. But there is alsoan advantage of these kinds of soils that percolation level is so good. During study in KhokCharoen district following aspects were observed.Table: 3.6: General Soil Observation Khok Nong Wang Khok Samae Charoen Makha Thong San Yang RakSoil Type Silt loam Sandy Fine sandy Silt loam Silt loam loam loamSoil quality/ texture Medium Poor Poor Medium MediumSoil fertility Good Medium Good Good MediumW. H. C. Medium Poor Poor Medium MediumSource: Primary Data (farmers, TAO and observation in fields)These are the general observations which were noted during visit to fields. It is the picture ofsample area which we targeted. It does not mean the entire area of each Tambon is the same;there is great variation in soil structure of all five Tambons. It was just perception before dataanalysis. 78
    • Table: 3.7: Soil Fertility Analysis Khok Nong Wang Khok District Charoen Yang Rak Makha Thong Samae San Level no. no. no. no. no. no. of of of of of of fertility village villa villa villa villa villaIndicator level s % ges % ges % ges % ges % ges % Low 0 0 3 25 3 25 3 33.33 3 37.5 12 22.64 Mediu m 0 0 4 33.33 2 16.67 0 0 1 12.5 7 13.21SOILQUALIT 10Y Good 12 0 5 41.67 7 58.33 6 66.67 4 50 34 64.15 10TOTAL 12 0 12 100 12 100 9 100 8 100 53 100(Source: NRD-2C Data, 2007)Data analysis show that over all fertility level of all five Tambons (Khok Charoen, Yang Rak,Nong Makha, Wang Thong and Khok Samae San) is 64.14% (falls in good category). Only22.64% soil is of low fertility level, it means that 22.64% soil is not fertile for agriculture.13.21% soil is of medium quality.The best soil as for as fertility is concerned is of TambonKhok Charoen which is 100% of good fertility level.Yang Rak is having the lowest fertility level of soil with 41.67%. Its 33.33% soil is withmedium fertility level, which shows that 33.33% soil is also have potential for agriculture ifproper soil management practices (manures, compost, fertilizers and other organic matteraddition) are carried out. Even soil with very low fertility level can also be manageable foragriculture. In Nong Makha Tambon 58.33% soil is good, 16.67% is medium and 25% iswith low fertility. Wang Thong Tambon is having 66.67% good soil and 33.33% soil is withlow fertility level.In Khok Samae San 50% soil is good, 12.5% is medium and 37.5% is with low fertility. Hereagain it is necessary to mention that fertility is not the only determinant of high productivity,there are other factors also which collectively determines the performance of crop asexpounded in table 3.5. 79
    • Figure: 3.5: Soil Fertility Level S Fertility L oil evel 37.5 33.33 12.5 50 K k Samae San ho 66.67 Wan Tho g ng 0 16.67 58.33 25 N gM on akha 33.33 41.67 25 Y gR an ak tt 100 Khok Charoen 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Lev (in Percentage) el Low Medium Good3.2.2 Soil suitability for cropPractically the farmers are cultivating paddy, sugar cane, maize, millet, green bean, blacksesame, sunflower, cotton, cassava, peanut, egg plant and some vegetables. Sugar cane,sunflower, cassava, paddy and maize are being cultivated as major crops but the soil is moresuitable for horticultural crops (fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants). If thesehorticultural crops are given due weight, the benefits of the farmers would increase becausemulti-cropping and inter-cropping will be flexible. More significant point is that soil issuitable for horticultural crops because these crops consumes less water so low water holdingcapacity of soil would not jolt the yield. More specifically speaking soil of district is suitablefor citrus, guava, sugar beet, lady finger and brinjal besides major agronomical crops(sugarcane, cassava, maize, cotton, paddy etc).Structure of soil has been perished my erosion in this district but fertility shows that soil isstill very suitable for agricultural practices. One point should be clear that if erosion disturbsthe upland area structure, same time it would be contributing to the improvement of soilstructure in lowland area. Water erodes fine particles (mostly enriched with soil nutrients) ofsoil from upper land and adds them into the soil of lower lands. Other possibility is that fertileparticles in water remains with water, when this stored water is used for agriculture that timethese particles will be added to crop field. Water runoff destroys soil structure in one area andimproves it in other areas at the same time. 80
    • 3.3 Water resources3.3.1 Source of water for agricultureThe agriculture sector is highly dependent on rain. So we can say district is having more rain-fed agriculture rather than irrigated. The irrigation system is not well defined in the districtKhok Charoen (majestic reservoirs, canals, distributaries, minors, water channels etc. arelimbs of good and well defined irrigation system); there are small storage hubs and watercourses which are all about irrigation system mostly in this district. Water is mostly availablefrom ponds, Reservoirs (small), weirs, and streams for irrigation. The ratio of this availablewater to actual water required by crops is very low. So the dependency on rain is inevitable.Table: 3.8: Available water storage resources Pond Reservoir Weir Stream Total %age of Cap. Cap. Cap. Cap. Capacity total (Cubic (Cubic (Cubic (Cubic (Cubic cap. TAMBONS No. Meter) No. Meter) No. Meter) No. Meter) Meter)KhokCharoen 19 80,000 3 57,880 4 24,000 14 335,750 497630 21.35Yang Rak 22 105,000 3 300,000 15 72,000 19 360,000 837000 35.92Nong Makha 12 120,000 0 0 10 52,550 2 32,000 204550 8.78Wang Thong 19 7,600 3 360,000 14 132,000 3 60,000 559600 24.02Khok SamaeSan 3 44,800 1 128,000 4 13,500 3 45,000 231300 9.93Total 64 357,400 10 845,880 47 294,050 41 832,750 2330080 100Data source: DAO, TAO (secondary data)In district Khok Charoen there are total number of 64 ponds, 10 reservoirs, 47 weirs and 41streams. The total water storage capacity of these resources is 2330080 Cubic Meter. Out oftotal “stored water resources” 21.35% is being stored in Khok Charoen Tambon, 35.92% inYang Rak, 8.78% in Nong Makha, 24.02% in Wang Thong and 9.93% in Khok Samae San. 81
    • Figure 3.6: Tambon wise percentage of total water storage capacity Tambon wise percentage of total water storage capacity 9.93 21.35 Khok Charoen 24.02 Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San 8.78 35.92 82
    • Map 3.1: Distribution of Water Resources DISTRIBUTION OF WATER RESERVIOR Phai Sali District Nakhorn Saman Province Water reservoir Tambon Nong Makha Si Thep District Phetchaboon Province Tambon Wang Thong Tambon Yang Rak Tambon Khok Charoen Tambon Khok Samae San 83Nong Muang District Sa Bot District
    • If we see the available agriculture land in Tambons are water resources available foragriculture (these resources are mainly for agriculture), the following picture will appear.(See table 3.9)Table 3.9: Situation of cultivable area and available stored water resources TAMBON Cultivable % of Cultivable Total Stored Water Area (Rai) Area Resources (% of total in district) Khok Charoen 45937 26 21.35 Yang Rak 38449 22 35.92 Nong Makha 52246 29 8.78 Wang Thong 15276 9 24.02 Khok Samae San 24226 14 9.93 Total 176134 100 100Data source: DAO, TAO (secondary data) 1) Khok Charoen Tambon is having 26% of total cultivable land of district but it has 21.35% of total stored water resources of the district. Yang Rak has 22% of total cultivable land of district but it has 35.92% share in water resources. 2) Nong Makha has 29% share of cultivable land but the stored water resources are only 8.78%. Wang Thong has only 9% of share of cultivable land but available water resources are 24.02%. It is quite interesting that Wang Thong should have more water resources to manage its available agriculture land. 3) Distribution of water resources is not according to the cultivable land of Tambons. 4) If we see the map of district, the reservoirs are not equally scattered in the district. For example southern part of Yang Rak, western and eastern parts of Nong Makha and southern part of Khok Samae San should have more reservoirs to irrigate the cultivable land. 84
    • Figure 3.7: Comparison of cultivable land and water resources C m o pariso of C n ultivab lan & W le d ater resources (Ta bo m nw e) is 1 0 2 11 0 00 0 1 0 0 ecn e %o cu a le la d o f tiv b n f Pr e t g a 80 district 60 3 .9 5 2 T ta sto d w te o l re a r 40 21 5 2 6 29 re u so rce (%o to l in s f ta 2 .3 2 2 .0 4 2 1 .9 4 9 3 district) 20 8 8 .7 9 n 0 a n a g S e h k n ro a k o l ta R e a h a M a o T m h g T C n g g a a n n S k Y o a o W N k h o K h K Ta b n m o s3.3.2 Management aspects of water user groupsWater Management: a case study on water users’ organizationThis case study is on water users’ group based in village number 6, Tambon Khok Samae San(district Khok Charoen). This village is situated in hilly area and its population size is 50households (average 3-4 person per household).Background24 years ago, first proper irrigation system was developed by forming a water userorganization (WUO) comprising initially 150 members (currently 220) aiming to construct asmall weir. The Irrigation Department invested an amount of 4 millions Baht to constructwater weir of capacity 3500 cubic meter. To improve further water resources, the amount of21 million Baht was invested in 2001 to construct water reservoir. This reservoir wasunpaved (earthen). The both structures weir and Reservoir serve seasonally whenever wateris collected in these. Rain is the main source to collect water. Weir irrigates 20 Rai/member,and reservoir can serve 5000 Rai of paddy during rainy season. The system is now servingwhole Tambon 6 villages; (Village No. 2, No.3, No. 4, No. 5 No. 6 and No.7). 85
    • Map 3.2: Showing water reservoir in the study district Objectives l To provide adequate water for agriculture through proper irrigation system to increase crop yield. l To support the need of water for rearing livestock in the project area. l To fulfill the needs of water for domestic use. l To increase over all income and livelihoods of the Tambon. Water Management The irrigated area is divided into zones considering that tail-enders will get water first than the farmers at the head. For Weir and the first Reservoir, the area is divided into 5 zones. Water is allocated on 1day/1night formula basis (24 hrs) for each zone. For the second Reservoir, the area is divided into 10 zones and each zone receives water for 48 hrs (2days/2nights).Maintenance According to the decision of the organization (WUO) /Irrigation Department, maintenance costing: l Less then 500 baht will be done on individual basis. 86
    • l 501 – 5000 baht will be done by WUO collectively. The Total cost will be divided per household. l More then 5000 baht will be requested through Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO) to Irrigation Department.Paddy is the major agricultural crop grown in the project area. Paddy is grown at lowlandwhile “Cassava” is cultivated on highland of the area. Rearing of livestock is only for purposeof beef. Limited fish farming (due to unavailability of water in dry season and also afterharvesting in April).OutputsMore than 5000 Rai rain-fed land is now possible to be irrigated. At least the amount of 2,500metric ton of paddy is produced (500 kg x 5,000 Rai=2,500,000 kg). The income of thefarmers of the area from paddy product is now raised to 18.75 millions baht/annum. Rearingof livestock is also increasing with the availability of water. The project has providedcohesiveness in community and the inhabitants are now interlinked with each other. It hasimproved the overall social attitude of the community. Two kinds of disputes were found inthe community; one, on water distribution (not more then 10%), second, on maintenance (notmore then 10%). Head of the Village/Head of the organization (WUO) resolves thesedisputes appropriately.Future PlanVillage heads and WUO have planned to improve the existing water resources throughdevelopment project of 2.6 millions baht (new reservoirs). The proposal to increase storagecapacity of the existing system is already submitted to irrigation department for finalapproval. Plan to introduce different varieties of crops in the area and to promote livestock.Project Findings: 1. Community Participation was found very well. 2. The project was gender responsive – 20% female members in WUO. 3. Project has helped to reduce poverty up to some extent. 4. Although there was no contribution of community in the initial cost, however considering the government investment, the project is viable keeping in view its initial cost and annual rate of return. 5. WUO was perceived under some certain political influence.Recommendations 1. Establishing regular irrigation system would be key instrument for sustainable agriculture. 2. More investment on water resources is needed to ensure the availability of water in dry season. 87
    • 3. Proper overhauling of the existing projects is needed to serve their functions efficiently. 4. Role of agriculture extension should be enhanced in the area.3.4 Crops3.4.1 Type of cropsCrops of Khok Charoen district are divided according to following two criteria: 1. Topographical division 2. Division on the basis of Cultivation and ProductivityTopographical Division:(a)- Low land crops: These are the crops which consume relatively more water and finetextured soil is suitable for their significant production e. g. Paddy. These crops are beingcultivated on relatively low areas of land in district Khok Charoen.(b)- Upland Crops: These are the crops which are being cultivated on relatively high altitudee.g. sugarcane, maize, cassava, cotton, horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits, flowers etc).Division on the Basis of Cultivation and Productivity(a)- Major crops: These are the crops which are being cultivated by farmers on priority basisin accordance with market demand. Major crops of district Khok Charoen are paddy,sugarcane, maize, sunflower and cassava.(b)-Minor crops: These are the crops which have relatively less priority due to highproduction costs, extensive field operations or less market demand. Minor crops of KhokCharoen district are cotton, hot pepper, brinjal, beans, millet, black sesame, peanut,squashes etc.3.4.2 Cropping PatternGenerally in Khok Charoen district two types of cropping patterns are being followed; (1)Mono-cropping (2) Multi-cropping (mostly double cropping in Khok Charoen district).Other practices like inter-cropping, crop rotation and triple-cropping can rarely be observed.As for as multi-cropping is concerned sugar cane and cassava are two crops which are beingused for this practice because these crops have life cycle of 8-10 months. No other crop canbe cultivated during the gap. On the other hand paddy, maize, cotton, sunflower and differentvegetables are being practiced as multi-cropping pattern in Khok Charoen district. 88
    • Table 3.10: Cropping pattern Area Under Mono- Area Under Multi- cropping (Rai) cropping (Rai)TAMBONS Total areaKhok Charoen 13700 81.07% 3198 18.93% 16898Yang Rak 23173 98.32% 396 1.68% 23569Nong Makha 15575 68.43% 7184 31.57% 22759Wang Thong 14173 92.60% 1133 7.40% 15306Khok Samae San 17857 96.77% 595 3.23% 18452Source: District Agriculture Development OfficeIn Khok Charoen Tambon 81.07% area was used for mono-cropping pattern and 18.93% wasused for multi-cropping practices. In Yang Rak, Nong Maka, Wang Thong and Khok samaeSan areas under mono-cropping were respectively 98.32%, 68.43%, 92.60% and 96.77% andareas under multi-cropping pattern were respectively 1.68%, 31.57%, 7.40% and 3.23%. So itcan be concluded that multi-cropping is not being practiced on large scale due to the shortageof water during dry period. Second point here is that farmers prefer sugarcane and cassava toother crops. Paddy farmers are changing their paddy fields into sugarcane. They now prefersugarcane to paddy.Figure 3.8: area under the different cropping patterns percentage of area under different cropping patterns 100% 90% 80% percentage 70% 60% multicropping 50% 40% monocropping 30% 20% 10% 0% Khok Yang Rak Nong Wang Khok Charoen Makha Thong Sam San ae 89 Tambons
    • 3.4.3 Cropping Calendar There are two annual crops being cultivated in the district e.g. sugarcane and cassava. All remaining crops are seasonal crops. It means life cycle of annual crops is like that these crops remain in the field the whole year. After harvesting of one period crop, second period crop starts. In case of sugarcane ratoon cropping is common practice. Both annual crops are upland crops and can tolerate all climatic factors as well. Other major crops like rice, maize and sunflower are seasonal crops and are being sown according to the calendar. Different vegetables are also being cultivated through out the year according to the season and conditions. Other horticultural crops can rarely be seen in this district. Table 3.11: Cropping CalendarCrops January February March April May June July August September October November DecemberRiceMaizeSunflowerSugarcaneCassavaCottonVegetables Source: District Agriculture Office,Lobpuri,2007 3.4.4 Cropping Intensity It is actually the measure that how the available agriculture land is used. If we use the available land efficiently with cultivation of two or more crops in the same field for the same year, the cropping intensity and income would be more. Table 3.12: Cropping Intensity Gross cropped area Cropping Net sown area (Rai) (Rai) Intensity TAMBON Khok Charoen 45,937 27,473 59.80% Yang Rak 38,449 34,129 88.76% 90
    • Nong Makha 52,246 41,340 79.13% Wang Thong 15,276 13,004 85.13% Khok Samae San 24,226 33,652 138.91% Total (District) 176,134 149,598 84.93%Source: District Agriculture Office, 2007Maximum cropping intensity has been found in Khok Samae San which is 138.91% andlowest figure has been calculated in tambon Khok Charoen which is 59.80%. The overallfigure for district as whole is calculated as 84.93%. Cropping intensity is the determinant ofefficiency of land use. It shows that agriculture land of the district is not being usedefficiently. In Yang Rak, Nong Makha and Wang Thong the cropping intensity figures arerespectively 88.76%, 79.13%, 85.13%.Figure 3.9: Cropping Intensity cropping intensity 160.00% 138.91% 140.00% 120.00% 100.00% 88.76% 85.13% 84.93% 79.13% 80.00% cropping intensity 59.80% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% Khok Yang Rak Nong W ang Khok Total Charoen Makha Thong Samae (District) San3.4.5 Crop YieldsYield of crops varies from Tambon to Tambon with changes in soil structure, fertility, wateravailability, ph of soil, cation exchange, water holding capacity and other factors (biotic).Moreover extensive use of fertilizers and protective measures (pesticides and weedicides) canalso make difference. 91
    • Table 3.13: Average Yield Average Yield Per Rai (Kgs) TAMBONS Sugarcane Paddy Cassava Maize Sunflower Khok Charoen 15000 450 5000 800 120 Yang Rak 15000 500 3000 800 70 Nong Makha 10000 450 3500 1000 90 Wang Thong 12000 500 3800 800 105 Khok Samae San 10000 450 3200 900 85 Average Yield 12400 470 3700 860 94 Source: farmers, key informants, TAO (primary data)If we had considered only fertility level (100%) of Khok Charoen tambon, the yield wouldhave been the maximum but there is no great difference with other tambons. The lowestfertility level (41.67%) is of Yang Rak tambon but it has almost same yield figures as inKhok Charoen tambon in case of sugarcane, paddy and maize but in case of cassava andsunflower there is big gap between tow extreme tambons. Paddy is lowland crop so it is beingcultivated in lowland patches which are so often fertile in all tambons that is why there is notgreat difference in yield figures. Now two points are clear, number one is soil fertility is notthe only determinant of high yield, second is soil of Yang Rak is suitable for sugarcane,maize and cassava. It means natural fertility does not cast significant effect on these crops iffertilizers are additionally used to increase the productivity. But in case of cassava andsunflower natural fertility level has created a great difference. So some crops are sensitive tospecific factors. Low natural fertility level always increases the production costs of farmersregarding fertilizers and manuring. Overall all three factors (biotic, abiotic and economicfactors) determine the production level and performance of different crops.3.4.6 Benefit-Cost AnalysisTable 3.14: Benefit Cost ratio calculation of major crops Cost and Benefits of Crops (Baht/Rai) Practices Sugar- Paddy Cassava Maize Sun-flower cane 1. Cost of seeds/ seedlings 170 2000 620 900 120 92
    • 2.land preparation/tractor cost 350 1400 720 700 200 3.Fertilizer/Manure/Bio Fertilizer 100 150 300 650 0 4.Pesticides/insecticides 100 0 0 150 0 5Cultivation(planking,ploughing,tillage) 450 0 500 820 200 6. Labour cost 0 245 450 1300 0 7. Weeding/Hoeing 200 0 150 500 150 8. Harvesting 200 375 420 800 200 9. Transportation 200 100 0 500 0 10. Others costs 0 340 0 0 0 Total production cost 1770 4610 3160 6320 870 Yield (kg/ rai) 12400k 470kg 3700kg 860kg g 94kg Sale Price (Baht) 7/kg 2.50/kg 8/kg 0.7/kg 22/kg Total income (Baht) 3290 9250 6880 8680 2068 Net income 1520 4640 3720 2360 1198 Benefit-cost ratio 1.86 2.06 2.18 1.37 2.38Source: Secondary data (TAO, district agriculture officer, key informants)If we see the comparative analysis of production costs and gross benefits of major crops, itwould appear that cassava, maize and sunflower have wide margins for net profit, whereassugarcane has less margin for net profitability. So, comparatively better crops should bepreferred to get maximum profit margins. 93
    • Figure 3.10: Gross Benefits vs Production Cost (per rai) Gross Benefits vs Production Costs (Per Rai) 100 00 95 20 88 60 M UT H) A O N (T B 80 00 68 80 6 20 3 60 00 41 60 P d ro uctio C sts n o 40 00 32 0 9 3 60 1 G ss B n ro e efits 17 70 2 8 06 20 00 80 7 0 P d ad y C ssa a a v Maize S g rca e ua n S flo e un w r C O R PS3.4.7 Benefit-Cost RatioSunflower has maximum benefit cost ratio but it is being cultivated on small area of districtKhok Charoen. So for rational decisions it can not be compared with major crops like paddy,sugarcane and cassava. Paddy has ratio as 1.86 and maize has 2.18. These analysis show thatmaize should not be ignored, it should be given due value while making farm decisions. Itcan be cultivated on more area than the current areas under its cultivation. If we compare twoupland crops sugarcane and cassava, cassava will definitely have priority on the basis of itshigh benefit-cost ratio (2.06) as compared to sugarcane (1.37). Both are annual as well asupland crops so cassava can replace sugarcane from some possible area. Figure 3.11: Benefit cost ratio analysis of major crops Benefit-cost ratio Analysis 2.5 2.38 2.18 2 2.06 1.86 1.5 1.37 Benefit-cost ratio 1 0.5 0 e va er y an e d iz w ss d rc a flo a M a a P C n g u u S S MA RC O S JO R P3.4.8 Marking ChannelsMarketing channel is the economic factor which determines the performance of the over allfarm practices. If productivity is high and marketing strategy is poor, the required out put willnot be possible. So marketing should be considered as wind up force of agriculture. 94
    • Marketing Channel of CassavaSource: farmers, key informants (primary data)Marketing Channel of SugarcaneSugarcane has a little bit complex marketing channel. The produce moves from farmer tomiddle man or directly to sugarcane factory. Sugarcane factory process the raw produce intosugar. Exporters directly access sugarcane factory to purchase sugar for export. Fromsugarcane factory, sugar flows towards whole sellers and then ultimately to retailers. Ultimateconsumer purchases sugar from retailers. Farmers also purchase sugarcane press-mud(residues) from sugarcane factory to produce bio-fertilizer. This press-mud is an importantingredient of bio-fertilizer. 95
    • Marketing channel of Sugarcane (Raw form) MIDDLEFARMER MANor (informalGrower lender) (Raw Form) (Raw Form) SUGAR DIRECT CANE SALE/ FACTORY EXPORT (Processed form)(Press-mud / residue of sugarcanefor bio-fertilizer) (Processed form) WHOLE- SALE MARKETConsumer RETAILor ultimate MARKETS 96
    • users (SMALL)Source: farmers, key informants (primary data)Marketing Channel of PaddyIn case of marketing channel of paddy farmer directly sell out its produce to rice factory ormiddle man purchases paddy. After processing of paddy in factory, rice bulk is purchased byexporters or local whole sellers. Sometimes rice factory sell out rice to big markets ofBangkok and exporters purchase from these markets. Ultimately rice reaches the retailmarkets from where consumers purchase it. Marketing channel of paddy FARMER paddy MIDDLE MAN or (informal lender) Grower paddy paddy RICE MILL DIRECT polished/husked SALE/ rice EXPORT RICE polished rice 97
    • LARGE MARKETS(Bangkok) Consumer or ultimate RETAIL MARKETS users (shops)Source: farmers, key informants (primary data)Marketing Channel of MaizeIn khok Charoen district marketing channel of maize is not so complex. Farmer sells out hisproduce to middleman quite often. He also directly sells out in nearby market. Sometimesconsumers directly purchase from the farmer. Marketing channel of maize 98
    • FARMER MIDDLE or MAN Growerears (cob+kernels) MARKET Processing unit/ factory finished/processed products Consumer or ultimate usersSource: farmers, key informants (primary data) 99
    • Marketing Channel of Agriculture InputsIn all five Tambons marketing channel of agriculture inputs is also similar. Pesticide andfertilizer companies supply their products to generic companies or middlemen who act astheir distributors. From middleman these chemicals reach the farmer. There is also anotherroute, from local companies these products flow towards dealers, from dealers to farmers’groups or cooperatives. Ultimately there groups and cooperatives sell this out to farmers. 100
    • Agriculture Inputs Marketing Pesticide/ fertilizer company Generic companyMIDDLEMAN dealers (shops)Farmer/Grower Farmers groups/org./coops. 101
    • Source: farmers, key informants (primary data)3.4.9 Problems, Potentials and SolutionsProblems1) Water shortage for agriculture in dry season is common problem in the district and flaws in conservation of existing water resources are also adding to water shortage problem.2) Crop rotation practices are not regularly being experimented. Sugarcane may be rotated with cassava due to its comparative advantages. Cassava has more economic benefits as compared to sugarcane because it has more benefit-cost ratio (2.06) as compared to sugarcane (1.37).PotentialsIn the whole district the farmers are cultivating the crops without analyzing the ultimatebenefits. For example their trend is shifting from paddy to sugar cane gradually. Whereassugar cane has less benefit-cost ratio (1.37) is less than other crops (cassava 2.06, paddy 1.86,maize 2.18 and sunflower (2.38). The most important point is that sugarcane is annual crop,so multi-cropping is not possible. It is exhaustive crop and uses soil nutrients and water morethan other crops. Cassava has more potential in this district as for as production and benefitsare concerned. Cassava should be preferred to sugarcane because it has high benefit-cost ratioas compared to sugarcane, moreover it has some future prospects also. Government isintending to install cassava processing units in Khok Charoen district because it is the sourceof renewable energy (bio-fuel, ethanol etc.). So crops with high benefit cost ratio should bepreferred and cultivated. Moreover this area is suitable for horticultural crops e.g. vegetablesand fruits.Solutions1) Water reservoirs should be constructed to store required water for crops at least. Secondly practices like terrace irrigation and contour water management should be incorporated. If available water is capitalized by terrace irrigation and contour irrigation management, the over all benefits would increase with synchronizing impact. Due to terraces and contours two positive points would come out, firstly water storage can be possible and secondly soil erosion would be decreased.2) In the whole district the farmers are cultivating the crops without analyzing the ultimate benefits. For example their trend is shifting from paddy to sugar cane gradually. Whereas sugar cane has less benefit-cost ratio (1.37) is less than other crops (cassava 2.06, paddy 1.86, maize 2.18 and sunflower (2.38). The most important point is that sugar cane is annual crop, so multi-cropping is not possible. Cassava and sugarcane are both upland crops and need same agronomical conditions. Sugarcane is exhaustive crop and uses soil nutrients and water more than other crops. Cassava has more potential in this district as for as production and benefits are concerned. So crops with high benefit cost ratio should be preferred and cultivated. Moreover this area is suitable for horticultural crops e.g. vegetables and fruits. 102
    • 3.5 Livestock and PoultryIn Khok Charoen District, livestock is secondary significant in agriculture production. Themain economical animals are Beef Cattle, Dairy Cattle, Buffalo, Sheep, Pig, Local and MeatChicken, Ostrich. All livestock distribution is different in all sub-districts; Livestock areraised mainly for local consumption commercial business. Livestock rearing depends uponland holding size and availability of agriculture grazing lands, rangeland also on availabilityof Agriculture by product (major livestock feed)3.5.1 Economic Aspects (Provincial Mass Products)According to Lop Buri economic in 2005 people earned of 88,613 baht per year (19th rank ofThailand) with the provincial mass product was totally 66,504 million baht. The main incomedepended on industry with 36.88% or 24,527 million baht, then, the whole and retail salesplus vehicle and appliance repairs with 14.11% or 9,382 million baht. There was 12.52% or8,329 million baht on agriculture, animal hunting, and forestry and lastly about 11.86% or7,890 million baht on the kingdom government administration, national safeguard andcompulsory social securityTable 3.15: Comparative statement of livestock and agriculture production (Million baht) Production sector 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Agriculture, animal 6732 6992 6561 6966 7433 8329 Hunt, Forestry Fisheries 193 197 181 219 212 134Resource: Secondary dataTable 3.16: Human resource of livestock department in Khok Charoen DistrictVeterinary Doctor Para Veterinary Staff Total01 02 03Source Secondary Data, District Livestock Office, Khok CharoenThere was only one (01) veterinary Doctor with 2 Para Veterinary staff, which is very limitedhuman resource within district. 103
    • Figure 3.12: Number of Livestock (cattle- Buffalo, Sheep, Pig) in 2008 14,000 12,393 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 1,108 832 107 51 0 Beef Dairy Buffalo Sheep Pig cattle CattleSource Secondary Data, District Livestock Office, Khok Charoen (2008)Beef Cattle population is high in this district they have 12,393 animals which has 85% oftotal population, Buffalo is second largest population 1,108 which has 8%, sheep populationwas on 3rd largest population 832 which has 3%, but percentage and distribution are differentat Tambon levelFigure 3.13: Livestock population in Tambon Khok CharoenIn this Tambon, beef cattle population is very high, the percentage is 90% Buffalo Dairy Cattle Sheep Pig 0% 10% 0% 0% Beef cattle 90% Beef cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep PigFigure 3.14: Livestock population in Tambon Yang RackIn this Tambon 64% beef cattle and 19% sheep and dairy cattle 104
    • Sheep Pig 19% 0% Buffalo 17% Beef cattle Dairy Cattle 64% 0% Beef cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep PigFigure 3.15: Livestock population in Tambon Nong Makah97% beef cattle only 3% Dairy cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep Pig 3% 0% 0% 0% Beef cattle 97% Beef cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep PigFigure 3.16: Livestock population in Tambon Wang Thong92% beef cattle 7% sheep 105
    • Figure 3.16: Livestock population in Tambon Khok SamaeIn this Tambon livestock percentage is change then previous tambon, mainly reared sheepand Buffalo, 49% sheep, 33% Buffalo, 18% Pig, Pig Dairy cattle Beef Cattle 18% 0% Buffalo 33% Sheep 49% Beef cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep PigFigure 3.17: Comparison of Tombon wise livestock population percentage 106
    • 1. Khok Charoen Buffalo Sheep Dairy Cattle 0% 10% Pig 0% 0% Beef cattle 90% Beef cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep Pig S heep P ig 19% 0%2. Yang Rak Buffalo 17% Dairy Catt le B eef cattle 64% 0% Beef cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep Pig Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep Pig3. Nong Makha 3%0%0% 0% Beef cattle 97% Beef cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep Pig Sheep Pig Dairy Buffalo Cattle 0%1% 7% 0%4. Wang Thong Beef cattle 92% Beef cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep Pig Pig Dairy cattle Beef Cattle 18% 0% Buffalo5. Khok Samae San 33% Sheep 49% Beef cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep Pig Source Secondary Data 107
    • Table 3.17: Poultry Population in District Khok CharoenS Tam Duck Local Chicken Meat Chicken OstrichN bon Agricult Numb Agricult Num Agricult Num Agricult Number urist er urist ber urist ber urist Khok 73 516 536 11,82 - - - - Char 7 oen Yang 48 616 604 12,34 1 20,00 1 600 Rack 1 0 Non 20 221 236 5,656 2 38,00 - - Maka 0 h Wan 33 321 301 6,396 - - - - g Thon g Khok 35 364 249 5,332 - - - - Sama e Total 209 2,029 1,926 35,19 3 51 1 600 6 3.5.2 Sedentary & Household Livestock Production Most of the people living in the villages rely on agriculture in District Khok Charoen. Most animals reared on farms are either for household consumption or for commercial use. This supplementary livestock production accounts for a major portion of household income and helps to improve farm productivity. Household flocks usually have 15 to 30 animals. In sedentary production system livestock animals within area, 108
    • Figure 3.18: Percentage of Production System Nomadic 0% Transhuman t 0% Sedentary 100% Nomadic Transhumant Sedentary3.5.3 Livestock Marketing ChannelFormally, buying and selling of animals by products takes place in rural markets. Marketingwithout their entry into formal markets also takes through direct purchase and sale amonglivestock farmers. Village trader is the main intermediary in buying animals from the farmers.Butchers are the main buyers of animals from livestock traders. Traders are also marketed toother districts and provinces. Livestock are generally marketed either at village level bypersonal contact between buyer and seller or at places rural markets organized for districtpeople. These markets are organized on weekly bases. Smaller or primary markets are presentin the rural interior whereas larger or secondary markets are usually organized near the urbancenters, provincial level. Markets are under the direct control of the relevant localadministration which provides special places for marketing. MarketingPricing MechanismPricing mechanism in some shops were fixed but on some shops negation will required forfixing the price but it will based on demand and supply position and bargaining skills Famousand significant livestock products Food Products (pickled fish with rice, pickled fish andpork, mince pickled fish3.5.4 Marketing Channel of livestock products 109
    • Marketing Channel Beef, swine, For Export For Local Consumption Producer Producer Middleman Company Slaughterhouse Processing Slaughterhouse Retailers Export Consumer Chicken Marketing ChannelIndependent Farm Dependent Farm Middle Man Companies Small Slaughterhouse Slaughterhouse Retailer Meat Processing ExportConsumer 110
    • Milk Marketing Channel Dairy Farm Middlemen Cooperative Retailer Processing Plant Consumer ExportSource: Secondary and Primary data3.6 FisheryThere was no fisheries department at district level but the provincial fisheries departmentofficial is working for fisheries development. Due to the significant rivers, which are SakRiver, Lop Buri River, Bang Kham River flow through Lop Buri Province plus the Pa SakChonlasit Dam known as the large water source for Lop Buri. Therefore, it spread out thefishery throughout the province.Tambon: Khok CharaoenTable 3.18: Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Total Number of Total Number of Area Per Rai range Production per farmers Fish Farms for single farm year/kg (Range 0.50 to 1.00 rai) 27 28 0.50 to 1.00 rai 25 to 130Source Secondary Data SourceTambon: Nong MakhaTable 3.19: Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Total Number of Total Number of Area Per Rai range Production per 111
    • farmers Fish Farms for single farm year/kg (Range 0.50 to 2.00 rai 111 65 0.50 to 2.0 rai 50 to 1,800Source Secondary Data SourceTambon: Khok Samea SanTable 3.20: Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Total Number of Total Number of Area Per Rai range Production per farmers Fish Farms for single farm year/kg (Range 0.50 to 2.00 rai) 202 135 0.50 to 2.00 rai 50 to 1,200Source Secondary Data SourceTambon: Yang Rak TambonTable 3.21: Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Total Number of Total Number of Area Per Rai range Production per farmers Fish Farms for single farm year/kg (Range 0.50 to 3.00 rai) 180 363 0.50 to 3.00 rai 50 to 300Source Secondary Data SourceTambon: Wang Tang TambonTable 3.22: Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Total Number of Total Number of Area Per Rai range Production per farmers Fish Farms for single farm year/kg (Range 0.50 to 5.50 rai) 18 21 0.50 to 5.50 rai 40 to 300Source: Secondary Data Source 112
    • In each Tambon number of farmers and number of fish farms are different and also the sizeof farm vary farm to farm which is range from 0.50 rai to 5.50 rai but the average size is 100rai , on the base of farms size the production per year/ kg is also different.3.6.1 Expenditure on single fish farmFor 2000 to 3000 fish is 200 to 300 baht (0.2 baht) per fish3.6.2 Problems of fisheries department • Budget • Farms are House Hold level not commercial farms • Limited staff 13 persons working for 11 districts • Water source • Vehicles only 3 pickup for 11 districts3.6.3 Future plan • Big dam is under construction (1998-2009) fisheries department will linked for fisheries development for commercial production • Genetic improvement of fishes • Water testing • Soil testing3.7 Agricultural employmentAgricultural Sector employment is based on harvesting season of Sugarcane and Paddy. Atpresent, Sugarcane becomes the main cash crop of this area due to the high demand ofsugarcane factories. Consequently, agricultural sector employment is depending on theharvesting season of sugarcane. During harvesting period, producers are faced labor shortageproblems because many figures of labours are becoming occupy with non agriculturalemployment sector due to the sustainability of non agricultural sector. Especially, inharvesting period, there are two types of migration in inter province like seasonal migrantsand daily migrants. Inter migrants means labour especially come from outside of the provinceand spend the whole season in this area but daily migrants are from the particular area andcome and work there as daily basis.However, there has no quantitative data is available for agricultural employment sector, it canbe calculated that 1 rai per 10 labors is demand for agricultural sector. Wages rate per day is150 baht per day and there has no difference payment between male and female labor and theemployment for labor is at the age of 15-60. Although there has no data availability forquantitative data of Agricultural Employment Sector, we can estimate demand for laborrespectively. 113
    • In conclusion, we can analyze that agriculture labor force is decreasing year by year due tothe sustainability of non-agricultural sector (industrialization) and in terms of no intensivelabor requirement of agriculture sector.3.8 Khok Chareon District Agriculture OfficeIn Khok Chareon District, there is a District Agricultural Office that functions to: • Promote agricultural service through farmers-centered approach • Act as a facilitator to provide any advices and assistances. • Follow up with farmers’ field for seeking their problems, constraints and needs so to provide the appropriate activities, services and information to them. • Develop the Agricultural Development Plan based on farmers’ needs • Update information using for Agricultural Development Planning by studying and analyzing of Agricultural Extension Academic Research and potentials in the field3.9 Agriculture Extension ServiceExtension service is very important to improve agricultural production by raising awarenessamong farmers. The role of agricultural extension service is to promote technology, providetechnical supports, and give consultation to farmers and farmer group improving theirproductions and livelihood.3.9.1 Agriculture Extension Structure and Human ResourcesKhok Chareon district office consists of seven staffs as one head office, four agricultureextension workers, one administrator and one worker there such the organizational chartbelow:Figure 3.19: Khok Chareon district Agriculture Organizational ChartSource: Agricultural District Office, March 2007In regards to Agriculture Extension Workers responsibilities, they have average one staff foreach Tambon, because the Kkok Chareon district has five Tambons in which agriculture staffhas only four, remaining one staff has covered two Tambons there are Yang Rak and NongMa Kha. In addition to that, totally there is one AEW to take care of 1,334 farm households 114
    • with different activities in annual years. Moreover, in this case, explicitly agricultureextension workers are inadequate for supporting farmers’ problems present in table below:Source: department of agriculture extension, March 2008** Refers to one staff per Tambon3.10 Tambon Agriculture Technology Transfer CentreBackgroundTambon Agricultural technology Transfer Centre (TATTC) is based on the ground whichconsiders farmer as a center of development who will assist in developing participatoryagriculture development plan. It promotes farmer to form a group for its activities. It providesas one stop service to farmers in transferring technology from government sectors (crop,livestock and fishery) including agricultural information. In Khok Chareon district, there are5 TAATC and located in five Tambons. Regardless insufficient staff, large areas andoverloading works of AEW in Agriculture District Office (ADO), get close and fit farmers’needs and quick respond their difficulties, under provision of government’s policy, located ofeach TATTC was established in Khok Chareon district.Objectives • Changes of agricultural development of Local Administrative Organization, Farmers Institutions and communities have more participation and opportunity to achieve sustainable agriculture in term of integration. 115
    • • Enhancing community capacity to plan and develop them throughout local resources utilization as well as promotion of pooling and saving for business investment.Components of TATTC • The TATTC is located in a community that suitable areas for farmers’ meeting center, people stages, training and knowledge transfer. • Those committees should be consisted of various representatives who come from different careers as local representatives. There function is incorporation with local farmers to make as an agricultural development plan by an extension should be facilitated farmers’ activities. • The agricultural plans established from farmers for farmers by doing problem analysis which lead to proper solutions based on farmers’ needs. • The TATTC are selected from plot land of farmer the one who succeed in their own agricultural performance.Tambon Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre (TATTC) committee and theirresponsibilities • Totally number of committee is 15 members and they consist of one tambon representative • Exceed two of farmer’s institution representative or and farmers occupation group • There are four of agricultural voluntaries in each tambon • One each village representative • Agricultural extension who has responsibility is a committee and secretary.Function and responsibility • Agreement legislation in term of TATTC administration • Provision of monthly meeting as well as approved projects, action plans and monitoring • Encourage local leaders and the relevant jointly development planning. • Incorporation of action plan – making • Cooperation of fund raising and administration ( if that has) • Supporting and facilitating the TATTC and the farmers in served areasActivities support and services • Provision the Tambon base line as survey, collected and analyzed data with incorporation the relevant organization as well as farmers. • Knowledge transfer and set up agriculture activities as training, visiting and selecting demonstration site. • Information and warning system such as drought, new disease, pest harm etc. • Reporting the serious cases that those areas have faced in order to get treatment or control those things. 116
    • • Network Building of production and processing groups and marketing network ,including promotion of non-agriculture such farm enterprises • Information and dissemination of TATTC activities via community radio, exhibition and others. Map 3.3: Demonstration Farm Sites LEGEND Livestock Production Techniques Bio fertilizer – Making Frogs RaisingSource: Department of Agricultural Extension Office, March 2008 • According to map, it presents about located demonstration farm sites in which set upon farmer’s residents where the agriculture extension activities visiting and promoting to other interested famers and local people. In additionally, there are specific activities’ farm sites in different areas under supported Khok Chaeon Agriculture District Office. Here, throughout extension mechanisms is farmers’ participatory action based on their substantive agricultural productions as widen spread of farms’ sites. • Recently, under provision of Agriculture Extension and Tambon Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre, there are some case studies that many kinds of activities have been implemented as Integrated Farming System, Chemical Free Vegetable Plantation and Paddy Farming Group.3.11 Case study on integrated farming systemIntroduction • Tambon Administrative Office launched “Integrated farming System” as a pilot project in village number four. • The main objective of TAO is to increase income of the farmers through transferring improved farming technology and promoting collective learning. It demonstrates how 117
    • effectively local resources (water and land) can use for farming crop and fish in an integrated manner. It includes cultivation of banana, papaya, egg plants, bamboo shoots and fish farming. • This pilot project is being implemented in 20 rai of land and by involving 20 members. These members work in a group.Major group activities • Farming crops and fish in pond • Marketing of farm products • Group management • Learning and sharingSupports • Capital investment in farms, ponds construction and seeds • Transfer of skills account keeping and improved farming techniques including organic farming • Regular monitoring and technical advices • Construction of learning centre • Facilitation for market linkagesAchievements • Increased awareness on proper land use for maximizing benefits • Transferring skills on improved farming crop and fish • Increased access to TAO and other support agencies for necessary supports • Marketing skills developed • The idea of collective actions for mutual benefit is generated. They monitor their group activities themselves. • Leadership skills are also developedProblems • This is a pilot project and has been successfully implemented. However there might be some problems that might limit up calling of this concept. • Limited cultivable land • Small piece of land • Lack of motivation • Water shortage • Lack of capital investmentPotentials • This kind of Integrated Farming System can be promoted in the area where water resources are available. 118
    • 3.12 Case study on chemical free vegetable plantationIntroductionThe project is located in Tambon Wang Thong Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province,There are 9 villages in Tambon Wang Tong and the population is 2638. This is the smallestpopulation among 5 Tambons. They started planting using chemical 10 years ago. They plantvarieties kinds of vegetables such as water melon, cabbage, cucumber, chilly, Thai melon(yellow) and so on.Ideas of chemical free • In past, they used 50% chemical and 50% organic. They need to use chemical because they have to think about productivity. • Nowadays they still use 20% chemical and 80% organic. • They plant both in the net and open area and there are 100% chemical free in net area. • The idea of using chemical free was introduced by Agriculture & Land Development Organization 4 years ago and they got loan from government to set up the project.Resources • There are enough water resources from pond and they have a generator for pumping. • The soil types are good for plantation and plenty of moisture of water. • They use manure for fertilizer such as cow dunk, lemon root for pesticide that they take from their houses as they raise cattle. • They also get liquid fertilizer that is nature from local government.Objectives • To access the knowledge of using chemical free to local people • To eat chemical free food for health • To enhance farm work together and provide each other • To use organic fertilizer and reduce cost of investment • To use the sufficiency economy as the guideline for developmentActivities • The local community set up 2 committee which include 10 for each group in 2005 and they had informal meeting with AEO (Agriculture Extension officers) • During activities, they got assistance from AEO and study about plantation and how to use organic. • They also visited to other fields to learn about plantation and exchanged ideas. • In 2006, they established learning center in the planting area so the farmers have a chance to learn about plantation. • In 2007, they started to do a pilot project that was 100% Chemical free Plantation by using net. 119
    • • The whole area is 80 rai and they have to rent from private for 1000 baht per rai per year • However, it needs high investment by using sprinkle and net because it costs 80,000 baht for ½ rai/net and they got loan from government and it will recover 7 or 8 years. • They can only plant some kinds of vegetables like aubergine, tomato, parsley, coriander and some plants that are attracted by insects can not be planted. • They use net because they want their plants to protect from insects and chemical effect from open area like spray.Outputs • The farmers get 280 baht/day/person but they will get only 150 baht/day/person in raining season. • For the market price, it depends on the season because they get less product sin raining season. • They get 2 tons of products after picking up every 2 or 3 days. They sell it to chair person and he has responsibility to take to Bangkok market but they do not get special price for free chemical vegetable. • There is no break for them and they have to work for the whole year. • There is no comparison of output between using organic and chemical because chemical is still in process.Problems and constraints • For using net and sprinkle, it has high capital cost to invest. • As they do not get electricity, they have to use generator and it costs them 300 baht per day. If they get electricity, they have to spend only 50 baht per month. • For the farmers, it takes a long time to see their products by using only fertilizer. Compared to using chemical, they can see their plants grow within 1 week. • All kind of vegetables are not suitable in net and it has limited. • As there is no water in summer, they have only depends on pond.Achievements and Potentials • By doing this project, they learned to do participation and team work. • It benefits for both local and consumer in health perspective as they reduce the amount of chemical. • The farmers feel satisfied that they can provide free chemical vegetable. In past, they did not know about the effect of chemical so they felt guilty about it. • The soil condition will be good and sustainable for their future generation as they use natural fertilizer. • It can save cost of investment for organic. 120
    • Future plans • They need more support from government to extend their pilot project to plant in net area as much as they can. • They will encourage others farmers in community to use organic manure. • They will try to improve learning center and ask electricity instead of using generator. • They will try to grow new alternative plants. • They will share their experience and try to hand up and persuade young generation to involve in this farming.Conclusions • In this area, the soil quality is good so they can fully rely on plantation. • They also have a pond that enough for plants so they have sufficient water for the whole year. • They will need to improve their learning centre by putting more books and arrange activities for young generation. • They need to get more budgets to use net so that they can enhance their project by planting t many kinds of vegetables.Recommendations from the case • By visiting this project, we found out that they need more to encourage and cooperative other farmers participation to grow chemical free vegetables plantation because it is not practiced for the whole area. • They should sell their free chemical vegetable to department stores so that they can get special price as the stores divide the products that is being planted with chemical and free chemical. • They also need to persuade other farmers about cattle raising around the area to get organic manure as much as possible. • They also need support of electricity so that it will reduce the cost.3.13 Case study on paddy farming groupIntroductionPaddy Farmers’ Group, Village-2, Tambon Yang Rak, its group formed in the year 2001 andinitially 20 households were in the group and now it is 53 household members to aim thatforming this group is to produce quality seeds at local level. Regard group’s activities areseed production and supplying to members (Jasmine” rice variety) and micro lendingGovernment SupportsAs farmers were shifting from paddy to cassava and sugarcane cultivation, governmentinitiated this activity with the view to produce quality paddy seeds for future use. 121
    • Support activitiesInitially government provided 20 sacs of chemical fertilizersTechnical supports on cultivation techniquesOrganization and managementThe group is managed and operated by the team of 9 members comprising 1 chairperson, 1vice chairperson, 1 Treasurer, 1 Secretary, 1 Public Relation Officer and 4 MembersKey achievements • Fund generated: 57,000 BAHT • Started providing micro loans to its members at low interest rates i.e. 10% • Started producing quality seeds and supply to members and others • They started generating income from the group • Increased number of group members • Increased leadership • Increased access to support agencies • Learning culture is developedChallengeComparing the cost benefit of paddy, cassava and sugarcane, cassava gives the highestincome. Sugarcane and paddy comes after that respectively. Therefore farmers are replacingpaddy field by cassava and sugarcane. So in this connection, how long farmers adopt thisactivity for producing quality seeds in the area.RecommendationThey can produce quality seeds in commercial ways and sell in the markets outside thedistrictAccording to those case studies, those projects are established in different potentially of eachlocation and duration, so that some of achievements, problems and constraints neededservices and resources’ requirements to overcome together with individual farmers, farmers’groups, Agriculture Extension Office, and Tambon Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre.3.14 Agricultural Credit3.14.1 Overall situation of access to financial servicesBank of Agriculture and Agriculture Cooperative (BAAC), Village Development Fund(VDF) and Agriculture Cooperative are the formal sources of credits in the district.Agriculture Cooperative and VDF are operating at District and village level respectivelywhile the BAAC has been providing its banking services through its branch office located atLopburi and Nong Makha outside the Khok Charaoen district. Middlemen and sugarcanefactory are also the sources of credit for local people. 122
    • For all of these financial institutions, farmers are the main target groups. Up to 10 percent,BAAC invests in non-agriculture sector as well. In total 6433 households have received loanfrom these financial institutions which constitute nearly 90 percent of the total household ofthe district. In terms of number of clients VDF has the highest coverage i.e. 56 percent whileBAAC and Agriculture Cooperative have 36 and 6 percentage respectively. Similarly interms of amount disbursed, BAAC is the highest one to invest which is 73 percentages. VDFand Agriculture Cooperative constitute 23 and 4 percentages of investment in agriculturesector respectively (as of December 2007). Clients, investment, accessibility of all these threefinancial institutions are given below in table 3.23.Table 3.23: Summary information about the three Financial Institutions Financial Institutions BAAC VDF Agriculture CooperativeAspectsObjective To increase To generate resources To provide loan productivity and at local level for support to farmers income through sustainable economic at minimum providing financial development interest servicesWorking areas Country wide District wide Village levelProducts and services Credit/finance Community Credit/finance development Deposit facility Deposit facility Credit/finance Inputs supply Inputs supply Skills development and technology transferNumber of clients 2277 4322 400Loan disbursed 228 million 5 million 73 million (total) 1.37 million per VDFRepayment rate 98 % 60/40 % 100 %Types of loan Short term, medium Short term loan Short term loan and long term loanCriteria Complex Simple Simple 123
    • Farmers perception Positive Positive PositiveSource: official documents of BAAC, VDF and Agriculture Cooperative, 20073.14.2 Financial InstitutionsThere are three formal financial institutions operating in the district. They are Bank ofAgriculture and Agriculture Cooperative, Village Development Fund and AgricultureCooperative..3.14.3 Major problems and prospectsBAAC provides loan to farmers directly and through groups at village level. Farmers groupsplay significant roles as they collect loan demands, submit demand to office, monitor andevaluate the use and misuse of loan amount. However there does not seem any incentive tothe groups. Providing incentives to the groups can assure timely pay back and efficientservice delivery as well.Agriculture Cooperatives and Village Development Funds lack institutional capacities tomanage saving and credit activities efficiently. BAAC operates its activities outside thedistrict. In this connection, BAAC can support for institutional strengthening of these localfinancial institution so that financial services can be extended to wider areas through theselocal institutions. As the transaction is being increased, Village Development Fund andAgriculture Cooperative might face problems in data management therefore it would beadvisable to introduce software base financial system.3.15 Agriculture Policies3.15.1 Self sufficiency EconomyAgriculture has been the basic occupation of the Thai people dating back many generations.Approximately two third of the workforce is engaged in agriculture activities. Consideringthe possible impact of fluctuation on market price and unstable natural conditions, the ThaiKind introduced the concept of Self sufficiency Economy aiming to make farmers self reliantin terms of food by promoting integrated farming system and micro enterprise developmentfor the generation of supplementary income of the farmers’ household. It focuses mainly onpromotion of socially and environmentally appropriate farming technologies throughresearch, development on new cash crops like Para rubber, mulberry, medicinal plants andtheir extension in the rural areas, study of insects and pests and development of livestockincluding fish and poultry. In addition to this, it focuses on promotion of micro enterprises forsupplementary income.3.15.2 Economic Restructuring PolicyAgricultural Sector • Accelerate the restructuring of agricultural production to be in line with market opportunities and changes in consumer tastes in both traditional and emerging markets, through a strategy to turn Thailand into a global food-production hub, with emphasis on improving production efficiency in fisheries, livestock, and major cash crops in an integrated manner, including support for energy crops such as oil palm, 124
    • sugar cane, and cassava to promote the alternative energy policy; and support production of new products with market potential such as fiber plants and medicinal herbs. • Promote value addition for agricultural goods through processing that meets international quality standards to create links with agro-industry, by supporting research and development on standards for food and agricultural production and food safety; see to an effective disease prevention and control system, as well as supporting agricultural processing within communities. • Expedite negotiation of agreements on food and agricultural product standards to prevent non-tariff barriers to trade; and improve logistical networks for agricultural products in both rural and urban areas to expand access to global markets. • Promote New Theory agriculture at the community level according to His Majesty’s concept to give agricultural households food security; promote the learning process on organic farming, integrated farming, forest farming, school lunch projects, and livestock banks according to His Majesty’s concept, with farmers and communities setting their own direction and approach. • Promote and encourage agricultural institutions such as co-operatives, community enterprises, and farmers’ councils to enable farmers to participate in setting the approach to agricultural development and developing their own competitiveness.3.15.3 Agricultural Projects and PlansOn-going projects • Chemical free vegetable growing • Cat fish raising in cement pond • Chemical free cucumber growing • Bio-fertilizer makingFuture Plan (2009-2012) of Khok Charoen District • Improve soil condition by using compost in order to increase production (sugarcane) • Improve soil condition by using compost to increase production (maize) • Increase yield of cassava • Increase yield of sugarcane • Increase yield of paddy • Support for tube well • Chemical free vegetable promotion • Support to agriculture groups/cooperatives (5 cooperative) • Product Standard Improvement • Youth farmers activities support in School • Promoted soil improvement by using compost • Increase cassava yield by using organic fertilizers 125
    • 3.16 Problems and prospects3.16.1 Problems • Insufficient technical services for agriculture and livestock farming • Lack of central market for live animal marketing • Lack of awareness and skills on proper use of bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides • Shortage of water for agriculture in dry season • Lack of banking institutions at local level • Lack of strategic/business plan of Agriculture Cooperative and Village Development Fund • Lack of awareness among local people on integrated farming system • Lack of land title • Improper crop rotation practices • Fish farming is at household level thus lack of commercialization due to technical skills • Inadequate number of technical staff3.16.2 Prospects • Existence of Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre at Tambon level which can further be strengthened so that necessary technical services for agriculture and livestock development can be provided on sustainable basis. • Larger number of livestock animals indicates commercialization of the livestock rearing activities which can help generate additional income for the poor households. • Some of the farmers groups have started making bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides. These kinds of skills can further be developed so that bio-pesticide and bio-fertilizers can produce at local level. • There are different types of water resources available in the district. These kinds of water resources can be utilized for promoting chemical free vegetable farming benefiting low income families living around those water resources. • Agriculture Cooperative and Village Development Fund have already been functioning at local level. Further strengthening these institutions can help to assure financial services to local people.3.17 Conclusions and recommendations3.17.1 Conclusion • Agriculture is the major sources of livelihood of more than 80 percent population of the district occupying nearly 89 percent of the total land for agriculture purposes. Sugarcane, paddy, maize, cassava and sunflower are the major crops of the study area. Farmers have been motivated to change cropping pattern from maize and paddy to sugarcane and cassava. This is mainly because of the high benefit cost ratio in sugarcane and cassava in relation to other cereal crops. In addition, livestock animals are also major sources of income. However, inadequacy of technical services for both the agriculture and livestock development cause limited benefits from this occupation. 126
    • • As farmers have started farming vegetables by not using the chemicals it has high potentials to intensify chemical free vegetable farming in the areas where water resources are available. • BAAC, Agriculture Cooperative and Village Development Funds are the formal financial institutions providing credit services to local people. As BAAC is operating from outside the district and Agriculture Cooperative and VDF are operating locally, strengthening their institutional capacity can be a good way to assure financial services to farmers in sustainable basis.3.17.2 Recommendations • Provision of technical services for agriculture and livestock development and Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre can strengthened for providing technical services to the local people. • Provision of technical, partly financial and marketing support to promote chemical free vegetable farming through out the district especially in those areas where water resources are available. Micro irrigation project can be helpful to extend the cropping area. • Institutional capacity of Agriculture Cooperative and Village Development Fund should be strengthened. As the transaction is being increased, Village Development Fund and Agriculture Cooperative might face problems in data management therefore it would be advisable to introduce software base financial system. 127