Decentralized Rural Development Planning : A Case Study of Khok Charoen District, Lopburi Province, Thailand (Part III)
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Decentralized Rural Development Planning : A Case Study of Khok Charoen District, Lopburi Province, Thailand (Part III)

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Social, overall development and project proposals

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Decentralized Rural Development Planning : A Case Study of Khok Charoen District, Lopburi Province, Thailand (Part III) Decentralized Rural Development Planning : A Case Study of Khok Charoen District, Lopburi Province, Thailand (Part III) Document Transcript

  • CHAPTER VI SOCIAL SECTORKhok Charoen district was created on March 19th, 1987 by splitting off four tambon fromKhok Samrong district. It was upgraded to a full district on November 4th, 1993.Khok Charoen district is located in the north of Lop Buri province, has the north border withNakhon Sawan province, Phetchabun province and the South border with three districts ofLop Buri province are Chai Badan, Sa Bot and Nong Muang provinces. The district issubdivided into 5 subdistricts (tambon), which are further subdivided into 53 villages(muban). There are no municipal areas, and 5 Tambon administrative organizations (TAO).The total area is 317.14 km2 (198,221 rai) and total population is 24,354 (2007). There are 16primary schools, two secondary schools (Tambon Khok Charoen and tambon Yang Rak). Inthis district, there are 39 temples, one hospital, four health stations, 16 primary schools, twosecondary schools and one research station.6.1 Population6.1.1 Population changeTable 6.1: Households size change by Tambon, 2004-2007 Average growth Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 from 2004-2007Number of households 6,722 6,916 7,023 7,139 70 Total population 24,173 24,321 24,447 24,354 48 Average of HHs size 3.60 3.52 3.48 3.43 -0.09Source: District administration office, 2008The average number of households of Khok Charoen district increases from 2004-2007 is 70households per year. The average growth of population is not high only 48 people per yearwith the household size of district declines over the time.6.1.2 Population Structure Table 6.2: Population Density by Tambon Area Total Density Number of HHs Tambon 2 (km ) Population (persons/km2) households sizeKhok Charoen 72.91 7,458 104 2,060 3.6 Yang Rak 65.72 7,661 117 2,111 3.6 Nong Makha 110.83 3,194 29 1,085 2.9 Wang Thong 25.33 2,549 104 846 3.0Khok Samesan 42.35 3,492 83 728 4.8 Total 317.14 24,354 78 6,830 3.6Source: Kok Charoen District Office, 2008 202
  • In terms of population, tambon Yang Rak and Khok Charoen have the highest population of7,661 and 7,458 persons respectively.Among tambons, again Yang Rak has the highest density, 117 people per km2, followedrespectively by Khok Charoen and Wang Thong 104 people per km2, Khok Samesan has 83persons per km2. The lowest density is Tambon Nong Makha has 29 persons per km2.Population StructureFigure 6.1: Population Distributions by Tambon Source: Khok Charoen District Office, 2007Population is mostly concentrated in two tambons. Yank Rak and Khok Charoen tambons aremost densily populated tambon having 31.4% and 30.7% respectively followed by khok SamaeSan and Nong Makha tambons with 14.3% and 13.0%. Wang Thong has the least value with10.6% in the district.6.1.3 Composition of the population by age and genderThe distribution of population in terms of age and gender varies among different groups ofage and the highest population fall in the group of 26 to 40 years old. It has been cleared fromthe figure 6.2 that in 35 age group, female are more as compare to the males. 203
  • Figure 6.2: Population by age and gender Population by age and sex, Khok Charoen District 2006 1400 1200 1000 People 800 Male 600 Female 400 200 0 0-5 6-10 11- 16- 21- 26- 31- 36- 41- 46- 51- 56- 61- 66- 71- 76- >80 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Age groupingSource: Khok Charoen district websiteTable 6.3: Population by gender, 2007 Figure 6.3: Gender balance Population distribution by gender, Tambon Male Female Total Khok Charoen district, 2007 Khok Charoen 3,823 3,696 7,519 Yang Rak 3,823 3,847 7,670 50.2 50.2 % Nong Makha 1,599 1,577 3,176 49.8% Wang Thong 1,289 1,301 2,590Khok Samesan 1,747 1,757 3,504 Total 12,218 12,178 24,459 Male FemaleSource: District administration office, 2008The population ratio between male (49%) and females (51%) is very balance in each tambonsin the Khok Charoen district.6.1.4 Population PyramidIn 2006, the population pyramid of Khok Charoen district, generally, both male and femalepopulation is equal, but number of women is higher than men after 79 years old up. However,it has no significant affect and the ratio of sixty year populations sharply decreased, so thereis no tendency to aging of population. Moreover, the number of working age from 15 to 44 isvery high which is a potential in term of labor force. Whereas the population group of 0-14years is low, this shows that birth rate is very low. 204
  • Figure 6.4: Population pyramid Source: Khok Charoen district website, 20086.1.5 Sex ratio and dependency ratioIn 2007, in Khok Charoen district, the total number of male is 12,281 and female is 12,178giving the total number of female per 100 male is 101:100 as compare to 12163 male to12010 female in 2004 with ratio 99:100 that mean the number of female population has beenincreased in last three years.Table 6.4: Comparison of Male and Female Sex Ratio Population 2004 Population 2007 Total Number of female Number of female per Female Male Female Male per 100 male 100 male Khok Charoen 3,565 3,697 96:100 3,696 3,823 103: 100 Yang Rak 3,839 3,839 100:100 3,847 3,823 99: 100 Khok Same San 1,750 1,698 103:100 1,757 1,747 99: 100 Nong Makha 1,592 1,649 97:100 1,577 1,599 101: 100 Wang Thong 1,264 1,280 99:100 1,301 1,289 99: 100 Total 12,010 12,163 99:100 12,178 12,281 101: 100Source: District administration office, 2008Table 6.5 shows the division of population in four broader groupers i.e. infant with age groupless than five , school going with age 6 – 15 year and working population with age 16-60 andold age having more than 60year of age. Population of infant and schooling groups are 8.1%and 15.5 % respectively; the working group has the highest portion 67.5%; and the group 205
  • over 60 year old is 8.9%. The total dependency ratio is calculated as 32.5%. It indicates thatthere is nearly 33 people are depended on others. Therefore, there should be developmentplans and programs to assure their good life living standard.Table 6.5: The dependency and dependency ratioAge grouping Description Male Female Total population % Less than 5 Infant population 985 965 1,950 8.1 Schooling 6-15 1,895 1,807 3,702 15.5 population 16-60 Working population 8,154 7,981 16,135 67.5 Dependent More than 60 988 1,135 2,123 8.9 population Total 12,022 11,888 23,910 100Source: District administration office, 20086.1.6 Population ProjectionWhen there is a slightly increase in population; Gibbs is the most suitable method forapplying population projection in Thailand, particularly in Khok Charoen district. Based onthe district population data 2002 to 2007 (5 years period), the district and Tambon populationhave been projected using Gibbs Technique for 2015 and 2020 as followed:Formulation used: Pt = P1 + (P1 * R/100 * t) R (P1 – P0) / t R= * 100 (P1 + P0)/2Where as,Pt = Projected population (2015 and 2020)P1 = Current year population (2007= 24,354)P0 = Base year population (recent past census 2002= 23,716) t = Time interval 2015 – 2007 = 8; 2020 – 2007 = 13;R = Population Growth Rate, calculated base on the data available for Khok Charoen District. (P1 - Po) / t (24,354 – 23,716)/5 R= *100 = *100 = 0.338 (P1 + Po) / 2 (24,354+ 23,716) / 2 The population projected Khok Charoen District: P2010 = 24,354 + 24,354 * (0.338/100)*3 = 24,601 P2015 = 24,354 + 24,354 * (0.338/100)*8 = 25,012 206
  • P2020 = 24,354 + 24,354 * (0.338/100)*13 = 25,424 Table 6.6: Population projected by Tambon 2015 and 2020 Population Population projectionNo Tambon distribution 2010 2015 2020 in 2007 (%) Population Density Population Density Population Density1 Khok Charoen 30.6 7,534 103 7,660 105 7,786 1072 Yang Rak 31.5 7,739 118 7,868 120 7,998 1223 Nong Makha 13.1 3,226 29 3,280 30 3,334 304 Wang Thong 10.5 2,575 102 2,618 103 2,661 1055 Khok Samesan 14.3 3,527 83 3,586 85 3,645 86 Total 100 24,601 87 25,012 88 25,424 90Source: Collection and calculation, 20086.1.7 Population Growth RatePopulation data has shown decline in the growth rate over the time from 2003 to 2007 from0.95% to 0.05%.Among the average growth rate of five Tambons, only the total populationgrowth of Tambon Nong Kha has decreased 0.1% since this area has low production offarming and the villagers also do not earn too much from non-agriculture occupations (NRD-2C, 2007). Tambon Khok Charoen has the growth rate increased gradually from 2003 to 2006and grew sharply in 2006-2007 at 3.18%; on the contrary, growth rate has also beendecreased in other three Tambons Yang Rak, Nong Makha and Wang Thong in 2007.Moreover, the population rate has been downed very quickly because of the policy ofgovernment for controlling the number of children in each family. In addition, in the contextof economic development, both men and women want to work more, and they want to havethe best condition of education and health for their children, therefore the less number ofchildren they have, better condition they can give to their children.Table 6.7: The population growth rate Khok Charoen district, 2003-2007 Tambon Average Population growth rate (%) population GR Year 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2003-2007 Khok Charoen 0.14 0.18 0.16 3.18 0.92 Yang Rak 1.16 0.52 0.87 -1.48 0.27 Nong Makha 1.60 1.08 -0.34 -2.73 -0.10 Wang Thong 1.60 1.85 0.77 -0.80 0.86 Khok Samea San 1.11 0.38 1.10 0.14 0.68 Average 0.95 0.61 0.52 0.05 0.53Source: Khok Charoen District Office, Jan 2008 207
  • Figure 6.5: Population Growth Rate Population Growth Rate, Khok Charoen district, 2003-2007 1.00 0.80 r t ae 0.60 G w rt o h 0.40 0.20 0.00 Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samea -0.20 San TambonSource: Khok Charoen District Office, Jan 20086.1.8 Birth and Death RatesTable 6.8: Birth and Death Rates Khok Charoen district, 2007Tambon Population Birth Death Number of birth rate per death rateKhok Charoen 7,519 78 39 2Yang Rak 7,670 1 20 0.05Nong Makha 3,176 0 17 0Wang Thong 2,590 0 10 0Khok Samea San 3,504 1 8 0.125Total (People) 24,459 80 94 0.851Rate (%) 0.33 0.38Source: Khok Charoen district office, 2008 208
  • The death rate is higher in the district as compare to birthrate, the birth rate is 0.33% and thedeath rate is 0.38%. all the Tambon has lower birth rates except the tambon Khok Charoen wherebirth is higher then the death rate. Moreover, the high death rate could be supposed of old ageand health problems, so it needs to get attention about health services and take care of old agepeople.6.1.9 Household income and saving householdsThere are two indicators of measuring the living standards of the district in BMN i.e. householdincomes and savings. The results of these two indicators have been satisfactory and all thetambon achieved the set targets in BMN as shown in table 6.9.Table 6.9: Household income Average income is not less Tambon than 23,000 baht/person/year Target (%) Achievement (%) Result Khok Charoen 70 90.4 Achieved Yang Rak 70 99.3 Achieved Nong Makha 70 97.8 Achieved Wang Thong 70 90.9 Achieved Khok Samesan 70 93.5 Achieved Average 94.4 AchievedSource: BMN, 2007First, in terms of average income of households or poverty line, the target is 70 %, all thetambons achieved the target means that there is no household having income below poverty line.Tambon Khok Charoen and Wang Thong have the lower of achievement percentage than others90.4% and 90.9% respectively. Moreover, the poverty rate in these two tambons is also higherthan other districts 7.6% and 7.0% illustrated from the below table 6.10 of poverty rate in 2004-2007.Table 6.10: Poverty rate by Tambon in 2004-2007 Population Average of Tambon distribution in 2007 2005 2004 poverty rate 2007 (%) 2004-2007 (%) Khok Charoen 30.6 7.4 6.8 8.6 7.6 Yang Rak 31.5 1.3 2.8 7.8 4.0 Nong Makha 13.1 1.1 5.1 8.97 5.1 Wang Thong 10.5 4.2 4.9 11.9 7.0 Khok Samesan 14.3 1.5 1.9 3.0 2.1Average 3.1 4.3 8.1 5.2Source: Khok Charoen district 2007 209
  • Second, indicator of household savings, the expected target is 80%. There are four Tambonsachieved the target at the rate of 89% to 93%. There is one Tambon Nong Makha did not achievethe target and only achieve nearly 56% of house have savings.Figure 6.6: Achievement of households have saving by tambon Achivement of households have saving by Tambon, 2006 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samea SanSource: BMN 20076.1.10 Characteristics of poor households There are four types of poverty in Khok Charoen district, included land problem (land less, lackof land, no land certificate); indebtedness; no house and other reasons (unpaid job, exploited joband homeless)Table 6.11: Type of poverty problems No Type of problems No. of people register Percentage 1 Land 4266 37.56 • Landless 1029 9.06 • Lack of land 925 8.14 • No land certificate 2312 20.36 2 Indebtedness 3937 34.67 • Internal 2465 21.70 • External 1472 12.96 3 No house 1307 11.51 Others (unpaid 4 1841 16.26 job/exploited job) Total 11357 100.00Source: Khok Charoen Dsitrict office, 2008 210
  • The two highest reasons of poverty in Khok Charoen district are about land and debt problems37.6% and 34.7% respectively. In terms of land problem, no land certificate is the mostimportant problem appropriated 20.4%. Moreover, the rate of indebtedness is also very highappropriately 34.7% with most of them are internal indebt 21.7%. In addition, the situation of jobexploitation and unpaid job is also the problem of the poor, especially the sugarcane workers.6.1.11 Migration • Out- migrationOut migration of each Tambon in this district shows that the high out migration occurred in threetambon: Yang Rak, Khok Charoen and Nong Makha at 30.7%, 29.1% and 21.9% respectively.Followed by Khok Samesan has the lower rate of out migration 10.4%. The lowest number ofout migration is Tambon Wang Thong 7.9%. The main reasons or the push factors for outmigration are; the people moved out in order to find a supplementary source of income, highereducation or family settlement. According to NRD-2C the main income source of this districtfrom agriculture, therefore which areas with low production of agriculture like Tambon KhokCharoen, Yang Rak, Nong Makha has higher immigration. During the dry season for seasonalwork since lack of jobs, especially in those areas, where there is scarcity of water for agriculturalpractices during dry season.Table 6.12: Tambon wise out - migration Out migration Tambon Population 2007 Male Female Total Percentage Khok Charoen 7,519 92 89 181 29.1 Yang Rak 7,670 83 108 191 30.7 Nong Makha 3,176 66 70 136 21.9 Wang Thong 2,590 26 23 49 7.9 Khok Samesan 3,504 37 28 65 10.4 Total 24,459 304 318 622 100 Source: Khok Charoen District Statistic, 2008 211
  • • In-migrationTable 6.13: Tambon wise in - migration In migration Tambon Population 2007 Male Female Total Khok Charoen 7,519 122 120 242 Yang Rak 7,670 94 106 200 Nong Makha 3,176 55 63 118 Wang Thong 2,590 51 39 90 Khok Samesan 3,504 45 32 77 Total 24,459 367 360 727 Migration rate 2.97Source: Khok Charoen District Statistic, 2008Pull factorsIn all tambons: upland crop, paddy production and other occupations like cattle rearing have highpotential and many land area available for farming (500 baht/rai/year); and harvesting sugarcaneseason is the mostly time for labors need6.1.12 Migration impactSocial aspects• Increase burden on elderly people and they are not cared properly• The social interaction decreases such asEconomic aspects• Household income increases• Farming activities decrease• Affect the efficiency of various social groups.6.1.13 Policies and Programs on Poverty AlleviationDistrict programsThere are three main projects to solve poverty alleviation being implemented in Thailand andbeing adopted by the district as well.• Homeless people will be distributed the living land to settle with signature the contract with local government.• The conversion debts for poor people will be decreased the amount of pay back money with expanding the limit of time.• The poor will be distributed land for agriculture. 212
  • National programs of poverty reduction strategy1 According to the Government policy and the Ninth Development Plan, a poverty reductionstrategy plan was formulated in 2002 in order to gain a comprehensive, multifaceted, andproperly integrated plan. The strategy states the view of poverty as encompassing not only lowincome and consumption but also structural problems that prevent the poor to escape formpoverty.The strategy consists of five main aspects: Macro Economic Strategy, Strategy for CapabilityBuilding, Strategy for Social Safety Net Improvement, Natural Resources Management Strategy,and Public Sector Restructuring Strategy. These strategies will lead to three fundamental targets:(1) to reduce the incidence of the poverty to be less than 12 percent of the population in 2006; (2)to redistribute and extend the provision of economic and social services, so that both urban andrural poor will have a more equitable access to basic services; and (3) to reduce inequality amongthe poor and others by readjusting structural mechanisms that have been obstructive to thepoverty reduction.Macro-Economic Strategy: This strategy is drawn up to construct fair and equitable economicgrowth contributing to more employment in agricultural sector, which is the main source ofincome of the poor. This strategy also emphasizes on the necessity of an enactment of policies asthe following to advocate just and equitable economy. These policies aim to (1) Set up suitableinflation rate to support economic expansion; (2) Urge progressive tax especially land tax (todistribute land holding), general property tax and inheritance tax; (3) Advance legislative systemto cover the protection for micro-enterprises; (4) Provide equitable access for the poor toinformation and technical assistance that the poor can effectively utilize to cope with the risks.Strategy for capability building: As widely known, providing education and career-relatingknowledge is the fundamental requirement for refining the poor’s capabilities and analyticalskills. The training activities should be held with the purpose to prepare the poor to deal with theadverse risks and shocks. Furthermore, as the majority of the poor are those who work in micro-enterprises with less and unequal access to basic services and legal lending institutions, theestablishment of legal lending institutions that provide low interest rates for the urban poor isnecessary to soothe the poverty. Moreover, community empowerment towards self-reliance isanother essential practice. The first step is to enhance collective process to solve poverty andvulnerability through empowering local communities, which can function as a means to demandfor public services and organize their voices in designing policies and national developmentplans.Strategy for Social Safety Net Improvement: A critical condition for accomplishing capabilitybuilding strategy is an equitable access to education and professional training which should bediversified and adjusted in accordance with the needs and skills of the poor and the1 Knowledge Management and Poverty Reduction Policy Unit Community Economic Development and IncomeDistribution Office Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board 213
  • underprivileged. There is also a need for improving regulations on loan programs for educationto be more open for the poor and the underprivileged. Another means to enable the poor and theunderprivileged to income-generating assets is micro- credit from lending institutions run by theGovernment. Also, an establishment of community managed social fund programs with thesupport from public sector is required so that people in the community can manage the money tocope with adverse shocks.Natural Resources Management Strategy: The most effective natural resources management withthe main focus on land and water management for the poor farmers should grant the communityto dramatically participate in every level of planning and implementation. There should,consequently, be an establishment of local organization whose responsibility embraces runningcommunity managed fund for natural resources restoration. The local organization can alsooperate as a community stage for expressing local residents’ opinion. To make natural resourcesmanagement successful, an Act of legislation relating to this issue such as forestry, fishery andalso land and water need to be drawn up and brought into practice soon.Public Sector Restructuring Strategy:The role of central government has been changed from designing policies and controllingimplementation process to facilitating and supporting the local institution/organization to workand participate in analyzing and solving the problems along side with other actors. The localinstitution and organization previously were objects. They adopted policies from the centralgovernment and implemented by themselves. Nowadays, they turn to be subjects as theymotivate changes in policy designing and implementation process and work as coordinatorsbetween the central government and local people. The local people are presently required toaware of their power to bring positive changes to their communities through their activeparticipation with the application of local wisdom in the process of designing andimplementation of plans.6.1.14 Summary of populationProblems• Unequal distribution of population leads to imbalance of general development within the district.• There is a fluctuation in the growth rate in various Tambon• Migrating to other areas during the dry seasonPotentials• High proportion of population at working group age• Average income of household members is not less than 20,000 Bath/person/year.• There is a good gender balance in the district.• There are good supporting policies not only national programs but also district programs on poverty alleviation. 6.2 Public Health and Sanitation – Introduction 214
  • 6.2 Khok Charoen district has wellestablished network of health facilitiesand health infrastructure, the onlyconcern in this district is shortage ofdoctors and nurses especially in publichealth stations.The figure depits the ratio of publichealth institutes with respect topopulation and the results are quitesatisfactory6.2.1 Health policies and strategiesThe MOPH is authorized and responsible for the strengthening of the public health and hygiene,preventing and controlling diseases and recovering the energy level of the population.The followings are the target of MOPH’s policies:• To improve the organization structure, culture and the operation procedure in order to have good administrative system and to become a learning organization of public health• To develop and provide mechanism in facilitating the involvement of all concerned parties in monitoring the public health system as a whole.• To increase the capability of the medicines, public health and biology of health, in order to be on the front line of world competition• The middle-term goals of the MOPH’s services are following:• The important public health problems in different age groups of the population are to be lowered.• The people have health security with standard and quality health services, and to encourage people to take part in taking care of health and the public health environment.• The healthcare products and services are to be of the quality and up to the standard of international requirement.• To have good governance in the public health administration 215
  • 6.2.2 National Health Development Plan 2002-2006 216
  • 6.2.3 Distribution of basic health institutesThe figure 6.7 showed the distribution of health instruction in Khok Charoen District.Figure 6.7: Location of public health station Facilities and ServicesThe average distance to avail health facilities are 09 kilometers in Khok Charoen district (figure6.7) and it is not convenient to most of the population to avail these facilities on foot and theyhave to use some transportation to access the health facilities.According to table 6.14, people of Nong Makha Tambon have to travel the most to avail thehealth facilities in term of distance coverTable 6.14: Accessibility of public health stations/hospital P u bl i c h e a l th s ta ti o n (m i n u te s ) N a m e o f T a m bo n D i s ta n c e (k m ) B y fo o t B y B ik e (5 0 (4 k m / h r) k m / h r) K h o k C h a ro e n 6 90 7 .2 Yang Rak 10 150 12 Non g M akh a 11 165 1 3 .2 W a n g Th o n g 12 180 1 4 .4 Khok S am ae San 6 90 7 .2Source: Infrastructure Group, RRDP, 2008 217
  • 6.2.4 Existing Health facilitiesTo achieve the healthy family goal , the good infrastructure are available in Khok Charoendistrict mentioned in table 6.15 and cleared in figured 6.8, one health station is serving 3505number of population and the district hospital serving the whole district.The only concern in has been shown by the public regarding the distribution of these healthinstitutes with respect to pupation density as Yang Rak Tambon having the largest population butit has a only one health station and limited medical staff i.e. one nurseTable 6.15: Distribution of health facilities with respect population Tambon Population Hospital Health Population Station per unit Khok Charoen 7519 1 0 1:24459 Khok Samae San 3504 0 1 1:3505 Nong Makha 3176 0 1 1:3137 Wang Tong 2590 0 1 1:2590 Yang Rak 7670 0 2 1:3835 24459 1 5 1:3505Source: District health office, Khok Charoen district,2008Figure 6.8: Distribution of health facilities Ditribution of Health Institues 30000 24459 Population 25000 20000 15000 7670 10000 3504 3176 2590 5000 0 Makha Samae Charoen Wang Yang Tong Nong Rak Khok San Khok Tam bonSource: District health office, Khok Charoen district,20086.2.5 Health personnelStength of health personnel staff directly affect the overall health setup and health condition ofthe area. Khok Charoen district is located in remote locality and the administration had facedproblem to hiring qualified staff for the district and primary health stations. From table 6.16 it is 218
  • cleared that the patient to doctor ration is quite high and at least there is an urgent need of onedoctor in Khok Charoen district .Table 6.16: Detail of health personnel Tambon Population Hospital/ Doctor Nurse Doctor Nurses Health 1:6000+ 1:1000 Station * Khok Charoen 7519 1*** 3** 24 1:3760 1:358 Khok Samae San 3504 1 0 1 - 1:3504 Nong Makha 3176 1 0 1 - 1:3176 Wang Tong 2590 1 0 1 - 1:2590 Yang Rak 7670 1 0 1 - 1:7670 Total 24459 2 28 1:12230 1:873Source: District health office, Khok Charoen district,2008The figure 6.9 depicts that number of nurses are also less as compare to the standardratio set by the government. Only Khok Charoen district hospital and sufficient poll ofnurses but the only one nurse is taking care of one public health station as cleared from the figure6.9. It is worthy to note that only one nurse is serving the whole Tambon having population of7670 people.Figure 6.9: Distribution of nurses in the district Nurse to population ratio Actual Ratio Standard Ratio 10000 9000 7670 8000 7000 Population 6000 5000 3504 4000 3176 2590 3000 2000 1019 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 0 Khok Charoen Khok Samae San Nong Makha Wang Tong Yang Rak TambonSource: District health office, Khok Charoen district,2008+according to the standard of the 9th National Development Plan of Economy and Society)*According to the standard of the United Nation 219
  • ** Doctor(02) & Dentist(01) working in District Hospital only***District Hospital, Khok Charoen6.2.6 Existing Health ServicesHere is the list of main types of health facilities/treatments provided by public health station andKhok Charoen district hospital to the pollution.The level of treat is just preventive and the health institutes lack equipment and human recoursefacilities to treat serious illness/disease. Health Station Treatment District Hospital P General Illness treatment P P Pregnancy P Dentist P P Childcare P P Common diseases like fever P Breathing Affection P P Diabetes P P Family Planning P Breathing system P Hypertension (High blood pressure) P Operation facilities PSource: District health office, Khok Charoen district,20086.2.7 Major DiseasesThe population of district is enjoying good health and no serious disease is among the top fivediseases in the district as shown in table 6.17. It is evident from the table 6.17 that ObstructivePulmonary disease (23%) and Digestive (29%) are the two major in-patent and out-patientdiseases in the districtThe HIV situation in the district is satisfactory and only 21 patients have been tested positivelyout of 24459 having HIV Ratio: 1 to 1165 people 220
  • Table 6.17: Details of major disease in the district N In-patient Out-patient o. Disease type Occurrenc Disease type Occurrence e 1 Obstructive Pulmonary 123 Digestive 12333 disease 2 Awte respiratory Infection 123 Respiratory 11585 3 Hyper tension 117 Blood pressure 7214 4 Diarrhoea 117 Skin infection 6658 5 Pregnancy complication 65 Endocrine 5946 Source: District health office, Khok Charoen district,2008 Unhygienic food, Alcohol / Tobacco, Tensions/stress ,High cholesterol level , Irregular eating habits of the community are reported as the main causes of the above mentioned major diseases in the district. 6.2.8 Household Sanitation The Overall situation of household environment is good and there exists proper solid waste management system and both community and the local administration worked together to keep the area clean from the figure 6.10 that all the five tambons have achieved there targets set in BMN except the nuisance which is one common problem in the district Residence Environment) 101li 100 99 .9 99.9 99.999.9100 99.9 100 99.7100 100 99.8 99.899.899.8 99.499.6a 100 99.4 99 99.4 99.1F 99r 98os 97s 96 95 95 95a 95P( 94s 93ut 92atS Target Khok Yang Rak Nang MakhaWang Thong Khok Samae Charoen San Tambon indic.15 indic.16 in dic.17 in dic.18 Figure 6.10: Resident environment 221
  • 6.2.9 Health and Hygiene ConditionThe overall situation of Public Figure 6.11:health and Hygiene conditionsHealth and Sanitation at work,Contagious Disease Control andDrug Addicted is 78.3%Progressive, 13.0% Moderate and8.7% Backward and all thehousehold have flush toilets in thehouses. Source: BMN 2007 Source: NRD 2C , 20076.2.10 Health VolunteerThe Thailand government started the idea of introducing health volunteers in rural area in 1970.In every village, there has at least one Health Volunteer; one Health Volunteer is responsible for5 to 10 households in each village. These Health Volunteers are not only worked with ruralhealth stations but also work with local organization like Tao about diseases prevention.Presently, there 342 health volunteers are working in Khok Charoen district and their Tambonwise distribution has been elaborated below;Figure 6.12: Distribution of health volunteers in four tambons Tambon Health Volunteers(HV) 100 150 80 79 V 60 100 H f 49 o 40 35 . 50 50 32 50 50 50 o N 20 0 0 Khok Samae Nong Makha Wang Tong Yang Rak San Tambon Actual Population per HV Average Popluation per HVSource: District Health Officer, Khok Charoen, 2008 222
  • It is cleared from the figure 6.12 that the Health Volunteers are equally distributed in eachTambon with respect to populationResponsibilities of Health VolunteerFollowing are the main responsibilities associated with Health Volunteers;• To inform new/information for villagers such as demonstrate a good role model in self-care and distribute documents and suggestion to the villagers• Health Leadership in community• Health service in the village• Common diseases like fever, headache etc prevention and control in the community• To Survey and collect data for example BMN survey, Survey and collect sanitation and environment data and send it to the health workerSelection CriteriaThere is no hard and fast rule to select a health volunteers, following are the key factors whileappointing an individual as a health volunteer.• He/She must have strong passion to serve the community voluntarily• He/She must have comparatively knowledgeable and concern about the health matter.• He/She should not be less than 20 year of ageTraining and IncentivesThe Health Volunteers are provided three day training every year by district Health office andhealth station staff and they usually met after three months to discuss the problems they arefacing.The Health Volunteers work on voluntarily bases but firstly, they get free medical facilities fortheir family and secondly, they gain knowledge through trainingsSome of the strength and weakness are hereby highlight that were observed during the filedsurvey and interview with health volunteers and health staff and general public regarding thehealth volunteers and there working. Strengths Weakness• Good to follow up the patients in the • No incentive that may lead to lack of community motivation• Health Volunteer knows the community • No fix criteria for selection better than the health officers • They usually work as part time.• People have easy access to them • Low educational background• Trained • De-motivation• Involvement in planning, implementation • Lack of team work and monitoring of various health schemes 223
  • 6.2.11 Conclusions/RecommendationsHealth Volunteers have played a very vital role in the provision of basic health facilities to thecommunity especially in remote rural areas in the past. But now, many rural health volunteerssay they don’t have the time, resources or training to carry out their duties and the complaints areincreasing. Despite this government continues to assign them more work on disease inspectionwithout any reward that is de-motivating them as if government uses any other source to carryout these task, it will pay to concern service provision organization. Therefore, it is suggestedthat for motivating and to enhance Health Volunteers capacities government should introducesome incentive for them along with more planned comprehensive training courses6.2.12 Case studiesPublic Health Station - Tambon Yang RakHealth Station is located in village number 12 Majority of this community receive health serviceor treatment from health station. the health station providing health facilities free of cost as pernew health policy of the government. In this health station there are twelve village healthvolunteer works with them. These Health Volunteers would coordinate the villagers in eachvillage to promote health facilities in the area.Roles and ResponsibilitiesBrief descriptions of major responsibilities of Yang Rak health station are;• Provide basic health care services and provide technical support for diagnosis• Follow-up with, and give suggestions to patients,• Give Vaccine-preventable disease for student in school.• Cooperate with community leaders and Health volunteers for promoting health activities• Provide information or health knowledge for people such as suggestion on physical and mental health for elderly person,• Provide knowledge on family planning and childcareHealth Personnel There are five personnel worker at Yang Rak Public health station consisting of the head ofthe office, one professional nurse, health academic staff, dental officer and health officer.Working schedule of health personnel at Yang Rak Public Health Station is as follow, 224
  • Day Service Special serviceMonday General Illnesses, Dental service Hypertension CheckTuesday General Illnesses Dental service Diabetes clinic, pregnancyWednesday General Illnesses Dental service Give Vaccine for childrenThursday General Illnesses Dental serviceFriday General Illnesses Dental serviceSaturday - Sunday General IllnessesSource: Public Health station, Yang RakWorking procedureThe health station staff has maintained separate file for every habitant of the yang Rak Tamboncontaining information about one’s medical treatment history. The staff updates the file as soonas the concern individual avail medical treatment by showing his/her health card.According to the health officer, Yang Rak health station, they usually provide treatment to 40 to50 patients and they are mostly the sugarcane farmers or belong to cattle farming groups whousually got small injuries while working.Budget and supportIn general, the ministry of public health controls and supports all public health station throughprovince and district governments. The district health officer looks after the functionalities of thehealth stations and Tambon Administrative Organization also provide financial support to healthstations to purchase medical equipment and to launch health promotion activities in the villagelike spraying against mosquitoes.Problem and constraintAccording to health station officer, the health station is facing following problems• Lack of medical staff to take care patients as health is free to all, so not only residents of Yang Rak Tambon avail the medical treatment from the health station but the residents of other nearby villager also get medical service from here due to easy accessibility• Lack of equipment like X-rays and and sometimes delay in receiving the medicines from district authorities.• Lack of health facilities and staff that is why people have to wait for long time and some time they become irritate and don’t behave well with the staffNote: There are having activities to visit patient in the villages but depend on their time and situationMonday-Friday open 8.00-17.00 Saturday-Sunday open 8.30-12.3 225
  • 6.2.12 District hospital, Khok Charoen – A case study Khok Charoen hospital is the only hospital exits in the district that is providing health facilities the public. The hospital has 10 beds and 2 doctors, one dentist and 25 professional nurses and 34 other staff. The hospital is equipped with one ambulance and has two pickups for emergency use. Vision To promote health facilities for all to “To have healthy families across the district” Health Strategies The hospital has set following strategies to achieve the goal, • To develop public health management system • To develop health IT system • To develop administrative setup for good governance • To improve quality of service Figure 6.13: Organization Structure Khok Charoen Hospital DHO Budget Strategies Service Quality PCU-Hospital PCU – Yang RakHospital PCU-Samae San PCU-Nong Makha PCU-Wang 226
  • Type of treatmentThe hospital provide following types of medical treatment• General Illness treatment• Pregnancy• Dentist• Childcare• Common diseases like fever• Breathing Affection• Diabetes Family Planning• Breathing system• Hypertension (High blood pressure)• Operation facilitiesDetails of Health personnelDoctors Dentist Pharmacist Nurses X-Ray Paramedical Technician Administrative officer staff Staff 2 1 1 25 1 18 4 16Source: district health officer, 2008Treatment profile (2006-07)Following is the progressive profile of Khok Charoen district hospital for the year 2009-6-07 andit showed quite satisfactory results • No. of out-patient treated 9,918 person • Patients total frequency 46,750 times • No. of Beds 10 • No. of in-Patient treated 1,201 person • No. of days, the patient remained in hospital 3,077 daysBudgets and expendituresThe hospital is funded by two main sources• by Ministry of health and hospital received 8 million Bhat per year from the ministry for its operation• by Tambon Administration Organizations and it received six million Bhat per year against the services the hospital provide to there residents.Major portion of the hospital budget 64% is consumed on IPD and OPD departments and 25%goes to salaries and remaining on development works. The hospital also invests 2% of its budgetamount in bank as an endowment. 227
  • Health SchemesThe District Health Office in collaboration with district hospital imitated time to time healthscheme to promoter health awareness among the public and health schemes for diseaseprevention in the district shown in the figure 6.14 below.Figure 6.14: Details of health awareness schemes Health Awarance Scheme program/scheme 25 20 Number of 20 15 13 12 12 10 9 10 8 6 4 5 0 0 Khok Khok Samae Nong Makha Wang Tong Yang Rak Charoen San Tambon Disease Prevention Health Promotion SchemeSource: District health office, Khok Charoen district,2008ProblemsFollowing are the few problems identified during the survey and interview with differentstakeholders • Shortage of number of Beds as ten beds are not sufficient for whole population • Shortage of doctors • Monitoring system need improvement • Lack of sufficient budget for various health schemes • Health card scheme6.2.13 People’s FeedbackFollowing the peoples’ feedback regarding the overall health facilities in the district• Show satisfaction on the role of health volunteers.• Health facilities were not easily accessibility especially for elderly people• Due to lack of staff people have to wait for long time to get treatment in district hospital and health stations.• Lack of medical equipment at health station level• People showed their concerns over the monitoring and checking of eatables 228
  • 6.2.14 ProblemsFollowing are the list of problems identified after the overall analysis of the primary andsecondary data analysis.• Shortage of health staffs especially a doctor.• Lack of medical equipment at health station level• Residence are suffering from nuisance pollution in all the five Tambon• Digestive diseases are major disease in the district6.2.15 PotentialFollowing the list of the potentials exists in the area with respect to health and sanitation;• District is drug addict free• Very low percentage of HIV infected persons• Overall situation of Health & Sanitation is satisfactory• Presence of basic Health infrastructure in the district• Free health facilities for all6.3. EducationEducation System in ThailandThere are three types of education in Thailand: formal, non-formal and informal education.Formal education can be divided into two patterns: basic education and higher education. Thefigure 6.15 presents the current formal school system in Thailand.Non-formal education is much more flexibility in response with its aims, duration, assessmentand management procedures according to learners’ needs.Informal education aims at enable people’s self-learning from persons, society, environment,media, and other sources of knowledge, for example, museums and public libraries.6.3.1 Current Education PoliciesCurrent educational policies concentrate on raising the quality of education in both primary andhigher education, and in both formal and informal education systems.There are two main strategic goals with policy instruments (Education in Thailand 2005/2006)below:1. Human development with a focus on knowledge, happiness, health, a loving family, a pleasantenvironment, and a peaceful and caring society; and2. Movement toward a knowledge-based society by placing people at the centre of learning andfocusing on human worth, potential, competitiveness, morality and ethics. 229
  • • Policies on the Pre-primary Education;There are three areas will be supported by government policy:- providing learning that stimulates various aspects of development;- formulating principles and standards for educational provision and necessary mechanisms for close monitoring and effective support;- strengthening the role of the family, and providing relevant knowledge to parents and child guardians. • Policies on the reform of the Basic Education Curriculum and the Teaching-Learning ProcessFor the purpose of learner development, the education reform focus on the basic educationcurriculum and teaching-learning process including:- greater effectiveness and efficiency in the development of curriculum, textbooks, educational media, assessment, and evaluation of educational achievement;- improvement of language teaching and learning, with an emphasis on Thai, English, and Chinese languages, and stressing communication skills in real life situations, careers, and further education;- improvement in the teaching and learning of mathematics and science, as well as computer science, to ensure a sound basis in science and technology and systematic support for talented learners;- improvement in the quality of teaching and learning in small schools; • Policies on the Reform of Vocational EducationReform of vocational education aims at ensuring the development of manpower with thenecessary skills required for employment and/or entrepreneurship, as well to meet the demandsfor higher competencies increasingly required by industry.- Organization of a support system to improve the capacity of all vocational educationinstitutions to provide a good education, and creation of a desirable image and concretecontribution to the society;- Clarification of the roles and responsibilities of different categories of vocational educationinstitutions; introduction and expansion of courses in areas consistent with the needs of the labormarket and national development; improvement of the curriculum, along with teaching andlearning methodology; and development of assessment and evaluation methods to measurelearner achievements;- Improvement of professional standards and the professional qualification system, as well asdevelopment of vocational education standards and competency-based courses in collaborationwith various enterprises; • Policies on the Reform of Non-Formal and Informal Education to SupportLifelong Learning 230
  • Non-formal and informal education systems will promote and support lifelong learning activitiesto develop a culture of lifelong learning and the creation of a learning society based on activeparticipation from all segments of society, through:- awareness campaigns to stress the importance of lifelong learning, and surveys to identify interests and needs;- curriculum improvement and development;- organization of different courses through a variety of methods, with emphasis on networking and cooperation;- collaboration with public and private sector agencies to establish a system for the transfer of learning outcomes and experiences;- establishment of a free television channel for education and improvement of programming throughout the media. 231
  • Figure 6.15: Organization of the Present School System in ThailandSources: Office of Education Council, Education in Thailand 2005/2006, Bangkok: Amarin Printing and Publishing, 2006. 232
  • 6.3.2 Formal EducationFormal education consists of basic education and higher education. Within basic education, itcovers 12 years before higher education including 9 years’ compulsory education. The nine yearsof compulsory education requires children aged seven to enroll in basic education institutionsuntil the age of 16. The focus of formal education in this report is on the basic education.Organizational StructureAs can be seen from Figure 6.16, the Ministry of Education consists of National Council ofEducation, Commission of Basic Education, Commission of Higher Education and Commissionof Vocational Education. Its main responsibility is to promote and oversee all levels and types ofeducation.Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2 is a main organization for arranging, promoting, andsupporting the foundational education and distributing authority to all educational establishmentsto administrate the studying ages thoroughly. It is also to bring the moral principle knowledgeaccording to the loyal sufficient economy philosophy and to meet the quality standard.There are four objectives in Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2: - All studying ages included disability and less opportunity people receive opportunities to study basic education for 12 years as equivalent and entire right. - All learners receive education that meet the quality standard of foundation education. - Lop Buri educational service area office 2 and other subordinate educational establishments have strong points in education administration. - Coordinate promotion to encourage spirit to personnel and learner in particular extraordinary development area in the southern border provinces. 233
  • Figure 6.16: Education Administration and Management Structure Responsibilities:- Formulation of policies, plans, standards; Ministry of Ministry of Ministry- Support of resources; Education Interior providing- Monitoring and specialized evaluation education Responsibilities:- Supervision, support, Educational Local administration Public unitsand promotion in service areas organization providingresponse to policies and educationstandards Responsibilities: Institutions Agencies Education Agencies, and- Implementation / providing basic organizations institutions institutions administration and and early / individuals / schools /schools management childhood responsible providing education like for education specialized kindergartens provision education Sources: Adaptation from Office of Education Council, Education in Thailand 2005/2006, Bangkok: Amarin Printing and Publishing, 2006. 6.3.3 Infrastructures In Khok Charoen district, there are 14 pre-primary care centers/schools are adjunctive to 14 primary schools. Of six lower secondary schools, four schools cover primary schools(Ban Nong Maka, Ban Wang Ta In, Ban Sa Paeng and Ban Khok Same San), in terms of grade 1 to grade 9. Two schools belong to upper secondary schools (Khok Charoen wittaya school and Yang Rak wittaya school) with cover of grade 7 to grade 12. The total 191 classrooms are available for 607 pre-primary school children, 1864 primary students, 941 students in lower secondary school and 326 students in upper secondary schools. There are 16 school libraries in Khok Charoen district. 234
  • All schools in Khok Charoen district are public schools, there lack of private school andvocational school.Table 6.18: Distribution of Education Institutions by Tambons Pre-school / Lower Upper Primary Tambon child care- secondary secondary Total % school center school school 1 3 (combined Khok (2 schools combined 3 with lower 10 27% Charoen with Lower secondary secondary school ) school) 1 Yang Rak 4 4 (combined with lower 11 30% secondary school) 4 Nong 4 (1 school combined with - 9 24% Makha Lower secondary school ) Whang 2 2 - - 4 11% Thong 1 Khok 1 (combined with Lower - 3 8% Samae San secondary school ) Total 14 14 6 2 37 100%Source: Adopted from Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 20086.3.4 School FacilitiesOf total 177 classrooms in Khok Chareon district, 34 classrooms in pre-primary schools or care-centers, 98 classrooms in primary schools, 33 classroom in lower secondary schools and 12classrooms in upper secondary schools. Each school owns a library, in terms of 16 libraries inthis education service area. The students-classroom ratios are 1:18, 1:19, 1:29 and 1:27 relevantwith pre-primary schools, primary schools, lower secondary schools and upper secondaryschools respectively. The highest ratio is 1:29 at lower secondary school level.Table 6.19: Ratio of Student-classroom Khok Chareon District National Standard Ratio % of % of students perTypes of school Classrooms Students Ratio Classrooms Students classroomPre-primary School 34 607 1:18 19% 16% 1:25 235
  • Primary School 98 1864 1:19 55% 50% Lower Secondary School 33 941 1:29 19% 25% Upper Secondary School 12 326 1:27 7% 9% Total 177 3,738 1:21 100% 100%Source: Adopted from Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 2008The Figure 6.17 and Figure 6.18 present that 16% of children in pre-primary schools own 19% ofclassrooms. At primary school level, 50% of students share 55% of classrooms. At lowersecondary school level, 25% of students own 19% of classrooms and at upper secondary school,9% of students share 7% of classrooms.Figure 6.17: Percentage of Classrooms by Education Level % of cl assr oom by school l evel s 7% 19% 19% Pr e- pr i m y School ar Pr i m y School ar Low Secondar y School er Upper Secondar y School 55% Figure 6.18: Percentage of Students by Education LevelAs can been seen from table 6.20,6.21 % of st udent s by school l eveland 6.22 that the ratios of students-classroom distribute by school are 9% 16%imbalance. The lowest ratio is 1:7 in the Pr e- pr i m y School ar 25%primary school Ban Din Daeng and the Pr i m y School ar Low Secondar y School erhighest ratio is 1:30 in the upper Upper Secondar y School 50%secondary school, Khok Charoenwittaya. However, the total ratio ofstudents-classroom (1:21) is lower thangovernment standard 1: 25. 236
  • Table 6.20: Ratio of Students-classroom in Pre-primary Education Khok Chareon District National Pre-primary School Standard ratio No. of students per No. Name of School Boys Girls Total classroom Ratio classroom1 Ban Yang Rak school 37 38 75 4 1:192 Ban Nong Maka 25 21 46 2 1:233 Ban Wang Ta In 34 26 60 2 1:304 Ban Sa Paeng 28 19 47 2 1:245 Ban Lam Chon Dan 13 10 23 2 1:126 Ban Khao Rab 9 20 29 2 1:157 Anu bann Khok Charoen 55 45 100 4 1:258 Ban Ta Le Tong 13 13 26 2 1:139 Ban Haey Saram 22 18 40 2 1:20 1:2510 Ban Din Daeng 12 3 15 2 1:811 Ban Ram Pong Paed 11 10 21 2 1:1112 Ban Bor Ta Kaen Tong 8 2 10 2 1:513 Ban Pu Ka Chad 18 15 33 2 1:1714 Ban Khok Same San 39 43 82 4 1:21 Total 324 283 607 34 1:18Source: Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 2008Table 6.21: Ratio of Student-classroom in Primary School, Khok Chareon District National Primary School Standard ratio No. of students perNo. Name of School Boys Girls Total classroom Ratio classroom1 Ban Yang Rak school 120 103 223 9 1:25 1:252 Ban Nong Maka 84 74 158 6 1:263 Ban Wang Ta In 93 84 177 6 1:30 237
  • 4 Ban Sa Paeng 94 67 161 6 1:275 Ban Lam Chon Dan 31 33 64 6 1:116 Ban Khao Rab 49 53 102 6 1:177 Anu bann Khok Charoen 165 138 303 12 1:258 Ban Ta Le Tong 36 44 80 6 1:139 Ban Haey Saram 51 64 115 6 1:1910 Ban Din Daeng 24 20 44 6 1:711 Ban Ram Pong Paed 23 22 45 6 1:812 Ban Bor Ta Kaen Tong 22 23 45 6 1:813 Ban Pu Ka Chad 48 49 97 6 1:1614 Ban Khok Same San 132 118 250 11 1:23 Total 972 892 1864 98 1:19Source: Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 2008The table 6.22 has been suggested that the total ratio of students-classroom (1:29) in lowersecondary education is higher than national standard (1:25).Table 6.22: Ratio of Students-classroom in Lower Secondary Education, Khok Chareon District Lower Secondary School No. of NationalNo. Name of School Boys Girls Total classroom Ratio Standard2 Ban Nong Maka 41 39 80 3 1:273 Ban Wang Ta In 36 30 66 3 1:224 Ban Sa Paeng 34 40 74 3 1:2514 Ban Khok Same San 47 55 102 5 1:20 1:25 Khok Charoen wittaya15 school 217 228 445 13 1:3416 Yang Rak wittaya school 85 89 174 6 1:29 Total 460 481 941 33 1:29Source: Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 2008 238
  • The table 6.23 also present that the ratio of students-classroom (1: 27) in upper secondaryschools is higher than government standard (1:25).Table 6.23: Ratio of Students-classroom in Upper Secondary Education, Khok Chareon District Upper Secondary No. of NationalNo. Name of School Boys Girls Total classroom Ratio Standard Khok Charoen wittaya15 school 73 134 207 6 1:35 1:2516 Yang Rak wittaya school 60 59 119 6 1:20 Total 133 193 326 12 1:27Source: Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 20086.3.5 Education PersonnelThere are 192 teachers distribute in 16 schools including 16 pre-primary care centers in KhokChareon district in academic year 2008.As can be seen from table 6.24, there are 17 teachers attained at master’s degree or higher, andmost of teachers are qualified at bachelor’s degree; only two teachers’ degree is lower thanrequired diploma.Table 6.24: Number of Teachers by Qualification in Khok Chorean District, Academic Year 2006 Level of Qualification Male % Female % Total %Masters Degree or Higher 8 4% 9 5% 17 9%Bachelors Degree 44 24% 120 66% 164 90%Diploma in Education or - 0% - 0% - 0%EquivalentLow than Diploma 1 1% 1 1% 2 1%Total 53 29% 130 71% 183 100%Source: Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 2006As table 6.24 presented, of total 183 teachers in academic year 2006, 79% of teachers werefemale and most of female teachers were working in pre-primary schools and primary schools 239
  • Number of Students and TeachersThe table 6.25 show that 2793 pupils study in both pre-primary and primary schools. Of 2793students, 1454 boys are larger than 1339 girls in primary education. Comparing with the nationalstandard of ratio of students-teacher (1:25), the average ratio of students-teacher is 1:18 in bothpre-primary and primary schools. The lowest ratio of students-teacher is 1:6 in Ban Bor Ta KaenTong primary school and the highest ratio of students-teacher is 1:31 in Ban Haey Saramprimary school.Table 6.25: Students-teacher Ratio by School Pre-primary and primary school No. of National No. Name of School Boys Girls Total teachers Ratio Standard Ban Yang Rak 1 school 157 141 298 13 1:23 2 Ban Nong Maka 150 134 284 15 1:19 3 Ban Wang Ta In 163 140 303 17 1:18 4 Ban Sa Paeng 156 126 282 15 1:19 5 Ban Lam Chon Dan 44 43 87 4 1:22 6 Ban Khao Rab 58 73 131 7 1:19 Anu bann Khok 7 Charoen 220 183 403 22 1:18 1:25 8 Ban Ta Le Tong 49 57 106 8 1:13 9 Ban Haey Saram 73 82 155 5 1:31 10 Ban Din Daeng 36 23 59 5 1:12 11 Ban Ram Pong Paed 34 32 66 4 1:17 Ban Bor Ta Kaen 12 Tong 30 25 55 9 1:6 13 Ban Pu Ka Chad 66 64 130 8 1:16 14 Ban Khok Same San 218 216 434 19 1:23 Total 1454 1339 2793 151 1:18Source: Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 2008The table 6.26 indicates that, of total 945 students in secondary schools, there are 435 boys and510 girls studying in khok Charoen wittaya and Yang Rak Vittya secondary schools respectively.The ratio of students-teacher is 1:23 that is less than the ratio 1:25 of national standard. 240
  • Table 6.26: Students-teacher Ratio by Lower Secondary and Upper Secondary School Lower secondary and upper secondary school No. of National No. Name of School Boys Girls Total teachers Ratio Standard Khok Charoen 28 15 wittaya 290 362 652 1:23 1:25 16 Yang Rak Vittya 145 148 293 13 1:23 Total 435 510 945 41 1:23Source: Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 2008The rate of dropout as table 6.27 presented that 16 students who dropped out accounting for0.43%. The dropout rate (0.95%) at level of secondary school is bit of larger than level ofprimary school (0.25%). The school with the highest dropout rate is Ban Nong Maka at 1.76%.The main reason of dropout is that households migrate out to make lives because parents don’thave a stable occupation.Table 6.27: Percentage of Dropout by Schools Serial No. of No. of No. of % of No. Name of school boys girls Total dropout dropout1 Ban Yang Rak school 157 141 298 0 0.00%2 Ban Nong Maka 150 134 284 5 0.13%3 Ban Wang Ta In 163 140 303 0 0.00%4 Ban Sa Paeng 156 126 282 1 0.03%5 Ban Lam Chon Dan 44 43 87 0 0.00%6 Ban Khao Rab 58 73 131 0 0.00% Anu bann Khok7 Charoen 220 183 403 0 0.00%8 Ban Ta Le Tong 49 57 106 0 0.00%9 Ban Haey Saram 73 82 155 0 0.00%10 Ban Din Daeng 36 23 59 1 0.03%11 Ban Ram Pong Paed 34 32 66 0 0.00% Ban Bor Ta Kaen12 Tong 30 25 55 0 0.00%13 Ban Pu Ka Chad 66 64 130 0 0.00%14 Ban Khok Same San 218 216 434 0 0.00%Sub-total 1454 1339 2793 7 0.19% 241
  • Khok Charoen 15 wittaya school 290 362 652 9 0.24% Yang Rak wittaya 16 school 145 148 293 0 0.00% Sub-total 435 510 945 9 0.24% Total 1889 1849 3738 16 0.43%Source: Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 2008Schools’ Distribution MappingAs map 6.1 presented, all the 16 schools locate by the roads. The most of time of distance to aparticular school by foot is 45 minutes in Nong Makha. The most school distance by average is2.25 km in tambon Nong Makha and the least school distance by average is 1.2 km in tambonYang Rak. On the scale of spatial level, children can go to schools conveniently accordingschool schools’ distribution mapping. 242
  • Map 61: School Distribution in Khok Charoen District 243
  • Table 6.28: Time of Distance to a Particular School Service by Foot and by Bike School distance School distance by minutes by km By Bike Name of Tambon By foot (4km/hr) (50 km/hr) By average km Khok Charoen 37.5 3 1.5 Yang Rak 30 2.4 1.2 Nong Makha 45 3.6 2.25 Wang Thong 30 2.4 2 Khok Samae San 37.5 3 1.5Source: Infrastructure sector report, 2008According NRD-2C, as the Figure 6.19 presented that most of Tambons achieved progressiveeducation level in 2007. This indicator denotes that 100% of 6-15 years old children are incompulsory schools, 100% of 3-5 years old children are in pre-primary school, and greaterthan 50% of villagers who missed compulsory school or standard education and receivednon-formal education training.Figure 6.19: Percentage of Villages Achieved Progressive Education Level by Tambons % of vi l l ages achi eve pr ogr essi ve educat i on l evel 120% 100% 100% 92% 88% 83% Per cent age 78% 80% 60% 系 列 1 40% 20% 0% Khok Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae C oen har San Tambon Sources: NRD-2C, 20076.3.6 CurriculumIn 1999, the Department of Curriculum and Instruction Development (DCID) conducted anational quality assessment of education at the upper secondary level (Grade 12). Afterward,the quality assessment has showed that many schools still needed to improve teaching andlearning in accordance with the 70% of core curriculum and the needs of learners and 30% oflocalities or institutions. About half of the teachers needed to improve their abilities tofacilitate aspects of student-centered learning, and to search for knowledge, thinkanalytically, conduct research, and create a body of knowledge. (ONEC, 2001b, pp.55-57).According to MOE report that there about 90% of students showed satisfactory results inThai writing, many of them needed to improve their skills in chemistry, mathematics andEnglish writing at 64%, 65% and 86%, respectively. (Ministry of Education, 1999, p.23).We interviewed an English teacher who teaches English for three schools every week;because these schools lack of enough English teacher. He has to teach English at Anu Bann 244
  • Khok Charoen school for 3 days, at Ban Ta Le Tong school for 1 day, and at Ban Din Daengschool for 1 day.Table 6.29: Schedule of English Teacher of Anu Bann Khok Charoen SchoolName of schools Working days per weekAnu bann Khok Charoen 3Ban Ta Le Tong 1Ban Din Daeng 1Source: Social group interviewAs interview presented, it’s difficult for students to study English because of limitation ofteaching hours. Bangon Khanket is teaching English in three schools with grade 1 to grade 6.With regard to grade 1 to grade 3, there is one hour English class per week respectively; forgrade 4 to grade 6, there are two hours per week per school. Therefore, lack of teaching andlearning hours limited children interest in English learning.He believe that the quality of English learning could be improved if the number of learninghours increased from 1 hours to 3 hours; however, English teacher cannot stand suchintensive workload.Activities of the SchoolsMost schools try to do institutional developed curriculum in the proportion of 30% accordingto the Committee on Academic Quality Development.As table 29 presented that the Yang Rak Wittaya school make effort to connect indigenousknowledge with school curriculum. They encourage students to join community activities andto learn from life.Overall Assessment of School QualityAccording to the National Education Act of B.E. 2542 (1999), there is a system ofeducational quality assurance including both internal and external quality assurance. Alleducational institutions have to receive external quality evaluation at least once every fiveyears.Educational standards for external quality assessment of basic education institutions (Councilof Ministers, January 2000) composed of 14 standards and 53 indicators that can be classifiedinto 3 groups as follows:1) Standards of Learners, consisting of 7 standards with 22 indicators, aim at physical,spiritual, intellectual and social development;2) Standards of Process, consisting of 3 standards with 21 indicators, focus on administrativeand teaching-learning processes; and3) Standards of Inputs specify the characteristics or readiness of administrators, teachers and 245
  • the curriculum. They are composed of 4 standards, with 10 indicators.As we can see from the table 6.30, there are gaps in comparing academic achievements byschools, inequality existed in all subjects. The highest average score is 2.79 that achieved bythe school Anu bann Khok Charoen. The lowest score is in school Ban Bor Ta Kaen Tongat1.79. The lowest scores distributed in subjects of English, Mathematics, Chemistry andPhysics.There are 25% of schools reached at progressive level, 75% of schools still need to beimproved.Of six schools with lower secondary and upper secondary grades, only school Ban KhokSame San achieved level of good standard. Therefore, we can find that the quality of 83% oflower and upper secondary schools need to be improved which affect on the rate ofcontinuation education to higher education.Table 6.30 : School Assessment by External Education in Khok Charoen District No. Name of School Average Score Evaluation 1 Ban Yang Rak school 2.71 Progressive 2 Ban Nong Maka 2.43 Need to be improved 3 Ban Wang Ta In 2.29 Need to be improved 4 Ban Sa Paeng 2.36 Need to be improved 5 Ban Lam Chon Dan 2.57 Need to be improved 6 Ban Khao Rab 2.5 Need to be improved 7 Anu bann Khok Charoen 2.79 Progressive 8 Ban Ta Le Tong 2.43 Need to be improved 9 Ban Haey Saram 2.43 Need to be improved 10 Ban Din Daeng 2.14 Need to be improved 11 Ban Ram Pong Paed 2.36 Need to be improved 12 Ban Bor Ta Kaen Tong 1.79 Need to be improved 13 Ban Pu Ka Chad 2.57 Progressive 14 Ban Khok Same San 2.71 Progressive 15 Khok Charoen wittaya school 2.29 Need to be improved 16 Yang Rak wittaya school 2.79 Need to be improvedSource: Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 2008Students Completion and Continuation to Higher EducationAs can be seen from table 6.31 (NRD-2C), the numbers of children who complete compulsoryeducation and enroll into high school are lower. 4 of 12 villages achieved at progressive levelin Khok Chaaroen, the data from other villages are not available (NA). In Yang Rak, 2 of 12villages reach at progressive level. Only one village arrived at progressive level within 12villages in Nong Makha. Data are not available at this indictor in 9 villages, Wang Thong. It’sbetter in Khok Samae San than other tambons that 6 of 8 villages reach at progressive level and1 village is at backward level. 246
  • One interview with three parents took place in Khok Samae San that there are two mainreasons affecting lower rate of study of continuation. First, children cannot pass the entranceexamination for high education because of quality of teaching and learning. The secondreason is that poor households cannot afford the cost of high education at average of 4000Baht per month per child.Table 6.31 Number of Villages Reached at Progressive Level of Studying ContinuationTambon Number of Backward level Moderate level Progressive villages levelKhok Charoen 12 N/A N/A 4Yang Rak 12 N/A N/A 2Nong Makha 12 N/A N/A 1Wang Thong 9 N/A N/A N/AKhok Samae 8 1 N/A 6SanSources: Village Basic Information (NRD-2C), November 2007, Thailand6.3.7 Case Study on Yang Rak Vittaya SchoolBackground of Yang Rak Wittaya SchoolYang Rak Wittaya school is located in village Number 12 in Tambon Yang Rak. It wasopened in 1989 and linked with its mother school, Khok Charoen Wittaya school. Initially,lack of classrooms led students had to study in the area of Wat Yang Rak under supported byPhakru Suwat Chan Ta Chote. The school was built and set out by the ministry of Educationin January 13, 1993.It is a public school with supported by Ministry of Education, covers 6 grades from grade 7 tograde 12 and consist of lower and upper secondary schools. The total area is 40.75 Rai.InfrastructureThere are 3 permanent building, 1 temporary building, 1 training building, 1 cafeteria, 4houses for teachers and 1 house for janitor. All these buildings include 12 classrooms, 3latrines, 2 computer rooms with 38 computers, 1 library, 1 science lab and 1 sound lab. Thedrinkable water cannot satisfy students and teachers needs during March, April, May andJune. According modestly set targets in the National ICT for Education Master Plan for 2004-2006, as can be seen from table 6.32, the students-computer ratio is 8:1.Table 6.32: The Students-to-computer Ratio, Yang Rak Wittaya School Levels and types of Number of Number Number of students education students of PCs per PC Targeted Actual use Yang Rak Wittaya 271 27 1:54 1:10 SchoolSource: Yang Rak Wittaya School 247
  • Service AreasThe radius of Yang Rak Wittaya school service covers all villages from village 1 to village12.Number of Students and TeachersThere are 273 students register in school and 16 teachers in the academic year 2008.Table 6.33: Number of Students in Yang Rak Wittaya School by Gender and Grade Serial Grade Male % Female % Total % No. level 1 Grade 35 27% 31 22% 66 7 24% 2 Grade 23 18% 35 25% 58 8 21% 3 Grade 31 24% 16 11% 47 9 17% Sub-total 89 68% 82 59% 171 63% 5 Grade 15 11% 29 21% 44 10 16% 6 Grade 15 11% 15 11% 30 11 11% 7 Grade 12 9% 14 10% 26 12 10% Sub-total 42 32% 58 41% 100 37% Total 131 100% 140 100% 271 100%As Figure 6.20 presented, both boys and girls decreased from grade 7 to grade 12 in YangRak Wittaya school.Figure 6.20: The Changing of Numbers of Students by Gender and Grades Tr end of num s of st udent s ber 70 31 N ber s of st udent s 60 35 50 16 29 40 Fem e al 35 30 31 15 M e al 23 14 20 15 15 um 10 12 0 G ade 7 r G ade 8 r G ade 9 G ade 10 G ade 11 G ade 12 r r r r G ades r17 teachers are working in the fields of Thai, Math, Science, Social Religion and Culture,Health Education and Physical Education, Arts, Careers and Technology, Foreign Language,Learner Activities and other subjects. The ratio of students-teacher is 1: 16. However, thisschool is still not enough of teachers in physical subject and computer subject. 248
  • ActivitiesYang Rak Wittaya school engage in three projects, Whit School Project, To be Number 1Project and Buddlist School Project.Three factors limit Yang Rak Wittaya school’s development, one is lack of enough financialsupport to improve school’s infrastructure and necessary teaching and learning aids such asbuildings’ maintenance, provision of computers, academic books and text books; anotherfactor is the poor quality of teaching and learning. According to the external assessment, thisschool still needs to be improved in their quality. The last factor is the inefficient schoolmanagement that weaken both teachers’ and students’ performance.School Committee and Parent AssociationThe roles and responsibilities of the school committee are important to support students’school education. Some villages have weaving project, the project become part of localizedcurriculum that students drawing picture as design of weaving pattern. The village No. 8 inWang Thong Tambon provides fund and lunch not only for poor students regularly, but alsofor vulnerable people in village.6.3.8 Case Study of Village Development Fund Project in Supporting Students’ Study The project Village Development Fund (VDF) is located in small village number 8 in Wang Thong Tambon of Khok Charoen District of Lop Puri Province. It was separated from a big village in 1990. The total population of village is 343 and it is comprised of 83 households (HHs). Most of the people in the village are farmers in terms of agriculture (upland crop production e.g. Sugarcane), wage labor and livestock production. The project initially in 1993, Saving Group was formed with the capital fund of 15,000 baht. Now they have total fund of 32,000 baht from 1993 to 2007. The specific Objective is: - To promote saving among the members - To develop spirit of the members • To be honest • Not to be selfish • Not to be involved in gambling • Cooperative in group The village fund is not only aims at financial interests, but also aims at the social interests. The village committee is very pride that the return from The Village Development Fund has been used for pension of old people, temple maintenance, scholarship, lunch for poor students. They have supported 30 students with 400 Baht for each student per year. 249
  • Education Loan and ScholarshipThe government provides larger subsidies for disadvantaged students in welfare educationschools, students from low-income families, disabled students in schools for the disabled, andstudents in sports schools since “2003 Ministerial Regulations on the Educational Fund forthe Disabled” (Education in Thailand 2005/2006, p 142).Although Thai government offer free education twelve years for Thai citizen, it does notmean that there are no expenditure for their children. In particular, the students in secondaryschools must afford food, books, learning materials, transportation, uniform and otherequipment. As interview with the principal of Yang Rak Wittaya school, shown that most ofvillagers engage in agriculture with the average income around 25,000 – 30,000 Baht.Therefore, the less scholarship cannot meet students’ needs whose family’s income is lower.As table 6.34 shown, the proportion of scholarship in Yang Rak Wittaya school is at moderatelevel; it’s about 3% of students get scholarship, although the principal complain the lessscholarship in the academic year 2008.Table 6.34: The Distribution of Scholarship in Khok Charoen District, 2008 No. of student Number of students obtained No. Name of School scholarship Boys Girls Total 1 Ban Yang Rak school 6 157 141 298 2 Ban Nong Maka 9 150 134 284 3 Ban Wang Ta In 11 163 140 303 4 Ban Sa Paeng 4 156 126 282 5 Ban Lam Chon Dan 1 44 43 87 6 Ban Khao Rab 2 58 73 131 7 Anu bann Khok Charoen 10 220 183 403 8 Ban Ta Le Tong 5 49 57 106 9 Ban Haey Saram 1 73 82 155 10 Ban Din Daeng 1 36 23 59 11 Ban Ram Pong Paed 3 34 32 66 12 Ban Bor Ta Kaen Tong 1 30 25 55 13 Ban Pu Ka Chad 2 66 64 130 14 Ban Khok Same San 17 218 216 434 Sub-total 73 1454 1339 2793 Khok Charoen wittaya 15 school 5 290 362 652 16 Yang Rak wittaya school 10 145 148 293 Sub-total 15 435 510 945 Total 88 1889 1849 3738Source: Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 2008 250
  • 6.3.9 Problems ,Potentials and conclusion (Formal Education)The main problems and potentials are following in Khok Chorean district: Problems - Short of classrooms (students-classroom ratio 1: 35) in Khok Charoen wittaya upper secondary school - Although students-teacher ratio is lower than standard 1: 25, schools are still inadequate English teachers, computer teachers and science teachers - 75% of schools quality is not attain at progressive level - Current scholarship cannot meet students’ needs - Low number of pupils to continue higher education Potentials - Both parents and teachers have high expectation on education reform - School leaders are willing to improve schools’ efficiency. - Parents’ high expectation on their children lead them to participate school management and education reform - Qualified teacher team - Government loan program growingConclusionIn general, almost children access to the basic education, in particular to the 9-yearcompulsory education in Khok Charoen district. Children under 6-year can access to pre-primary school care or education. School facilities and staffs are able to satisfy student’sbasic needs. Government education policies and institutions provide stronger support forchildren’s development. There still have larger space to reform school curriculum, qualityand efficiency within all 16 schools.6.3.10 Non-Formal EducationNon-formal education services’ targets include the early childhood population, school-agepopulation who have missed formal schooling, and over-school-age population in Thailand.Its services scope cross children from birth to 6 years through early childhood developmentcenter (community-based for aged 3-6 years children), family-based early childhood andyouth development organization (YDO).It also provides and service for illiterate adults. At national level, the illiterate rate is at 4%(Office of Education Council, Education in Thailand 2005/2006, P194). However, as thetable 6.35 presented, the rate of illiteracy is lower at 0.03%.in Khok Chorean district. 251
  • Table 6.35: The Rate of Illiteracy by Tambons in 2007 Number of people Rate of Tambon Population at age 15-60 illiteracy illiteracy Khok Charooen 3763 1 0.01% Yang Rak 2509 0 0.00% Nong Makha 1421 0 0.00% Wang Thong 1300 0 0.00% Khok Samesan 1568 2 0.02% Total 10561 3 0.03%Source: Lop Buri Educational Service Area Office 2, 2008Its service covers the continuing education programs for those who have not competed formaleducation. They are qualified or certificated as same as those in the formal school system.Non-formal education includes technical, vocational education and training under thesupervision of the Office of Vocational Education Commission, as well as the Office of theNon-formal Education Commission.Non-formal education office is located at Khok Charoen, that is an organization with visionthat brings wisdom to society by providing and supporting with life-long learning knowledgeto people worthily and thoroughly.6.3.11 Organizational StructureAs can be seen from below chart, there are three parts under director’s supervision at districtlevel, the section of general administration, section of policy and planning and section oftechnology for teaching and learning.The mission of NFE, Khok Charoen district is that people have the opportunities to study innon-formal education thoroughly and worthily. Director General Administration Policy and Planning Technology for Teaching and Learning-General Administration - Educational Standards - Basic Education- Academic Affairs - Monitoring and Evaluation - Occupational Development- Finance - Project Plan Education- Parcel - Technology and Mass Media - Skill Development Education- Venue - Community and Social- Personnel Administration Development- Public Relation - E-learning- Special Education - Standard and Evaluation - Innovative Development in Education - Cooperation and Promotion 252
  • Personnel in Non-formal Education OfficeThere are seven staffs in non-formal education office, they are: one director, three teachers,two other staffs, one librarian. One librarian is not one of permanent staffs who make thecontract only for one year. All staffs have to plan, implement, monitoring and evaluateprograms and activities in the field of basic education, vocational and skill training, as well asinformation services in five Tambons.The main responsibilities of non-formal education office in Khok Charoen are described asbelow: - Support life-long knowledge to people those can learn from media and other learning sources; - To provide learning opportunities to distributing learning sources, media, and IT technology to meet people’s needs; - Provide knowledge and opportunities to those need to improved working skills and quality of life; - To strength network in coordinating non-formal education activities for life-long learning. - To promote community adapting indigenous knowledge and global knowledge. - To improve quality of non-formal education and management and ensure target people to have moral knowledge and skills according to the loyal sufficient economy philosophy.6.3.12 Program, Activities and Participation of PeopleAs for vocational and skill training program, NFE office has the service in the scope ofInterest Group Training, Short-term Vocational Course, Vocational Certificate Curriculum,Occupational Certificate Curriculum, Public Library, Village Reading Centre andCommunity Learning Center.In the field of information service, NFE provide service with Education Radio and TelevisionProgram, National Science Centre for Education.There are seven staffs have to provide three major projects cover all Tambons with totalbudget 602,900 Baht, and 2,113 community people benefited from non-formal educationservice.Table 6.36: Non-formal Education Projects’ Plan and Budget, Khok Chaoren District, 2007 Output(persons) Budget Target Actual No. Project (Baht) beneficiaries beneficiaries 1 Service receivers of non-formal education system Vocational development education 251,000 370 601 Short courses on the community education 47,200 70 70 The life skills development education 27,200 240 360 Public library and management 20,250 N/A N/A Books, activities and media 60,000 N/A N/A Public utilities 5,000 N/A N/A Activities 253
  • Exhibition 30 30 Promotion of reading activities in the library 30 15 Mobile library N/A 10 Sub-total 410,650 740 1,086 Poverty Eradication project The sufficiency economy learning process 2 management project 80,000 100 125 Sub-total 80,000 100 125 General grant Non-formal education 112,250 At primary level 80 88 3 At secondary level 400 335 At upper level 450 479 Total 602,900 1,770 2,113Source: Non-formal education office, Khok Chorean, 2008Community Learning Center and Public LibraryEach Tambon owns one community learning center(CLC). Khok charoen CLc locate on thevillage No. 5 with 111 learners registered, Yang Rak CLC located on village No. 3 with 93learners registered, Nong Maka CLC located on village No. 1 with 83 learners registered,Whang Thang CLC located on village No. 4 with 62 learners registered, Samae San CLClocated on village No. 4 with 83 learners registered respectively.As table 6.37 presented, there are total 14 working days each week with 5 teachers. Eachteacher takes training courses at three level, i.e. primary, lower secondary and uppersecondary level. The regular timetable of non-formal education training must conflict withfarmer’s seasonal farming calendar. 254
  • Table 6.37: Community Learning Centers in Khok Charoen District No. of Timetable Location of CLC Level of Education students Day Time Khok Charoen Primary education 0 CLC located on Lower secondary village No. 5 with 09:00-12:00 education 42 Tuesday 111 learners Upper secondary registered 09:00-12:00 education 69 Wednesday 09:00-12:00 Yang Rak CLC Primary education 13 Thursday located on village Lower secondary 13:00-16:00 No. 3 with 93 education 29 Thursday learners registered Upper secondary 09:00-12:00 education 51 Friday Primary education 8 Tuesday 13:00-16:00 Nong Maka CLC located on village Lower secondary 09:00-12:00 No. 1 with 83 education 33 Tuesday learners registered Upper secondary 09:00-12:00 education 42 Wednesday Whang Thang Primary education 4 Tuesday 09:00-12:00 CLC located on Lower secondary village No. 4 with 13:00-16:00 education 23 Tuesday 62 learners Upper secondary registered 09:00-12:00 education 35 Wednesday 09:00-12:00 Samae San CLC Primary education 10 Tuesday located on village Lower secondary 13:00-16:00 No. 4 with 83 education 27 Sunday learners registered Upper secondary 09:00-12:00 education 46 Sunday 14 working 42 hours Total 432 days per weekSource: Non-formal education office, Khok Chorean, 2008There is a library located in Khok Charoen district. Its open time is: 09:00-17:00 from Mon.to Friday. One librarian takes responsibility for library activities such as exhibition,promotion of reading activities and mobile library.6.3.13 Vocational TrainingVocational and skill training is one of three components in non-formal education system.Non-formal education office delivered 15 training courses with total 609 beneficiaries. Themost popular course is ‘Herb Processing into Chemical Products’ that total 126 peoplebenefited from it. 255
  • Table 6.38: Report Fiscal Year 2007: Education and Training to Improve Vocational Skills Target trainees Actual Trainees Actu Fields of Curric Implemente alSeria training ulum d totall No. Hours Areas/time Male Female Total Male Female Total % Art and craft: Wang Tong 15 6 21 15 6 21 3%1 recycled 70 weaving Nong Maka 1 19 20 1 19 20 3% Handicraft: Khok funeral Charoen - 20 20 - 16 16 3%2 30 flowers Khok Same making San - 23 23 - 15 15 2% Khok Same Flowers Sam 1 - 20 20 - 12 12 2% making Khok Same3 100 from lotus Sam 2 - 20 20 - 20 20 3% clothes Khok Same Sam 3 - 20 20 - 20 20 3% Khok Art and Charoen 3 17 20 - 14 14 2%4 100 craft Wang Tang 1 19 20 1 19 20 3% Khok Same Sam 5 16 21 1 5 6 1% Wang Tong Art and 1 3 17 20 3 17 20 3%5 100 craft Wang Tong 2 - 20 20 - 20 20 3% Khok Charoen - 20 20 - 20 20 3% Agriculture: Sufficiency6 economy 66 practice for farmers Wang Tong 6 10 16 6 10 16 3% Art and craft:7 100 modern production Nong Maka - 20 20 - 20 20 3% Photo Yang Rak 8 12 20 8 12 20 3%8 frames 10 Khok making Charoen - 20 20 - 17 17 3% 256
  • Photo Nong Maka 7 13 20 7 13 20 3%9 frames 25 making Wang Tong 2 22 24 2 22 24 4% Chemical10 solution 25 production Nong Maka 1 19 20 1 19 20 3% 10 Nong Maka 16 16 32 16 16 32 5% Herbs Yang Rak 1 23 9 32 23 9 32 5% processing 511 into Yang Rak 2 1 24 25 1 24 25 4% chemical products Yang Rak 1 - 21 21 - 20 20 3% 30 Yang Rak 2 - 17 17 - 17 17 3% Bio- Yang Rak 1 21 15 36 21 15 36 6%12 fertilizer 12 production Yang Rak 2 23 9 32 23 9 32 5% Food13 10 cookies Yang Rak - 15 15 - 15 15 2%14 Food caking 10 Yang Rak 1 24 25 1 24 25 4% Clothes Khok15 100 production Charoen - 20 20 - 14 14 2% 100 803Total 137 523 660 130 479 609 % Source: Non-formal education office, Khok Chorean, 2008 Of total 609 beneficiaries, 79% of trainees were women and 21% of them were men. Most of men selected two courses, Herbs Processing into Chemical Products and Bio-fertilizer Production. Therefore, women are positive participants in vocational training. We did not evaluate effectiveness and outcomes on courses delivered by non-formal education office because of limitation of time. However, according to registered number of the trainees, female and male trainees have significant difference on training needs. The information gathered from Provincial Skill Labor Development Center (interview) present that the most popular course in vocational training is Internet Technology. However, non-formal education office lack of facilitates and trainers to deliver IT course at district level. 257
  • 6.3.14 Problems, Potentials and Conclusion (non-formal education)Having triangulate information from focus groups, non-formal education office at districtlevel and Skill Labor Development Center at provincial level, the main problems andpotentials can be presented as following:Problems: - Inadequate staff and budget to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate projects and activities - The fixed training schedule conflict with farming calendar - Trainers play a role of teacher without well understanding of adult learning styles rather than development facilitator. - Dropout is higherPotentials: - Women actively participate in vocational training project - Ambitious team of non-formal education - Farmers interest in media program and information communication technology (ICT) for learning - Labor force office at provincial level provide adequate budget and facilities in vocational trainingConclusionNon-formal education office makes a great effort to attain their objectives of non-formaleducation. They developed a lot of curses to meet local farmer needs in line with communityresources, yet we are not found out the evaluation report as to these courses. The staffs areambitious to provide much more non-formal education service to communities; however,limited resources including insufficient budget, staff and trainer restrict non-formal educationdevelopment in Khok Chorean district. Network building that can help non-formal educationoffice to avoid scarce resources such as across sectors network and integrating with theProvincial Skill Labor Development Center for vocational training. 258
  • 6.4. Institution6.4.1 Thailand’s Administrative StructureAccording to Thai Administration Act 1991, It can divided the Thai governmentadministration into three levels consists of central, regional, and local. • Central AdministrationAt this present, the executive branch of the central government is composed of 36 ministries,including the Office of the Prime Minister. On the regional level, the heads of provincial anddistrict offices are officials that have been appointed by different ministries of the centralgovernment. The Ministry of Interior appoints staff members from its Department of LocalAdministration to act as provincial governors and as the heads of districts in 75 regionalprovinces. • Regional AdministrationThe administration of a province is comprised of an appointed governor and a number ofprovincial departments, which are field units of the central government. The districtadministration, a sub-level of the province, is administered by the “District Head, (or Thaipeople called nai amphor)” who is appointed by the Department of Local Administration,Ministry of Interior. A district administration roots down to the sub-district (Tambon) andvillage (Mooban) levels. • Local AdministrationLocal administration in Thailand its can classified into five forms: (i) ProvincialAdministrative Organizations (PAOs), (ii) Municipalities (MAs), (iii) TambonAdministrative Organization (TAOs) (iv) Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA), and(v) Pattaya City. Different forms of Local governments not only have different political andadministrative structures, but also different sizes such as population, area sizes and etc.. Figure 6.21 the National and Local Government Structure in 259
  • Source: Project Management Office Public Sector Reform Project October 8, 20016.4.2 Local Government in Khok Charoen DistrictProfile of Tambon Administration Organization (TAO)The structure of Tambon Administration Organization (TAO) governance is divided into twobranches: The first one is the Tambon Council included two elected representatives fromeach village responsible for policy and development direction, and the second is TambonExecutive Committee, which consists of a chairperson and two TAO members selected by theTAO Council and appointed by the District Officer. The TAO Executive Committee isresponsible for developing a tambon development plan and an annual budget, and to manageall tambon affairs. Both elected committees are in position for four years. The TAO staffmembers are classified as permanent local civil servants, and their salary is paid from theTAO’s budget expenditures. A TAO permanent secretary is a secretary of the TAOExecutive Committee.The Organizational Structure of TAO Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO) TAO Council TAO Administrative Committee TAO Members Mayor Administrative Office Administrative sector Finance sector Mechanic sectorIn each Tambon, It has TAO President or Nayok OrBorTor, which is chairs the executivecouncil and members include the two of his vice-presidents. TAO council (TAC) meetsregularly twice a year but not more than four times a year for regular meetings. It can ask forNaiamPhoe’s permission for irregular meetings if something beneficial or harmful abruptlycomes up. The TAC task is primarily to deliberate and approve draft Tambon developmentplans regulations and budgets prepared by TEC. TEC is responsible or administering TAOactivities and planning. TEC meets weekly. TEC works closely with TAO staffs that are incharge of day-to-day operations. TAO staff members are permanent local civil servantsperforming routine tasks whose salaries are paid from the TAO’s own budget. However, it isimportant to note that matters concerning human resources management such as atransferring post, promotion, or pay raised is oversaw by the Nai Amphore and his superiorProvincial Governor. The internal division of the TAO civil servant’s office includes at leasttwo sections. The office of the TAO secretary (“Palat OrBorTor”), others section, depending 260
  • on the size of the TAO, always includes financial and construction divisions but may alsohave divisions dealing with education, health care, tourism and so on.Figure 6.22: TAO Administrative ChartRole and Responsibilities of TAOThe TAOs’ legitimacy is in the local administration, but it has a small budget, lacks inpersonnel and capacities to develop themselves. According to the TAO working manual,there are two lines of one is as an initiator, the other as an implementer. The latter is donateand to carry out plans and projects designed by higher ties and government agencies.The former is to carry out functions and four optional items of work. The role andresponsibility of TAO such as• The construction and maintenance of water and land transport infrastructure.• The management of public cleansing (roads, walkways, and public spaces) and the disposal of waste.• The prevention and eradication of epidemic diseases The surveillance of public safety The promotion of education, religion and culture• The promotion of the development of women, children, youth, elderly people and people with disabilities• The protection and preservation of the environment and natural resources Assignments from government agencies• The provision of water for consumption, utilities and agriculture 261
  • Human Resource of TAOTable 6.39: Human Resource of the Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO) Tambom Groups Khok Nong Wang Khok Same Yang Rak Charoen Makha Tong SanAdministrative Officers 4 4 4 4 4 TAOs member 24 24 23 16 16Public Works Officers 3 2 2 2 2 Financial Officers 3 4 4 3 3 Permanent Officers NA 6 NA NA NA Temporary Officers NA NA NA NA 1 Total 34 40 33 25 26Source: Tambon Administrative Organizations in Khok Charoen DistrictTable 6.39 shows that the Human Resources of five Tambon Administrative Organization.Tambon Yang Rak has the most members of Tambon Administrative Organization. Whereas,Tambon Wang Tong has the lewest human resources than other TAOs.Revenues and Expenditure of TAOHead of financial officers in TAOs said that the revenues or income of five localgovernments can classified into 3 categories: i. Taxes collected by local governments. Theses included two types consist of taxes and non-taxes collected by TAOs. For example, housing tax, land tax, signboard tax and slaughtering tax. Non –taxes compose of Fees, licenses, fines and Revenues from properties, public utilities and local government enterprises ii. Additions on central government taxes. By legislation local governments are entitled to collect an additional percentage on top of those tax categories collected by the central government. Two main categories of these taxes include: Value added tax (VAT), Specific business taxes, liquor tax, excise and gambling taxes. iii. Special Revenues consist of grants, loans and subsidies from the central government.Table 6.40: Income and Expenditure by Tambon in Khok Charoen District, 2007TAOs Income expenditure Khok Charoen 15,273,023 13,075,661Yang Rak N/A N/ANong Makha 7,693,120 8,945,545Wang Tong 10,248,348 9,177,662Khok Same San 14,812,005 7,033,691Source: TAO 2007 262
  • Table 6.41 : Local Revenues by Source of income in TAO, 2007 Khok Source of income Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Tong Khok Same San Charoen Taxes 9,451,405 N/A 120,648. 5,219,846 6,521,583 Fees,fines,and licenses 324,759 N/A 35,728. 5,516 196 permits Income from its own 119,518 N/A 71,410. 34,003 217,999 Properties Income from services and 0.00 N/A 0.00 0.00 0.00 facilities State support budget - General grants 5,348,521 4,051,235 3,437,115 3,799,768 N/A - Special grants 0.00 3,305,199 1,539,555 4,258,423 Other 28,820 N/A 108,900 12,312 14,035 Total15,273,023 7,693,120.00 10,248,347 14,812,004Source: TAO, 2007Table 6.42 : Expenditure of TAOExpenditure assignment Khok Yang Rak Nong Wang Tong Khok Same Charoen Makha SanRoutine expenditure 8,045,430 N/A 6,331,231 5,498,144 3,867,501Salary and wage 885,466 N/A 913,724 751,336 1,059,190Temporary wage 483,660 N/A 492,450 193,989 330,480cost of materials 5,801,290 N/A 4,047,529 3,940,088 1,872,209Infrastructure facilities 141,533 N/A 124,561 87,951 112,425.Support budget 257,900 N/A 452,766 423,594 182,500General expenditure 450,580. N/A 0.0 101,185 305,697Investment 5,030,231 N/A 2,614,314 3,679,518 3,166,189.Other 25,000 N/A 0.0 0.0 5,000Total 13,075,661 N/A 14,976,575 14,675,805 10,901,191Note: - Revenue collected by TAOs including the share taxes that collected by centralgovernment and Missing data from Tambon Yang RakFrom table 6.42, we can see that TAO of Nong Makha has more expenditure than Income.Although these TAO have high income but mostly from the Government subsidy. All TAOshave limited and unstable revenue due to the nature of taxes that they collected. For examplelack of investment from outsider investors, landless, community shops etc. 263
  • 6.4.3 Community Planning Process of TambonThe community planning of the five Tambon in Khok Charoen district had similar process,such as surveying and collecting the community information, analyzing and developing thecommunity plans for village and Tambon level planning, and organizing. There are somedifferences in the process of the selection of core-leader participants, community planning atthe community/village level, and data collection which have been done through meeting andbarnstorming. The community planning in the five Tambons associated with key factors suchas concept, skills, knowledge and understanding of process-based facilitator, the communityleaders, and the participants, the existing management. These key factors lead to developmentof the project for community in each aspect such as focused on infrastructure project.Development ProjectsTable 6.43: List of Development Projects in Khok Charoen District Development Projects Activity 1.Infrastructure The TAOs are responsible for this project in term of Transportation Projects construct road, repair road such as construct concrete roads and narrow gravel roads 2. Public Service Projects The activity for the TAOs members is to coordinate with the village head in each village in order to bring the better delivery service and the better satisfaction in Public Service for people. 3. Occupation Support The main duty under this project is to support the community Projects based group to achieve their activities of groups especially increases their income and standard of living. The TAO support and help the local group in term of the budget support, technical support and etc. For example, promoted the weaving groups and support rotation fund project for agricultural groups to investment and improve their income. 4. Education Development According to decentralization Act in Thailand led to transfer Projects the responsibilities in the basic education for TAO. The activities for this projects is to support book, material, uniform ,milk and scholarship for student 5. Traditional, Culture and The majority activity of five TAO under this project is Sport Activities Project promoting sport activities within Tambon and they have to procurement and maintenance of culture and traditional and promote sports, leisure and entertainment facilities 6. Quality of Life and Social For improvement the quality of life for their people the TAO development Project set out the role and budget to help the elderly people and people with disabilities in community such as support money. 7.Natural resources and The working of TAO in this project is to prevent the local Environmental Project natural resources and environment. And the TAO has to manage the public cleansing. 264
  • Figure 6.23 : Development Project of TAOs Development Project of TAO in 2007 D e ve l o p m e n t P ro je c t e c o n o m ic In fr a s t u rc t u re 3% 3% 22% e d uc a tion Nong Makha C u lt u r e / S p o rt 52% S o c ia d e ve lo p m e n t l / 14% p o lit ic a l 6% N a t u ra l a n d E n vir o n m e n t 3% 5% Khok Charoen 17% 48% 8% Wang Thong 19% Yang Rak 7% 5% 30% 51% 7% 0% Khok Same SanSource : Tambon Administrative OrganizationsBase on interviewed and secondary data shown the same TAO’s problem such as TAO haslimited revenue collected by themselves. And the most development project of TAOsemphasised on constructed infrastructures in the community. It can state that almost TAO inKhok Charoen District less focused on the social development and improve the quality of lifeof their local citizens. The empirical evident from Community Planning in some Tambonshown the gap of organizational capacity how to created the economic and social project tosolve the problems and needed of people. This is because most responsible TAO Member andOfficer do not have sufficient knowledge and information on how to design such projects. 265
  • 6.4.4 People ParticipationTable 6.44: Percentage of Local People’s Participation in Khok Charoen DistrictItems No.of HHs Participation in each Tambon (%) Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Tong Khok Same San Target( Achieve Result Achieve Result Achieve Result Achieve Result Achieve Result % ment (%) ment (%) ment (%) ment (%) ment (%)Household members participatein local groups/ institutions 95 96.3 Acheived 99.8 Acheived 69.8 Failed 100 Acheived 99.8 AcheivedHousehold members participatein term of share opinion 95 97.9 Acheived 100 Acheived 99.8 Acheived 100 Acheived 100 AcheivedHousehold members areparticipating in conservation 90 99.3 Acheived 100 Acheived 100 Acheived 100 Acheived 100 Acheivednature resources andenvironment of communityHousehold members participatein public activities 100 95.2 Acheived 95.3 Acheived 87.3 Acheived 94.1 Acheived 95.3 AcheivedSource Basic Minimum Needs 266
  • Figure 6.24: People’s Participation in Social Activities by Five Tambon N on g M a k ha 99 .8 1 00 10 0 1 00 95 95 90 8 7 .3 90 80 6 9.8 70 60 50 1 2 3 4 Wang T on g 100 100 100 100 100 95 95 K h o k C h a ro e n 94.1 90 99 .3 1 00 9 7 .9 90 10 0 9 6. 3 95 95 9 5.2 Yang Rak 90 99.8 100 100 100 80 90 100 95 95 95.3 70 90 80 90 60 70 50 80 1 2 3 4 Achivement 60 70 Target 50 1 2 3 4 60 Indicator 50 1 2 3 4 Khok Sam e San 9 9.8 10 0 10 0 1 00 9 8.6 100 95 95 90 90 80 70 60 50 1 2 3 4 Indicators of BMN No. § From this map show that all Tambon are able to pass the target of the indicator No.2 and 3 (household members involved thehousehold members are group 1 community participation and Householdmembers setting in the village members participate in community benefits)Tamboonhousehold members involved the 2 § For household members are groupcommunity particiaption members setting in the village Tambon, onlyHousehold members participate in 3 Nong Maka can not pass the target. It is far tocommunity benefits reach the target § It can state that all Tambon is not reachHousehold Members participate in 4 to Household Member participate in PublicPublic activities activities Source: Basic Minimum Needs, 2007 267
  • 6.4.5 Institutional support from line Ministry Table 6.45: Institutional support from Line Ministries in Khok Charoen DistrictInstitution Institutional support from Line Ministriy Objective and strategies Activity Budgeting AchievementsCommunity - to gain effective results from project - To lead the community to the Central - the community base group haveDevelopment implementations, benefit target groups and management system of IT system government been training, knowledge andDepartment ensure that target group is satisfied with the - To lead villagers in the community to - provincial technical support(CDD) work of the CDD. better quality of life and happiness levels - Development in term of - To lead the community to maintain its - district information systems for improved economic stability and levels planning and management to the - To lead the community to risk management area and community in particular community base groupSocial - Enhancing the efficiency of social promote social development and create CentralDevelopment development - process Developing security public equity and social justice. Its governmentand Human in life operation aim to encourage andSecurity - Promoting the development of social capital develop quality of life, social security,Department family and communication institutes as well as other concerned functions as prescribed by the laws to be the duties and authority of MSDHS or agencies under the MinistryProvincial • Promote and expand greater employment Focus on labour protection, occupational Central Provide skill trainings that areOffice of opportunities health and safety and working government relevant to labour market needs,Labour • Coordinate and promote capacity building environment, labour relations, state and develop skilled labour.Protection and and potentials development for labour with enterprise labour relations, and labourwelfare of an aim to increase efficiency and productivity welfare through the development of in preparation for free competition in the effective operation systems andLopburi world at large. procedures so as to expand greater • Enhance the quality of life and social opportunities for trade and business security for labour. competition, and a better quality of life for • Develop labour management capability. workers. 268
  • 6.4.6 The Community Development Department (CDD) The CDD organization is very important institutional support for community-base group’sactivities in this area. The whole process that they try to do it can seen in the figure 6.25 Figure 6.25: Community Development Department working Team of development workers in Tambon level Development workers Goals Project /activities Projects/ community development activities 1.Saving for productions 2.Increases of the poverty problems solving project 3.Community economic development group 4.OTOPSource: Community Development Department and Interviewed from the CD workersFigure 6.26: Number of villages becoming sufficiency economy village suffeciency economy village implementation 7 7 6 6 6 5 4 4 4 3 No.of Village 2 1 0 Khok Yang Rak Nong Wang Khok Charoen Makha Thong Same SanFigure 6.27: Number of villages having Public Information Centre in Khok CharoenDistrict 8 8 7 7 7 6 5 5 5 4 No.o f village 3Community Development Department (CDD) has established the Public Information Centre 2and the sufficiency economy village project in the village in each Tabmon. From the figure 1 0 Khok Ya ng Rak Non g Wan g Kho k Sa me Cha roen Makh a T h ong San 269
  • 6.27 depicts that Wang Thong and Khok Samae San receive the less number of sufficiency economy project and Public information Centre as compare to other tambons.. 6.4.7 Community-base Groups We classified into eight groups and exhibited in table 6.46 Table 6.46: List of Community Groups in Khok Charoen District by Tambon Tambom Groups Khok Nong Khok Same Total Yang Rak Wang Tong Charoen Makha San 1.Agricultural groups 4 4 5 3 3 19 2.Housewife agricultural 11 11 12 8 8 50 groups 3.Occupation groups 9 5 6 2 4 264.Village Development Fund 12 12 12 9 8 53 (VDF) 5.Funeral group 12 11 12 9 8 52 6.Youth groups 3 8 2 1 1 15 7.Saving Groups 12 12 12 9 8 538.Others(Community Shops) - - - - 1 1 Total 63 63 61 41 41 269 Source: Community Development Department, Agricultural office at Khok Charoen district and field survey Distribution of Type of Group • Agricultural groups are concluded: Fertilizer Composing groups, Cattle groups, Farmer groups, Organic rice groups, Vegetable Organic groups • Housewife agricultural groups Occupation group such as handicraft Groups, Weaving groups, Thong Munan group • Village Development Fund (VDF) • Youth group – such as Youth agricultural groups • Saving Group- saving group for production • Other social groups consist of funeral group, elderly groups, Table 6.47: Finance group and the budget in five Tampons, 2007 270
  • Total Finance group / Budget (Baht) Total Tambon no. of Saving The Poverty VDF (Baht) village group Solution Project 1.Khok 12 21,695,000 1,765,450 2,800,000 26,260,450 Charoen 2.Yang Rak 12 22,400,000 1,369,170 2,520,000 26,289,170 3.Nong Makha 12 19,600,000 897,450 2,240,000 22,737,450 4.Wang Tong 9 16,598,000 890,106 1,960,000 19,448,106 5.Khok Same 8 14,574,000 1,054,055 2,240,000 17,868,055 San Total 53 94,867,000 5,976,231 11,760,000 112,603,231 Source: Community Development Department at Khok Charoen District From this table show that the total budget in all Finace group is Tambon Khok Charoen and follow by Yang Rak, Nong Makha, Wang Tong and Khok Same San…Base on interview from some villagers and the key informants such as the village headman, the president of the Finance group; we found that the villagers in particular poor households less access to finance. At household level, microfinance already plays an important role in enabling villagers to invest in productive activity. The poor people find it particularly difficult to access such finance and loan from various resources. It can say that a number of innovative financial mechanisms that not only provide capital funds for medium and long-term development investment such as establishment strong community-base group. 6.4.8 Case studies A Case study on Weaving Group Weaving Group DescriptionObjective 1. To increase supplement income for the local people.Location/address This group located in village no. 5 Tambon Khok Same San, Khok Charoen DistrictYear of In 1994 set up group. The group was established because people can hardly makeestablishment/ their ends meet. Therefore, they need another vocation to increase their supplementBackground income. The first person started this idea is Ms. Saithong Klunchoy. During the pioneer period of time, there were only 10 members and this chairperson realized that local women have indigenous knowledge on how to weave that carried on from the migrants who migrated form the northeastern part of the country. After Ms. Saithong abandoned the responsibility, Kamnun Somsin came into active actions. She tried eagerly to promote the weaving products to the outside markets. Wherever she travels for seminars or official trips, she carried the products with her for promotion. Not only in the tambon Khok Same San. that Ms. Somsin plays an active role, but also she supports other weaving groups in terms of creations of new patterns as well as purchasing these products from the locals. During Ms. Somsin time, there are 30 members in the Khok Same San.Number of members There are 10 members. After Ms. Somsin passed away, it is likely that the number of members will be decreased. 271
  • Budget and Technical Grants are supported by TAO. Six weaving equipments are supported by House ofsupport representative member Chaowat Sudlapa. The CDD supported the training, new patterns and colors, and group management.Group Activity There are meeting group one time per month and in the past they have saving activity in their group. Now, they are drop out because they said that it lack of leader who is stimulate the members to do this activityShare and loan Incomes are shared within the group members. Before Ms. Somsin passed away,granted each member receives 4000 – 4500 baht per month, but after that the amount was decreased to approximately 2000 baht.Problems The major problems are lack of markets and middlemen. Middlemen purchased the products and sometimes brought the raw materials for them to produce. These members turned to be labors rather than entrepreneur as before.Needs Markets are the most significant needs and also to guarantee minimum price for 400 baht per piece. They also need to participate in more trainings and study trips. Saving group case study in Tambon Khok Charoen Saving Group DescriptionObjective - To enhance the saving capacity of the villagers. - To enhance the willingness to help one another among the villagers.Location/ area It located in village no 4 inTambon Khok Charoen, district, Lop buri provinceYear of establishment The group was established in 2001.Number of members There are 64 members in the group.Financial status There are 352,600 baht in the savings account.Group Activity - To receive the savings money from the members 20 baht per month. The money will be collected during the first to the third day of the month. - To lend the members money for vocational purposes. - To invest the money in various group activities regarding the market demonstration center and the community gasoline station. - To organize a meeting to monitor the work processes each month. - To collect the shares from interested members, 50 baht per share.Networking - To connect the networks in the areas of investments within the community such as weaving group, mushrooms culture group or blankets sewing group. - Committee members will be trained in the Province and District which is supported by development workers in the community.Shares and loans Every January, shares will be split among group members. The amount of shares depends on the amount of money members invested. However, the groups have already set up agreements on how to divide the shares. Twenty percent is divided to the committee members. Twenty percent is presented to those who invested more. Another twenty percent is shared to the group members. Ten percent is given to the group activities. Ten is provided for marginalized groups namely elders, AIDS infected patients and disabled people. Another ten percent is offered for scholarships. The rest goes to the groups savings.Problems - The committee members of VDF and saving group are the same persons. The workload is too burdensome for them. 272
  • - There are no banks in Khok Charoen District. The representatives have to travel to Muang Sri District to save the money in the Government Savings Bank.Future Plan - To establish the community bank. - To invest the money in other groups in the community such as the occupational groups. Village Development Funds Case Study on Village Development Funds village no.of 8 Tambon Wang Tong Village Development Description Fund (VDF) Objective To help the members for capital investment and expand their business or occupation To serve as a rotation fund for the agricultural purposes. Year of establishment In 2001, meeting and set out group working Number of members 56 members Criteria Before the local people enroll to become a member of the VDF, they have to enroll to become a member of savings group first and have to pay for the 20 baht enter fee. They also have to support regular payment for the group every month. The members have to only reside in the village no less than 6 months. Only one member from one household can become a member. Structure of VDF Now, they have nine committee members and they are divided into chairperson, vice chairperson, secretary, treasurer and other committee members. These members are elected by the group members. At present, there are 56 members in the group. Process to get fund The first process is that the member has to fill out the VDF form and this form must contain clear objectives. Each member can borrow in the maximum rate of 20000 baht and have to pay interest 6% per year. They have to return their debt within November and can borrow again in November of next year. This is because the members can gain profits from the activities that they borrowed the money for agriculture. However, the result of borrow money It depends on the nine committee members to approve the loan after all members submitted the forms by considering from the members’ profiles such as returning debts on time and using the borrowed money in productive ways. Financial status The VDF of this village has money around 1,200,000 Problems The president of this group said that the main problem is when the members are borrow money is not enough In this part, we chose some community base groups as the case study to analyzed the main characteristics in group activities and operation of groups. The case study that we analyzed consists of Weaving Group (Tambon Khok Same San), Saving Group (Tabmbon Khok Charoen) and Village Development Fund (Tambon Wang Tong). 273
  • 6.4.9 Key analytical Issue (Case study on Weaving Group, Saving Group and Village Development Fund) Key Issue Weaving Group Saving Group Villge Development Fund Leadership The leader is one of the group members The Chairperson in this group is also a The leader is effective in his roles and who were selected by other members. leader in the village (village head) performance. Members The number of the members is like to The people who are member in this group There some member of household in decrease because they see the lower can be the member in the Village village did not register in this group. In benefits. Each household conduct the Development Fund. particular, the poor people in their weaving activity at their own house, so village. it is no longer a form of group. Participation . Meetings are not regularly held since All members have to participate in the The participation level is high in ideas Ms. Somsin has passed away. The meeting. The group members are not only sharing and actively involve in the participation and brain storming can involved in discussion but also help and activities. Number of members has been rarely be seen. participate in group activity increased. From the empirical data, it shows that in the monthly meeting, more than 80% of the members participate in the meeting Decisions The group member has shared the idea The members have decided and thinking The group’s decision making is done by making and decision making. But sometime is together. Moreover, the committee is democratic system, through voting. In depended on the Chairperson of group respecting their member when they give the some issues that the committee suggestion. members have to decide, they involve the group members’ decision.6.4.10 Key Analytical (Case study on Weaving Group, Saving Group and Village Development Fund) Key Issue Weaving Group Saving Group Village Development Fund Benefits Profits depend on the production volumes. The The amount of shares depends on the The profit is distributed among the sharing middlemen give 200 baht per piece. When Ms. amount of money members invested. members and some percentage goes to Somsin was there, they gained 400 baht per piece. The groups have already set up the group community as well. agreements on how to divide the shares. Networking The network connections died and debts are There are the networks in the areas of The group is well connected with the other. 274
  • increasing. investments within the community such Especially, Saving group in their as weaving group, or blankets sewing community. group.Weaknesses Since competitions are getting stronger, the patterns - The committee members of VDF and - The president of this group said that the and designs have to be more competitive. Local saving group are the same persons. The main problem is when the members are people still lack of training and creations to answer the workload is too burdensome for them. But borrow money is not enough to investment. market needs. is not the major problem. Incapable of leadership in this group. - Insufficient of knowledge and skill to - At present, the competitions are increasing. It is increase the profit and share the budget to more difficult for them to sell their products in the investment. market, so they have to depend on the middlemen. - The group committee members are the The group has not saved their own money in order to same support themselves.Strength - The existing local knowledge guides them to fast - Committee members have been trained - Monthly meetings are held. The roles and learning process and creates the clothes patterns to be in the Province and District which is functions are clearly defined. The unique. supported by development workers in the monitoring processes are set up and the - They integrated new knowledge and local community development department. committee members discuss on various knowledge to create new patterns and designs to serve - organizing in term of meeting and issues regularly. There are institutional the market demands and the group got five star from monitoring for the work processes in each supports from internal and external sides OTOP which is confirm that they product have a good month. - Sharing with all its members, everybody quality - the members high participate in the knows about the income, expenditure and - Supports from other organizations in their area, group activities benefit. Moreover, benefit of group budgeting, material supports from local organizations generates to social welfare activities in such as TAO, and technical supports from government - The leader has high experience to lunch their community. and CDD the group activities although he has - The group has strong leader and group - The national level established the policy related to several roles and activities but it is committees OTOP product linkage to organizing and it led to high experience to mange the groups. - Good networking with other community base group in their community 275
  • 6.4.12 Social Welfare and Issues Under the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security, Office WelfarePromotion. And subsistence allowance from TAO to help the disadvantaged people group incommunity. Theses office has its function relating to protecting rights and promotingpotential of various target groups. There are policy and strategy mechanism for developingsecurity and quality of life of the target groups as well as supporting coordinating amongProvincial government and local government.Table 6.48:detail of assitance provided to needy peopleTAOs Order Person Disabilities HIV patient No. Received No. Received No. ReceivedKhok Charoen 562 550 - 72 1 1Yang Rak 533 108 8 8 5 5Nong Makha - - - - - -Wang Tong 286 222 42 26 1 1Khok Same San 258 92 48 33 3 2Total 1,6391,639 972972 170170 139139 1010 999996.4.13 Key Problems in Local Institutions in Khok Charoen District• TAOs have limited revenue collected by themselves and most of them depend on grants and subsidies from the central government• Development project in TAOs have less emphasis on economic, social and environment projects• Insufficient support from the local government in term of training such as management skill, marketing skill, information skill and basic technical skill for the community base groups especially weaving groups• Ineffective and insufficient coordination network between weaving groups• Incapable leaders in particular occupation groups such as the leaders of weaving groups• The middle-mans have more role and main purchaser production from community base groups 276
  • 6.4.15 Summary of problems and potentials for the Social sectorProblems of the sectorHere are some of the problems identified after the analysis of data• Inadequacy of teaching staff especially English, Computer and Science teacher• 75% of schools quality is not attain at progressive level• Inadequacy of health staff especially a doctor• Residence are suffering from nuisance in the district• Digestive diseases are major disease in the district• Limited revenue collection from taxes by TAO• Lack of proper market channels for OTOP groups• Lack of managerial and marketing skills• low income generation by OTOP weaving group• Incapable leadership in particular occupational groups like weaving• Limited subsistence allowance for elderly, disabled and disadvantaged groups• Shortage of health staff especially a doctor• Unequal distribution of population leads to imbalance of general development within the district.PotentialsSome of the potential areas are hereby mentioned• Women actively participate in vocational training project• Farmers interest in media program and information communication technology (ICT) for learning• Labor force office at provincial level provide adequate budget and facilities in vocational training• High proportion of population at working group age• Average income of household members is not less than 20,000 Bath/person/year.• There is a good gender balance in the district.• There are good supporting policies not only national programs but also district programs on poverty alleviation.• District is drug free and had few HIV cases• Population enjoy healthy life and life expectancy is 68 years• Good health infrastructure available• Free health for all 277
  • CHAPTER VII PROJECT PROPOSALSProject proposal 1 Title: Awareness Raising Project on Natural Resources and Environmental Problems1.1. Objectives:• To increase awareness on natural resources and environmental problems among local people• To educate local people regarding precaution measures to address natural resources and environmental problems1.2. JustificationKhok Charoen district have limited availability of natural resources ranging from less fertileland, inadequate water for agriculture, and limited availability and variety of mines andmineral. The only abundant resource is the forest which is also degraded to highest degree.The situation is further worsened by the unsustainable interaction of people with theseresources. Main reason for this unsustainable interaction is the lack of awareness among localpeople on environmental problems. It leads to many problems, the most important among allis the air pollution due to sugarcane burning which is planted on 18.54% of the totalagricultural area of the district. Major impacts from sugarcane burning practice are airpollution, skin allergies (15.2% of the total visits in hospitals in the district are due to skinallergies), respiratory problems (26.5% of the total visits in hospitals in the district are due torespiratory diseases), irritation, drinking water contamination by fly ash, disturbance ofdomestic and business operations and often leads conflicts among the villagers. In similarmanner, the lack of awareness on soil conservation measures is causing soil erosion (19 outof 53 villages and their vicinities areas have soil erosion problem) and loss of topsoil whichfurthers the problem of poor soil quality. The poor soil quality is forcing farmers to rely onthe extensive use of chemical fertilizer which causes environmental degradation.Given the above situation, an Awareness Raising Project on Natural Resources andEnvironmental Problems is proposed. The project will attempt to address the above problemsthrough its various interventions; like public awareness campaigns through promotionalmaterials distribution, mass gatherings in all villages and near by school areas, awarenessmessages on local radios, street dramas. The awareness campaigns will focus on replacementtechniques of sugarcane burning, impacts of sugarcane burning, and prevention measures.Similarly, soil problem will also be addressed for creating awareness among the local peopleand enhancing their capacity through various trainings to cope with this problem. In this way,the project activities, on one hand will create awareness among them which will sensitizethem about the problems associated with natural resources and environment and on otherhand will provide them the knowledge to deal with these problems and issues.1.3 Target Groups and AreaThe lack of awareness on environmental problems is the major problem of the district so allfive TAOs and 53 village councils will be covered by the project. But in order to emphasizethe project activities on problematic areas and among the severely affected groups, the majortargets group of the project will be 5189 agricultural households in the district. The tambonwise breakup is given in table 1.In order to ensure the sustainability of the project, the projectwill develop ownership among the local people on the project so the project will mobilize 57farmer groups with 2673 members for the implementation of the project. Similarly, all the 278
  • secondary level schools in the project area will also be the target for project intervention forenvironmental awareness. The students of the scholls will be sensitized about environmentproblems in their fast learning capacity which will have positive implications in long-term.Table 1.1: Tambon wise distribution of agricultural households Tambon Number of Agricultural HouseholdsKhok Charoen 1,394Yang Rak 1,634Nong Makha 925Khok Samae San 649Wang Tong 578Total 5189Source: Agriculture Land District Office, 2007The soil conservation awareness will be implemented in 4 tambons of the district exceptTambon Khok Charoen. In total there are 19 villages in the district which have soil erosionproblem. These village number which are in bold have relatively severe problem. Thesevillages are 1. Tambon Yang Rak 7 out of 12 villages (1,4,6,7,8,10,11) 2. Nong Makha 5 out of 12 villages (3,4,5,6,9) 3. Wang Thong 3 out of 9 villages (7,8,9) and 4. Khok Samae San 4 out of 8 villages (1,5,7,8)The target groups for soil related interventions will be the agricultural households and farmergroups.1.4 Project Description/Formulation1.4.1 Activities a. Preparatory meetings with concerned organizations b. Farmers groups identification and consultations c. Promotional materials (like posters, pamphlets, leaflets) publications, reprinting and distribution d. Mass meetings in all villages e. Street Dramas in villages and schools1.4.2 Awareness Raising on Soil Awareness Raising a. Village gatherings especially in specific villages b. Promotional materials publications, reprinting and distribution c. Need assessment for trainings d. Trainings • Trainings on Vetiver grass plantation and maintenance • Training on terrace development e. Tree plantation on Kings and Queens birth day f. Exposure trips 279
  • g. Monitoring and EvaluationTable 1.2: Activities Implementation Schedule Year 1 Year 2Activities Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8Awareness Raising Activities on EnvironmentalProblems a. Preparatory meetings with concerned organizations b. Farmers groups identification and consultations c. Promotional materials publications, reprinting anddistribution e. Mass meetings in all villages f. Street Dramas a in villages and schoolsAwareness Raising on Soil Conservation Measures a. Village gatherings especially in specific villages b. Promotional materials publications, reprinting anddistribution c. Need assessment for trainings d. Trainings 1. Trainings on Vetiver grass plantation andmaintenance 2. Training on terrace development e. Tree plantation on Kings and Queens birth day f. Exposure tripsMonitoring and Evaluation 280
  • 1.5. Stakeholders1.5.1. Primary StakeholdersAll the local people from all five tambons and all five tambon Administrative organizationswill be the primary stakeholders since they will be directly involved in the implementation ofthe project. 1.5.2 Secondary Stakeholders 1. Provincial Natural Resources and Environment Office 2. Provincial Land Development Office 3. District Agricultural Office1.5.3 Project Duration:The project will be implemented over the period of 2 years starting from January 2009 andending in December 2010.1.5.4 Project ResponsibilitiesThe project will work through 57 farmers groups with 2673 members. The 5189 householdswill be the major targets. In case of soil conservation activities, soil doctors available in alltambons and all villages will be used to train the villagers. The TAO will be responsible formonitoring & evaluation of the project activities and impacts thereafter. The TAO will alsobe responsible for facilitation of project implementation while farmer groups members willbe responsible for actual implementation of the project. 1.5.5. Implementation Procedures • Preparatory meetings with concerned organizations • Group identification • Need assessment for trainings • Recruitment of trainers • Implementation of the activities • Monitoring and evaluation1.6. Expected BenefitsThe implementation of the project is going to deliver following benefits: 1. Increased environmental awareness among the local people 2. Increased awareness on soil conservation measures especially among the farmers engaged in agricultural farming 3. Attitudinal change among the local people with special focus on school children and local farmers1.7. Feasibility/Appraisal1.7.1. Social:The project is socially acceptable since the existing farmers groups will be mobilized for theimplementation of the project by this the project. It is assumed that these farmers will ownthe project because as per BMN 2007, significant sense of public participation exists in thecommunity in all Tambon and people have tendency to involve and strive for the sake ofmutual benefits so all attempts for collective benefits within the village are likely to get fullresponse from the community.1.7.2. Economical:Economically the project seems feasible. Since it is in line with the long-term strategies andobjectives of different provincial and local government authorities, it will be mostly using 281
  • resources available with these governmental organizations. Therefore, the project will notneed huge financial contribution for its implementation. In addition, major focus of theproject is to create awareness among the people it does not require huge fund for itsimplementation. Furthermore, in line with provincial level strategies, tambon level plans havealso adequately addressed the importance of natural resources and environmental awarenessprograms, so the project will complement governments programs.1.7.3. Environmental:The project is environmentally sound. It is going to contribute significantly in reducing theseverity of problems associated with natural resources and environment by increasedawareness raising among the local people. Therefore the project will not create anyenvironmental problems rather it will improve the environmental condition of the projectarea.1.8. Institutional MechanismsInstitutions existing at four tiers will be involved in the project implementation. TAO is theprimary stakeholder of the project and will be responsible for administration, arranging andproviding human resources and monitoring & evaluation of the project. Local people ingeneral and farmers groups in particular, with the help from TAO will be implementing theproject. At district, level District Agricultural Office will provide technical support needed inthe project. At the provincial level, two institutions namely; (i) Natural Resources andEnvironmental Office and (ii) Land Development Office will be providing financial andtechnical support for smooth implementation of the project.Table 3: Distribution of responsibilities among the stakeholders Institutions Responsibilities Provincial Level Natural Resources and Environment Office Financial and technical Land Development Office Financial, technical District Level District Agricultural Office Technical Tambon Level TAOs administrative, implementation, human resource and technical support Village Level Farmers Groups Implementation of the projectProject Proposal 22.1. Title: Promoting Community Forestry in Tambon Wangthong2.2. Objectives:• To plant trees as alternative sources of livelihoods for local communities in providing additional income and food.• To strengthen community participation and to create a sense ownership in managing and conserving forest resources2.3. JustificationAlmost all local communities in Tambon Wangthong were settled in Pawangploeng-Pamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved Forest. Currently the forest resources havebecome degraded due to extensive utilization by local communities mainly for settlementsand household construction purposes. Forest resources turn to be scarce while local demandis increasing. Also, limited diversifications of sources of income are also perceived. In 282
  • addition, environmental conditions in the communities somewhat vary due to lack of trees to keep balanced of temperature and humidity resulting in unlivable local rural communities. Community forestry in Tambon Yangrak has proved quite successful in terms of providing additional sources of food and livelihoods; it is therefore reasonable to extend to other Tambons in Khok Charoen District. In this regard, Tambon Wang Thong is fit for being the next community forestry site so that it could address threats on forest resources degradation. To revive tree cover in the communities, it is thus necessary to strengthen both forest management and reforestation activities. This is also coincided with national forest policy in expanding more community forestry both in public land and in communities’ nation-wide so that local people can have alternative sources of food and livelihoods. 2.4. Target Group/Area The project will be implemented in Pawangploeng-Pamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved Forest where Tambon Wangthong is situated. It covers 75.3 square Kilometers or 47,062 Rais consisting of 9 Villages with 862 households. 2.5. Project Description/Formulation The project involves planting trees in the communities. This is to be coordinated by either Kamnan or Chairman of Tambon Wangthong Tambon Administration Organization. A committee on community forestry will be set up employ existing mechanism of Tambon Council. The project is to be supported financial assistance by Office of Natural Resources and Environment, Lopburi Province. The project will cover key activities as follows: Step 1: Group formation There will be a forum to discuss on possible initiative in promoting community forestry in Tambon Wang Thong. The participants will be representatives of respective villages in Tambon Council. Step 2: Division of Responsibilities Selection of Chair of Tambon Wang Thong community forestry, committee members and secretary will be undertaken. Kamnan of Tambon Yangrak will be nominated ass adviser to Tambon Wangthong community forestry committee. Step 3: Conduct needs assessment on required necessary trainings to support the implementation of Tambon Wang Thong community forestry. There will a discussion forum among committee members and stakeholders in identifying the needs for necessary trainings in order to provide some useful knowledge on managing community forestry. Trainings will be arranged into 2 target groups. These are (1) for a committee of community forestry and (2) for general stakeholders/local villagers. The key training topics could be drawn as follows: 1) For a Committee of Community ForestryTopic of Training Place Duration Trainer1.Roles and advantages of Tambon Wang Thong 2 Hours A guest speaker fromcommunity forestry Administration Natural Resources and Oranization Office Environment Office, Lopburi Province2. Forest ecosystem and forest Tambon Wang Thong 2 Hours A guest speaker fromspecies management Administration Natural Resources and Organization Office Environment Office, Lopburi Province3.Public participation in Tambon Wang Thong 2 Hours A guest speaker fromcommunity forestry Administration Natural Resources andmanagement Organization Office Environment Office, Lopburi Province 283
  • 4.Monitoring and evaluation of Tambon Wang Thong 2 Hours A guest speaker fromcommunity forestry Administration Natural Resources and Organization Office Environment Office, Lopburi Province 2) For General Stakeholders/Local VillagersTopic of Training Place Duration Trainer1.Roles and advantages of Tambon Wang Thong 2 Hours A guest speaker fromcommunity forestry Administration Natural Resources Organization Office and Environment Office, Lopburi Province2. Forest ecosystem and forest Tambon Wang Thong 2 Hours A guest speaker fromspecies management Administration Natural Resources Organization Office and Environment Office, Lopburi Province3. Monitoring and evaluation Tambon Wang Thong 2 Hours A guest speaker fromof community forestry Administration Natural Resources Organization Office and Environment Office, Lopburi Province4. Mutual agreements, Tambon Wang Thong 2 Hours A guest speaker fromvoluntary rules and regulations Administration Natural Resourcesfor managing community Organization Office and Environmentforestry. Office, Lopburi Province Exposure trips will be arranged to both groups to visit best practices of Khao Rao Tien Thong Community Forestry in King Amphor Nengkham, Chainart Province and in Tambon Yangrak. Potential markets of community forestry products e.g. Eucalyptus, bamboo and other products will be explored. Step 4: Setting up of mutual agreements, voluntary rules and regulations for managing community forestry. This also includes timing for opening and closing of community forestry according to the ecological growth of bamboo, methods and instruments to harvest bamboo. Specific regulations on harvesting bamboo shoot, forest vegetables and spices will be agreed upon. Step 5: Implementation Schedule The project will last for 5 years. The implementation schedules are as follows:Activities Time frame 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 20131.Group formation July2.Division of Responsibilities3. Conduct needs assessment on Julyrequired necessary trainings to supportthe implementation of Tambon Wang AugustThong community forestry.4.Setting up of mutual agreements,voluntary rules and regulations formanaging community forestry 284
  • 5.Providing quality seedlings Februare.g. Eucalyptus and bamboo at certain yamount of seedlings per household.6. Planting trees • Plant Eucalyptus trees in the May- May- May- May- field. May- October October October October • Plant bamboo at every October household including promoting bamboo as cash crop. • Plant edible trees along canals May- May- May- May- and reservoirs and in degraded May- October October October October reserved forest. And plants trees October along road side. • Plant trees at schools, temples and government offices in order to increase greenery. • Jointly plant trees during special occasions of King and Queen’s Birthdays.7.Annually replant the dead trees during May- May- May- May- May-rainy season October October October October October8 Jointly create forest fire protection January- January- January- January- January-alignment April April April April April9. Harvesting of Eucalyptus The number of trees to be planted will be calculated based on quantity per square kilometer. The appropriate time for planting trees is early of May or beginning of rainy season as it will help sustain high survival rate of the trees. This can be done on a 5 years continuous basis so that the grown trees can be cut and sold. Then local villagers must return the cost of seedling at a set level to community forestry fund. Step 6: Monitoring and evaluation of community forestry This can be done on an annual basis in order to strengthen participatory community forestry management. This will also be a forum to get feed backs on community experiences on managing community forestry from local villagers. In addition, it can help to adjust some agreed measures to better improve community forestry management as well as providing statistics of yield harvested and economic benefits gained, if any. 2.6. Expected Results By implementing the project, it can bring about expected results as follows: • Local communities have access to bamboo and forest vegetable and other products for food. • Generate supplementary occupation by selling bamboo shoot and seedling. • Local communities have access to edible trees • Increase community income by selling Eucalyptus trees sellable every 5 year with productivity at 10 Ton/Rai (12,000 Baht/Ton) and contribute some income to Tambon Wangthong Community Forestry Fund. 285
  • • Increase forest area along roadside in the community and enhancing greater pleasant surroundings. • Being a living laboratory for primary and secondary educations in their own local communities.2.7. DurationThe project will be implemented for 6 years starting from 2008-2013. Upon completion, itwill be handed over to Tambon Wangthong Community, and funding source for planting treewill be getting from Tambon Wangthong Community Forestry Fund.2.8. Feasibility/AppraisalFeasibilities are viable in some aspects as follows: 2.8.1 Economic aspect. Seed fund for running the project could be secured from provincial level through Natural Resources and Environment Office. 2.8.2 Social aspect. Tambon Wang thong has strong social cohesion in order to support participatory community forestry management. 2.8.3 Environmental aspect. The project is environmentally friendly which all people in the communities wish to get benefits in terms of alternative source of food, clean air and pleasant environment. 2.8.4 Institutional aspect. Strong local network is existed which can help facilitate smooth implementation of the community forestry project in Tambon Wang Thong.2.9. Responsible Agencies/ Institutions at Various Levels • The executing agency is Tambon Wang Thong Administration Orgainzation. • Technical and financial assistance is to be requested from Department of Forestry through Natural Resources and Environment Office, Lopburi Province. • Facilitating assistance is to be requested from Chief of Khok Charoen DistrictProject Proposal 3Title: Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre Strengthening Project3.1 Background • Agriculture as a major occupation of majority households • Sugarcane, paddy, cassava and sunflower are the major agricultural crops • Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre is the one where farmers discuss their problems and solutions • District Agriculture Development Office operating at district level and it has its extension offices at Tambon level which is responsible to provide technical services to the farmers of the respective location • Inadequate number of technical staff causing inefficient service delivery at local level3.2 Objectives 286
  • The main objective is to increase income of the farmers by providing technical servicesthrough strengthening Agricultural Technology Transfer Centre3.3 Rationale/Justification • Ineffective service delivery (1 extension worker equally to 1334 farmers) but higher number of farmers involve in agriculture occupation • Only one place where farmers and extension workers meet each other, farmers can discuss on their problems and solution • Source of information (District Agriculture Development Office) • Strengthening this centre can assure effective delivery of technical services3.4 Target Groups/Beneficiary and CoveragePrimary target groups: Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre of 5 TambonsSecondary target groups: leader farmers and farmers of the respective Tambons3.5 Outputs3.5.1 Output-1: Agriculture and Livestock Community Technician developedActivities 1. Selection of leader farmers 2. Train to lead farmers on improved farming practices 3. Train to lead farmers on general livestock management and veterinary practices 4. Refresher training on agriculture farming and livestock3.5.2 Output-2: Management capacity of the centre strengthenedActivities 1. Organizational assessment 2. Prepare long term capacity building plan 3. Training on Leadership skills development3.6. Project management and implementation/ Responsible agencies/institutions atvarious levelsImplementing agency: District Agriculture Development OfficeCoordinating agencies:Village level: Farmers groups Village Development FundTambon level: Tambon Administrative OrganizationDistrict Level: District Administrative Organization Agriculture Cooperative BAAC Agriculture Research and Extension CentreNational level: Training Centers Research and Extension Institute 287
  • 3.7 Project duration: 1.5 YearProject Proposal 4Title: Enhancement of Area under Cassava Cultivation4.1 ObjectivesThe main objective is to increase the income level of farmers through promoting cassavacultivation. Specific objectives are: • To impart technical skills on managing proper crop rotation • To impart skills on improved cassava cultivation practices • To improve/maintain the soil fertility through proper crop rotation4.2 Justification 1. In district “Khok Charoen” the area under cassava cultivation was 27221 Rai as on 31st December 2007 and area under sugarcane cultivation was 57257 Rai as on 31st December 2007. There is a great difference between covered areas of both major crops. Both crops are upland crops and annual crops. More interestingly both crops are appropriate to be cultivated under same conditions (climate, soil structure etc). 2. Benefit-cost ratio of cassava (2.06) is higher than sugar cane (1.37). 3. Sugarcane is exhaustive crop but cassava is not exhaustive crop. Sugarcane utilizes more soil nutrients and water than cassava that is why it becomes necessary to cultivate any leguminous crop (peas, beans etc. for catalyzing nitrogen fixation) in place of sugarcane if sugarcane is being cultivated in the same field for consecutive two years. It shows that after two years, production of sugarcane comes down from the same field. Moreover fertilizer/manure requirement of sugarcane is more than cassava. As per analysis cost of fertilizer for sugarcane is 650 Baht/Rai but for cassava it is just 150 Baht. Similarly irrigation efficiency for sugarcane is from 12 to 14 through its life cycle but for cassava it is 8 to 10. 4. More labour is required for sugarcane cultivation and harvesting as compared to cassava. As per analysis labour cost of sugarcane is 1500 Baht/ Rai and for cassava labour cost is 245 Baht/ Rai. Timely availability of labour is also a problem for sugarcane. 5. Before harvesting sugarcane field is burnt which is adding pollution to the environment. More seriously human and animal health is being joggled by this burning practice. Burning process also demolishes the nitrogen fixing bacteria in the surface of soil. 6. A variety of products can be attained from cassava e.g. cassava power, animal feed, ethanol, bio-fuel etc. but from sugarcane sugar is the only major product. 7. Substitution of cassava with sugar cane would increase overall income of the farmers and it would lessen their risks and costs. 8. The soil fertility may be retained in a sustainable way if cassava replaces sugarcane otherwise cultivation of leguminous crops is inevitable. 4.3 Target Area and Target Group • All upland sugarcane growers (farmers) who have sufficient land holding and can exhibit trade-off between sugarcane and cassava on some of the feasible area. • All five tambons are target areas because all tambons are having majestic part of upland area so project can be practiced in all five tambons. 288
  • 4.4 Activities: 1. Selection of upland farmers who have sufficient land holding. 2. Formation of farmers’ groups if currently not existing 3. Training and guidance to the farmers regarding cropping pattern (especially crop rotation from sugarcane to cassava). 4. Refresher training for farmers regarding cultivation, field operations, harvesting, post- harvesting practices and marketing of cassava. 5. Technical backstopping from the agriculture technician4.5 Project management and implementation/ Responsible agencies/institutions atvarious levels 4.5.1 Implementing agency: District Agriculture Development Office 4.5.2Coordinating agencies: 1-Village level: • Farmers groups 2-Tambon level: • Tambon Administrative Organization 3-District Level: • Agriculture Cooperative • Agriculture Research and Extension CentreProject Coordination Committee will be formed at district level by involving concernedstakeholders.4.6 Project duration: 3 Year4.7 Expected Benefits from the Project 1. A significant increase in agriculture income of farmers 2. Sustainable soil fertility4.8 Monitoring and evaluationProject Coordination Committee will be responsible to monitor project activities.Project Proposal 5Title: Cooperative weaving centre5.1 Objective § To encourage weaving groups in Khok Chareon district to cooperate, share experience and facilitate each other in the production and marketing processes of local weaving products. § To promote and preserve the indigenous weaving skills in Khok Chareon district. § To encourage local community to effectively utilize weaving activities to increase their income, either as a primary or secondary form of employment. 289
  • § To provide framework for people participating in weaving activities to facilitate each other financially as well as forming a bloc for attracting funds from relevant local administration. § To provide a marketing channel for weaving and other OTOP products.5.2 JustificationBased on our analysis, the strength of Khok Chareon in the non-agricultural sector lies in itsweaving products, whether in terms of quality, the proportion of the population alreadyinvolved in this activity and the indigenous knowledge and skills that the people of KhokChareon possess in this area. However, due to a number of problems and constraints exist inthe area, this potential has not been most effectively utilized and consequently its benefitshave not been distributed among the local population. The aim of this proposal is to attemptto tackle these problems and provide the local people with incentive to continue this activityin order to raise their income as well as preserving the tradition and knowledge of weavingwithin the area.The first major problem in the area is that there is generally a lack of marketing channel forweaving products and well as other OTOPs and home-made products. In fact, there is lowrecognition of Khok Chareon brand of weaving products even though the products are of veryhigh quality. From the interviews of key informants, we have found that the majority ofweaving groups relies on middlemen purchasing their products (e.g. all villages in TambonWang Thong) and many of them are also dependant on the same middlemen providing themwith raw materials (e.g. village number 5 in Tambon Khok Samae San). In addition, there isa lack of collaboration among weaving groups, meaning that there is no learning process thatcan be pass on to different groups performing similar activities. Besides, the segregationbetween groups has meant that weaving products (which are produced in all Tambons)cannot achieve economy of scale and the lack of market power provides an obstacle for thegroups to reduce their operating cost through bulk buying of raw materials. Another majorproblem is that there is lack of capital for investment. This is due to the unavailability ofcollateral and that there is limited support from local administrations. In the case wherefinancial supports are provided, the local people also lack organization and managementskills of their financial resources. A cooperative weaving centre at district can provide aframework to tackle the various problems as mentioned.5.3 Target Group/AreaThis project is to be implemented at district level and it is open to all people Khok Chareondistrict interested in weaving activities. The rationale for this is that there are at least 400people in the whole of Khok Chareon district who are involved in weaving activity; thus theyshould all be given an opportunity to work together. However, the inclusion of variousweaving groups should be done in a number of phrases as it is clearly practical for all 400people to cooperate together in a mutual enterprise for the first time. To tackle this, thecooperative should begin in Tambon Khok Chareon where weaving activity is mostprominent and later include contribution from other groups.5.4 Project description/formulationA cooperative is a user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes benefits on the basisof use. This implies that members are to help finance the cooperative by providing at leastsome of the cooperative’s capital as this will create joint ownership of the organization. Themembers are also expected to run the business together; directly by voting on significant andlong-term business decisions and indirectly through their representatives on the board ofdirectors. Members should share the benefits, costs and risks of doing business in equal 290
  • proportion to their patronage. This provides a fair and transparent basis from an operationalstandpoint.Formally, weaving cooperative group should be set up in the form of ‘service cooperative’.Forming a service cooperative can be done by those undertaking the same occupation or bythose with the same needs such as provision of electricity and water supply. The roles of aservice cooperative are shown as follow: § Operating a business enterprise. § Supply of equipments and other necessities for providing such services § Provision of loan and saving accounts § Sale of various commodities to members § Assist members in legal procedures § Support in social welfare for members and their family § Cooperate with various administrative organizations for promotion of the cooperative.5.5 Procedures to forming a cooperative group § Coordination. A group interested in forming a cooperative needs to coordinate with an official from Provincial Cooperative Promotion Department (CPD), whereby a training on cooperative will be given for at least 6 hours. § Meeting among those interested in becoming members of the cooperative. This involves an election of representatives for forming the cooperative of at least 10 persons who will be responsible in registering the cooperative. It also includes nomination of at least 3 names to be given to the cooperative in order of preference. § Reserving name for the cooperative. The representatives need to reserve the name for their cooperative via the CPD website and wait for the name verification process. § Meeting among cooperative’s representatives. Here the representatives need to choose the type of the cooperative and identify the objectives in its establishment. They also need to formulate business and activity plan of the cooperative and create an annex of the people who are interested in becoming members. In addition, they need to formulate by-regulations for the cooperative. § Meeting among those who will become cooperative’s members. The members need to acknowledge and agree to the cooperative’s name and its objectives. The members will also have to assist in the modification of the business and activity plan as well as the by-regulation which were formulated by the group’s representatives. § Registration of the cooperative. This process involves submitting all the relating documents to the Provincial CPD who will then verify the documents and pass them on to the registrar.5.6 Specific activities § Training centre, members can use the cooperative as a centre for training and skill development so that the weaving products can be of the standard required by the market. It should be noted that training programs are already provided by the non- formal education office, it may be viable to channel these trainings into a more centralized manner at the cooperative centre. In addition, it may be necessary to provide training to promote a culture of entrepreneurship within the group. Practically, a first enterprise development may fail and so may a second, but a subsequent venture will have more chance to succeed if the entrepreneurial spirit endures. Thus, the belief behind this training manual is that good business people create good businesses. One advantage is that it is already a policy of the CPD to 291
  • provide such training and thus the cooperative’s representatives can applied for such activity on an annual basis. § Bulk purchasing of raw materials can be made by the cooperative as to be able to obtain the necessary input materials required in the weaving process at a minimum cost. The raw materials can then be sold to members at cost price in order to maximize their income. § Loan can be provided by the cooperative to the members at a low interest rate, solely for the purchase of raw materials and the necessary machines. Since the raw materials are to be purchased by the cooperative, the loaned capital would remain circulated within the group. § Marketing channel. In setting up a viable business for the cooperative, identification of markets is a necessary step. One possible solution is to convert existing weaving site such as that in village no. 4 of Tambon Khok Chareon into a demonstration centre where all the buying process of local weaving products will take place. This will reduce the role of middlemen who have previously approached various weaving groups directly. This demonstration centre is also a potential for cultural tourism as vocational trainings can be organized for interested tourists. In addition, it may be viable to approach a retailing house in Bangkok or other provinces by promoting the concept of ‘fair trade’ whereby the retail house would gain public image from the concept of ‘corporate social responsibility’. If successfully implemented, the retailing house can help the weavers from Khok Chareon directly by placing orders with them for their goods and also indirectly, by lending credibility to their work. The training should also be conducted with this goal in mind so that the orders placed by the retailing house to become a mainstay. § Family welfare. Apart from purely economic pre-occupation, the cooperative should at some stage provide health check-ups, eye care and such. It should also encourage its members to save some portion of their earnings.Fair trade is a market-based approach to alleviating poverty and promoting sustainability. Itadvocates the payment of a fair price as well as social and environmental standards in areasrelated to the production of a wide variety of goods. The concept of fair trade has originallybeen developed to challenge the trend of an international trading system. Its principles,however, can be applied in a more local context. This includes: paying fair wages in localcontext, ensuring environmental sustainability, supporting participatory work places,respecting cultural identity and building direct and long-term relationships between producersand retailers. To promote this, measures such as direct purchasing can be made to cut the rolesof middlemen; long term contracts can be made to ensure a continuation of demand forweaving products. By supporting ‘fair trade’ weaving products, the retailers may gain publicimage in the form of ‘corporate social responsibility’. In turns, consumers may be encouragedto buy weaving products of this particular brand as they know that producers are receivingequitable price for their products. In practice, there are also various organistions such Fair-trade Labeling Organizations who assist fair-trade products in terms of quality assurance,labeling. However, currently there is no extensive support for weaving products,5.7 Expected Benefits 5.7.1 Benefits to members § Ownership and Democratic Control. Cooperatives enable members to own and control, on a democratic basis, business enterprises for procuring their supplies and services (inputs), and marketing their products (outputs). They voluntarily organize 292
  • to help themselves rather than rely on the Government. They can determine objectives, financing, operating policies, and methods of sharing the benefits. § Increased income. The weaving cooperative can increase income to members in a number of ways. These include: (1) Raising the general price level for products marketed or lowering the level for supplies purchased; (2) reducing per-unit handling or processing costs by assembling large volumes, i.e., economies of size or scale; (3) developing new markets for products; and (4) encourage saving among members. By pooling supply purchases, sales, and handling and selling expenses, cooperatives can operate more efficiently-at lower costs per unit-than members/small groups can individually. Members usually judge the benefit of belonging to a cooperative by its net margins or savings-a tangible measure. More specifically, they look at the amount currently paid to them in cash. § Improved Service. A basic objective of cooperatives is to serve their members’ needs. They do this by providing services not available or by improving existing services. These services include provision of loans, trainings and some family welfare. § Quality of Supplies and Products. In marketing weaving products, cooperative’s pricing practices can be based on differentials for quality. The task of the cooperative is to provide information, train and advice on ways to produce quality products and to maintain that quality in the marketing process. Basically, cooperatives encourage production oriented to market requirements by developing producer payment plans based upon meeting grade, size, time, and other market specifications. § Assured Sources of Supplies. Cooperatives provide members with a dependable source of reasonably priced supplies. § Expanded Markets. Through pooling products of specified grade or quality, cooperative can meet the needs of larger-scale buyers better than can individual weaving groups. § Local leadership development. Successful and growing cooperative can develop leaders among those involved in the management. And members, by participating in business decisions on a democratic basis, become more self-reliant and informed citizens in their communities. The practical business experience acquired as directors or committee members can be supplemented by specialized trainings provided by CPD, CD office and non-formal education office. 5.7.2 Benefits to Rural Communities § Added Community Income. Most of the additional income members get through cooperative is likely to be spent within Khok Chareon for goods and services. This adds to the economic well-being of the community. § Stronger Rural Communities. If the cooperative is to be expanded to include weavers from all Tambons, it is likely that it will consist of several hundred members who use its services frequently. Participation in cooperatives often encourages participation in other community projects and in State and local government. As a result of working together in cooperatives, members better understand how to unite in solving community problems. And leaders developed in cooperatives also become leaders in other community organizations.5.8 Duration - This project proposal is to be considered on a long-term basis i.e. 5 years ormore.5.9 Feasibility 293
  • A cooperative is not formed spontaneously and is not a quick fix; it needs nurturing andmentoring, especially in the start up phase. They also need on-going leadership andmanagement skills and expertise. It may be possible that during the startup period, the groupwill struggle to bring down costs, raise weaving standards, and if a contract with a retailinghouse can be reached, it may fail to meet production deadlines. Weavers have to be school tounderstand the demand for new products and to accept the market requirements of qualityassurance, competitive prices and timely delivery. This may cause some weavers to drop outof the program because the whole concepts clash with the pace of rural life. Another possibleproblem is that some members may see the cooperative group as a factory owned by thepromoters thus it is important that at some stage the weavers have to be brought face-to-facewith their customers to realize their role in maintaining and running the cooperative.5.10 Responsible agencies Level Responsible agencies Tasks Provincial § Cooperative Promotion § Registration Department § Cooperative and entrepreneurship training District § District Administration § Public awareness campaign Office § Funding § Community § Promotion of Khok Development Office Chareon weaving products § Non-formal education § Training of weaving office activities § Bank of Agriculture § Loan for cooperative’s and Cooperative operation Sub- § Tambon Administrative § Public awareness campaign district Organisation § Funding § Coordination Village § Village Revolving § Loan to members to Fund purchase shares in the cooperative § Weaving groups § CooperationProject Proposal 6Title: Formation of Weaving Training and Demonstration Center as a CultureTourism6.1 Objectives • To develop cultural tourism through weaving training centre • To set up a demonstration centre • To enhance income for local people from training and demonstration centre • To pass the skill of weaving to young generation6.2 JustificationAccording to the observation and interview, there are no tourist attraction places andactivities in Khok Charoen district. However, based on potential, cultural tourism could bepromoted as one activity because there are 22 weaving groups in Tambon Khok Charoen and 294
  • these groups have indigenous knowledge in weaving and their weaving products have uniquedesign and pattern of fabric which awards 5 stars. This proposal is needed to promote andmaintain local cultural and tradition of doing weaving by training centre. This activity couldbe developed as one activity for cultural tourism in Khoh Charoen district so the local can getadditional income and the skills and culture could be passed to young generation.From problem matrix, the weaving groups in Khoh Charoen district have problem in limitedmarket channel and market opportunity for weaving products and limited collaborationamong various weaving groups. These problems are the major for weaving groups that theyhave faced. Therefore, this proposal could help to solve the identify problems that arementioned as above. It could help and make changes to weaving groups as they can havemore opportunity in networking by dealing with different institutions that will come to theirtraining centre and their products could be increased as they work cooperatively.6.3 ConsequencesThe expected benefit that Khok Charoen District will get from this proposal are that thecultural tourism in the district would be created as the first activity and this district canmaintain the culture of doing weaving. The indigenous knowledge and skill can be passed tolocal young generation and others who are willing to learn weaving. So, it is positive impactthat they will not lose their culture in doing weaving by having training centre.Moreover, Khok Charoen District has low number of local entrepreneurs so it is also a greatopportunity to create local entrepreneurs in this district because they can develop the productsof weaving after attending training and become entrepreneurs instead of labors. Then, notonly District and Tambon office but also local people could generate their income. The younggeneration does not want to learn weaving and instead of it, they prefer to work in Bangkok.So, there should be some motivation for them to start learning weaving in this centre andparticipate in this project. Through this project, they could be persuaded to learn this skill soindigenous knowledge could be passed to them and others.Besides, the quantity and varieties design of weaving products could be grown up anddeveloped as they work in groups. For the second step after training centre, the productscould be sold if demonstration centre is set up for tourists and there could be more chancesthat people will know their product brand.6.4 Target groups/AreaThe beneficiary group of this project will be weaving groups from Tambon Khok Charoenbecause there is the highest number of weaving groups in this area compared to otherTambons and mostly these weaving groups are on the villages that are on the main roadaccording to the map.6.5 Project Description/FormulationFirstly, there will be a meeting with different weaving groups and officers to discuss about setup the training center and explain the purposes and objectives. Then, there will be a one dayworkshop for them to educate them that culture is important to maintain and pass to younggeneration and the advantages of working in cooperative. These weaving groups could becooperated and promoted to work together and training centre will be set up and the mainactivity is to train people in weaving for both local and visitors who would like to learnweaving.Secondly, this training centre will try to connect and contact with institutions, universitiesand private companies where could use training centre as their study area. For example, someinstitutions like AIT provide the generation income activity training so they could come tothis training centre for their practical or excursion trip. Then, they also could visit to BanMi’s weaving group on the way to Khok Charoen district. Therefore, one guide could bechosen from weaving group to explain the whole process doing weaving and guide thevisitors and 3 trainers could be selected for training. For accommodation, if the candidates are 295
  • guests from other areas, they will stay with local and the food cost should be shared. Theguide will have to attend tour guide training that is provided by TAT (Thailand AuthorityTourist) firstly.The training fee will be collected for tour guide and trainer so the training centre do not needto depend on district office for funding and they could run sustainability after project year.However, the funding will be asked from district office for initial period to buy equipmentsand materials that are needed for the training. Furthermore, there will be assigned onecoordinator from district office to run the project and there will be chosen one representativeand one assistant from weaving group who have leadership skill and skills of working withteam. They will handle daily activities and cooperate with Tambon and District officers. Theywill have a chance to attend training and workshop related to leadership, management andconflict resolution.After setting up training centre, there will be a demonstration centre that tourists can comeand see the whole process of doing weaving. Therefore, their weaving products could be soldin this center. However, this plan will be run after the success of training centre. To attracttourists, historical tourist place in Sithep district can be linked after demonstration center. Forthis activity, the leader will provide information to tour agency and advertise by pamphlets,leaflets, magazines and internet. The tour agency can arrange for one day package tour thatincludes the trip to weaving group in Ban Mi, Khoh Charoen and historical place in Sithep.So, the target group who will visit this area will be the group who are interested in culture,tradition and history.The training centre will accept 20 candidates for one and two trainings will be conductedevery year once in March and once in September. It will last for a month. Training center anddemonstration centre will be located in Khok Charoen district office or in the campus. Theproject activities will be monitored and evaluated once a year and the training will beevaluated by TAO and District after conducting trainings. In training and demonstrationcentre, only 5 members from each group will present and work cooperatively because it willnot be enough space.6.6 DurationThe project will be implemented in March 2009 and it will be last for 2 years. After projectperiod, the group will run with their own fund from training and profit from weavingproducts for sustainability. Training centre could be run sustainability after the project periodwith the training fees.6.7 Main actorsThe main actors for managing and organizing the project would be District Officer, Tambonofficers and one representatives and one assistant from 22 weaving groups. After that, oneproject coordinator will be chosen from district office. This project will use existing weavinggroups in Tambon Khok Charoen to be the trainers and they will work together with districtand TAO officers for developing the project.6.7.1 Inputs • Human resource • Funding • Weaving equipments 296
  • Main Actors and their Responsibilities Main actors Responsibilities• One coordinator • Plan and manage the project • Monthly Report to district and tambon officers • Handle the problem, take role and responsibility for weaving groups • Coordinate with district officers, tambon officers and weaving groups• District officer • Give advice to the activity of the project activities• TAO officer • Implement and evaluate the activities• One representative from weaving • Coordinate among weaving groups groups • Handle with daily activity • Conduct monthly meeting• One assistant • Assist project coordinator and weaving group representative. 297
  • Aug Nov Apr Feb Jun Dec Jan Sep Oct rch Ma Ma Jul ust il y y e t Description Conduct meeting with 22 weaving groups, TAO and District Office Assigning staff Cooperate weaving groups and conduct one day workshop Buying machines and equipments for training centre Provide information about training centre to different institutions and tour agency about demonstration centre Start training Form and run demonstration center Implementation of the Project6.8 Expected Benefits • Institutions like universities, companies can use the training centre as a study area. • Tourists will be attracted to visit training and demonstration center of the weaving groups in the district. • Income generated for the weaving groups by selling their products to visitors. • Weaving knowledge and skill could be passed to local people and people from outside the district. • Weaving groups could maintain their culture and tradition of doing weaving. • 40 people will get the skill of weaving in a year as the training centre accepts 20 people per training and it will be conducted for twice in one year. After attending the training, trainees can use their weaving skills obtained for their future careers. • There will be regular salary for three trainers, one coordinator, one assistant and one representative.6.9 Feasibility/Appraisal Criteria/Aspect Description 298
  • Social • Benefit sharing: weaving groups could share the benefit from training and demonstration centre in terms of enhancing their weaving skills, team work, sharing knowledge and experiences. • Networking: weaving groups will get more networking with universities, companies and private sectors so it can extend their external network. Economic • Income generation: 22 weaving group members can generate their income through demonstration centre by selling their weaving products to the tourists and visitors. Administrative • Decision making: all of the decisions will be made from the weaving groups by discussing with TAO and DAO officers and it will be bottom-up approach. Technical • Training and Capacity building: this project could use the human resource from existing weaving groups to be trainer for weaving and a local guide.6.9 Constraints and Potentials Constraints Potentials — Lack of other tourist places and — Weaving training and demonstration activities in Khok Charoen district centre could be promoted as an activity and also neighboring areas, which for cultural tourism could be linked with the project. — Existing weaving groups with indigenous — Lack of awareness of the knowledge and skills in Tambon importance of the participation in the project — Various kinds of weaving products and design — Lack of budget and support from the concerned governmental — Opportunities to generate income for agencies and other stakeholders weaving groups — Lack of cooperative among weaving groups6.9.1 Risk of the project 299
  • • The distance from Bangkok to Khok Charoen District is 150 km and it takes 2 hours to get to project area from Bangkok. So, this is one risk that it takes time to get this area. • Only tourists who are interested in culture and history will visit the project. • The funding might be inadequate and unsupported by District Office. • Lack of regular enough number of trainees who are interested in learning weaving.6.10 Responsible Agencies/Institutions at Various LevelsResponsible Agencies Responsibilities• Provincial level: • Support the project by providing training (trainers)and Labor office technical support for weaving training• District Office • Providing funds, Facilitating and coordinating the weaving groups• TAO • Conduct monitoring and evaluationProject proposal 7Title: Provision of Community Shallow Tub-well7.1 Introduction:To feed the increasing population; agricultural development is very essential in response tofood supplies and the key role of irrigation can not be ignored. However, there is a primaryneed to increase agricultural products that aims to raise the income for a prosperous societyand enough water resources has its won contribution in this regards. Using new technologyand new irrigation schemes like tube-well and water reservoirs and canals. One particulardimension of agricultural development is to increase the irrigated land worldwide (byintroducing new irrigation schemes) which is directly proportional to increase productivity.Providing plenty of water and proper irrigation system can provide the opportunity for doublecropping and can decrease the uncertainty of farmers those who were previously dependingon rain water.Not all the irrigation systems in world have been successful; therefore all essentialassessment needs to be conducted before constructing this tube-well scheme. Environmentaldegradation, human health and biodiversity concerning issues have to be considered beforeintroducing the system.7.2 Project Objective:Enhancement of agriculture production by introducing improved technology (community tub-well) at communities doors step7.3 Development strategy: 1. A process and demand driven approach to respond the felt needs of communities identified by them 2. Community Tube-well Group (CTWG) comprising at least 10members having their agricultural land adjacently would be constituted 3. Beneficiaries participation in both implementation and subsequent operation and maintenance(O& M) of the sub project 300
  • 4. Under the community interaction strategy Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO) shall brief the community about the project details in a join meeting to be arranged in their village. 5. For each sub project (Tub-well) including necessary water course 90% of estimated cost would be financed by the government while 10% of the cost including labors would be contributed by the community.7.4 Target Group/Area: Small and medium farmers having no facility of irrigation in dry season would be the major beneficiaries. Plan area of district Khok Charoen is the target area of the project. Almost all villages face water scarcity during dry season. 7.5 Project Description/Formulation:Provincial Government, District Government or Local Government (TAO) will finance theproject. Project estimated cost would be breakdown in a way that 10% of the cost includinglabors would bear community and 90% of the cost will be funded by the government. TAOwould look after the implementation of the project. Farmers of the area would be directlybenefited and indirect several employment opportunities would also be generated.During the implementation, the following activities would be taken in two phasesPhase-I would cover;a. Survey: the baseline survey of the area that would be done by TAO/Department ofGroundwater Resources on following aspects: 1. Topography 2. Water table depth 3. Socio-economic situation of the areab. Community Development: TAO will form community tube-well groups (CTWG) of atleast 10farmers having their land adjacent at first. The TAO will brief the community onmodalities of the project. TAO also will arrange trainings on Operation and Maintenance(O&M) of the sub-projects.Phase-II will be consisted of:a. Feasibility/construction:-TAO will conduct feasibility study with the technical support ofDGR and designing of the community tube-well (CTW) according to the size of the land.Proper site selection to install CTW at upstream, construction of the CTW including watercourse if any would be a package of the project.b. Operational Methodology: - The piece of land involved in project would be provided freeof cost by the members and ownership of that land would be transferred in the name ofrespective CTWG. Agreed schedule for water turn would be made by the CTWG with theconsent of TAO. While, sponsoring CTWG would be responsible for operation andmaintenance cost. Normal maintenance would be done from the joint monthly savings of theCTWG. The exceeding amount would be equally contributed by beneficiaries if any.Phase III: would be the Monitoring and Evaluation of the project7.6 Project Duration/Area:The group involved in study has proposed first a Pilot project should be executed in TambonNong Makha. Upon satisfactory evaluation report, the project would be replicated in the restof Tambons in similar manner. Duration for the pilot project is give as under:For phase I: 6 monthsFor phase II: 18 months 301
  • For phase III: 10th month of phase II; because the sub-projects completed in early periodwould be ready to be evaluated.7.7 Responsible Agencies/Institutions at various levelsFunding : Provincial, district or local governmentSocial and technical feasibility : TAO and DGRImplementation : TAO, CTWG and DAOMonitoring and Evaluation : TAO and DAOOperation and Maintenance : CTWG and TAOProject Proposal 8Title: Skill improvement program for OTOP groups in Khok Charoen district8.1 ObjectivesPrimary objective:“To enhance the capacity of OTOP weaving groups in Khok Charoen district”Specific objective: • To enhance management /leadership skills for group members • To improve financial management skills for group members • To improve communication/networking skills for group members8.2 Justification:OTOP concept of “One Tambon One Product” has contributed a lot in poverty alleviationrural part of Thailand. The process of developing the products is the expected to build socialcapital as people work together to improve their economy ,well being to become self-reliant.Based on the problem analysis in primary data from case study of weaving groups indifference tambon, there have been identified specific problems related to the proposedproject such as • Lack of marketing skill, • Lack of market centers and demand, • Incapable leadership, • Weak linkages of another groups to support and help each others. • Insufficient support for development group from local government (TAO) The proposed project if carried out will enable the local groups to develop more strongly with adequate management capacity, sufficient skills of communication and fund raising and good leadership. These improvements will definitely contribute to the development of local economy as expected.8.3 Target group:Members of all the weaving groups within a district including Leaders and Members8.4 Project Duration:The project has initially been designed for one year and on the bases of its outcome it couldbe extended in future. 302
  • 8.5 Project Activities: Project will be more focused on training activities to the groups and following are the description of steps initiated after the approval of project. Type of training Participant Activities Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4Leadership training Committee • Facilitation skills Yes Yes members/local • Resource mobilization skills leaders • Management skills • Monitoring and evaluation skills • Workshops, visits, brain storming • Communication and presentation skill • Internet and emailManagement Skills Committee • Inventory management Yes Yes members/local • Record keeping leaders • File work – secretarial skill • Presentation skills • Internet and emailNetworking / Committee • Basic Computer skills Yescommunication skills members/local • Internet and email leaders • Presentation skills • Liaison with other groups in the districtFinancial Committee • Accounting knowledge Yes Yesmanagement skills members/local • Record keeping skills leaders • Budget reports and preparation • Cash handling *The participant will be selected and nominated by the groups based on their role and responsibilities in the group. 8.6 Expected benefits: Following are the expected benefits from the project • Trained leaders to run the groups effectively • Strengthen group sustainability • Increase level of skill for member in each group such as marketing skill, use of IT, financial management. • Expansion of business 8.7 Feasibility: • Strong support from government agencies especially Tambon Administrative Organization and Community Development Department • Existing traditional or local knowledge and skill to produce weaving product • Existing programs and policy by government organizations such as there are promoting OTOP product • Non- formal Education support vocational training to local people 303
  • 8.8 Input needed for the project implementation 8.8.1 Human resource: • Leaders, group members as trainees; • Trainers from Non- Formal Educational Department, CDD, IT officers and other resource persons. 8.8.2 Financial expenses • Training materials; • Stationeries; • Food and beverage during training for all trainees and trainers • Others 8.9 Responsibilities Agencies: Department Responsibilities Community Development Department Provision of Trainers/ instructors Tambon Administrative Organization Funds , project approval , monitoring , coordination Non-formal education Department Training material Kamnan Facilitate the training in Tanbon 304
  • CHAPTER VIII PROBLEMS, POTENTIALS, NEEDS AND ISSUESFollowing are the list of major problems and potentials identified after the primary andsecondary data analysis by all the sectors. Later on, needs and issues had also beenhighlighted that is bases for the formulation of project proposals.Problems 1. Lack of land ownership 2. Shortage of water for agriculture 3. Communication deficiency 4. Maintenance of water systems 5. High production cost 6. Low paddy production 7. Low upland crop productivity 8. Lack of market linkage for weaving products 9. Weaving entrepreneurs’ lack of capital to run the business 10. Lack of financial management skills to operative VDF 11. Lack of capital investment for tube well and pond construction 12. Water shortage for paddy farming 13. Low number of children who complete compulsory education and enroll into higher education 14. Less sports activities organized 15. Low participation in public activities 16. All people are not alcohol addiction free 17. Persistent of smoking habit among people 18. High production cost 19. Non-availability of capital in time 20. Unskilled Human resource not skilled 21. Lack of mechanizationPotentials 1. Sense of ownership 2. Enhance yield 3. Market awareness 4. Raise productivity/income 5. Better water conservation 6. Better participation in health activities 7. Improved education quality 8. Extension of paddy field area 9. Up-land crop diversification 10. Unique design and pattern of fabrics 11. VDF towards Village Bank 12. Good education status 13. Good health and nutrition status 305
  • 14. Exploration of local potentials and other varieties of plants 15. Enhance production/agriculture supplies 16. Timely production 17. Good finished products 18. Attractive marketable productsNeeds 1. Proper land for activities 2. Reservoirs and ponds 3. All means of communication 4. Contribution of government/community 5. Institutional support in water supply and pond construction 6. Diversification of agricultural products 7. Needs capital to expand and operate the business 8. Sustainable irrigation system 9. Agriculture extension services and irrigation 10. Community motivation 11. IFS awareness 12. Reinvestment of margins 13. Efficiency use of resources with time management 14. Training/Educated 15. Small machine/tools in processingIssues 1. Forest Department Reservations 2. Funding and political involvement 3. Project viability and accessibility 4. Funding and politics 5. Lack of interest (whose interest?) 6. Lack of land title 7. Lack of land title limiting access to SME bank 8. Lack of bank 9. Village Development Bank 10. Search of appropriate water supply schemes 11. High cost of fertilizers 12. High cost of tube well construction 13. holding participation in learning centre 14. holding IFS meeting 15. Supply of input on low prices 16. Finance/credit by Govt./organization 17. Extension work required 18. Introduction of mechanization by Govt. on participatory basis 306
  • Problem Matrix No Problems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 S R 1 Lack of Land ownership 1 1 2 Shortage of water for agriculture 2 3 Communication deficiency 3 4 Maintenance of water systems 4 5 High production cost 5 6 Low paddy production 6 4 2 7 Low upland crop productivity 7 8 Lack of market linkage for weaving products 8 9 Weaving entrepreneur’s lack of capital to run business 9 1 10 Lack of financial management skills to operate VDF 10 Lack of capital investment for the tube well and pond 11 construction 11 12 Water shortage for paddy farming 12 1 13 Low enrollment rate to higher educations 13 14 Less sports activities organizations 14 15 Low participation in public activity 15 16 Use of drugs and alcohol 16 17 Non- availability of capital on time 17 1 18 Unskilled human resource 18 19 Lack of mechanization 19 1 307
  • ReferencesAgriculture development office, Agriculture Report 2006-07Community development department, Khok Charoen district, BMN Report 2007Community development department, Khok Charoen district, NRD-2C Report 2007Department of Land development, Annual Report 2007Environment and Natural resources in Lopburi province 2006-07Khok Charoen district community development office (2008). District communitydevelopment report 2006-07.Khok Charoen district health office (2008). District health report 2007.Khok Charoen district non-formal education office (2008). District Education Plan2006-07Khok Charoen district Registry office. District Registry Report 2007Khok Charoen Tambon Administration Organization, Tambon Development Plan2006-08Khok Samsan Tambon Administration Organization, Tambon Development Plan2006-08Lobburi Educational service area office 1. Provincial Three Year Strategic Plan2006-08Lopburi provincial cultural office, Provincial Action Plan 2006Lobpuri provincial health office, 2008, provincial strategic plan 2006-08Lobpuri statistics office, Provincial Statistical Report 2006-07Nong Makha Tambon Administration Organization, Tambon Development Plan2006-08National Economic and Social Development BoardNational Rural Database – 2C, 2006-07Natural Resource Management Report 2006Provincial Statistical Office, Lopburi Statistical Report 2006-07Wang Thong Tambon Administration Organization, Tambon Development Plan2006-08Yang Rak Tambon Administration Organization, Tambon Development Plan 2006-08 308
  • Appendices 309
  • Annex 1: Relevant Tables Table 1: Area by Tambons No Tambon Area (rai) Percentage (%) 1 Khok Chaoren 45573.00 23.00% 2 Yang Rak 41,075.00 20.72% 3 Nang Ma Kha 69,268.00 34.94% Khok Samae 4 San 26,463.00 13.35% 5 Wang Thong 15,833.00 7.99% Total 198212.00 100.00% Source: TAO Offices Table 2: Monthly Rain (mm) 1997-2007 Jan Feb March April May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total Average1997 0 0 4.8 11.6 58.4 14.4 75.2 114.4 308.5 200.2 64 0 851.5 70.96numberof days 0 0 2 5 10 8 9 13 24 14 3 0 88 1761998 33.7 6.9 23.8 94.3 172.4 83.5 184.5 230.2 182.6 145 46.6 0 1203.8 100.32number of days 1 2 1 3 13 7 12 15 19 12 6 0 911999 27.3 4.1 16.7 230 288.1 45 107.5 161.6 240.2 168.2 28.8 0.1 1317.3 109.78number of days 2 2 2 18 18 8 17 16 15 17 5 1 1212000 3.3 4 27 136 90.5 88.2 128 236.4 130.3 144.8 4.3 0 992.3 82.69number of days 1 2 3 9 12 13 14 16 11 11 1 0 932001 25.1 0 111 50.6 193.5 99.3 47.1 44.2 118.6 170.1 16.6 0.5 877 73.08number of days 2 0 12 4 17 11 12 10 11 21 3 1 1042002 11.1 0 10.7 28.8 176.9 121.8 115.6 248.2 183.7 81.1 45.3 67.8 1091 90.92number of days 1 0 4 7 14 15 12 15 18 10 5 7 1082003 0 4.6 183 2.1 55.9 109.2 109.6 176.1 328.1 60.7 0 0 1029.6 85.8number of days 0 1 9 2 8 12 15 15 23 7 0 0 922004 37.2 39 12 57.9 69.7 129.6 173.8 133.3 276.4 42.3 0.4 0 971.2 80.93number of days 2 2 1 3 12 13 14 12 14 3 1 0 772005 0 0 20 185 143 135.6 93.5 36.6 327.4 74.2 168.8 7.3 1191.2 99.27number of days 0 0 4 7 11 13 15 9 13 9 6 1 882006 0 8.8 68.5 155 184.4 179.3 86.8 93.2 334.8 116.5 0 0 1226.9 102.4numberof days 0 5 2 7 9 14 15 14 18 12 0 0 962007 "T" 0 0.1 102 259.6 151.9 74.3 70.9 133 _ _ _ _ _numberof days 0 0 1 13 18 12 10 15 12 _ _ _ _ _ Source: Loburi Province Office 310
  • Table 3: Average maximum/minimum Temperature for the year 1996-2007 January February March April May June July August September October November Decemberyear Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min1996 33.4 21.1 33.6 22.0 36.6 24.9 35.8 25.8 34.7 25.4 34.4 25.3 33.4 24.9 33.4 25.2 32.5 24.8 33.0 24.8 32.3 23.7 31.2 20.31997 32.3 20.2 34.9 23.3 36.4 24.8 36.7 25.2 36.8 26.2 36.6 25.9 34.5 25.3 34.5 25.2 33.4 24.4 33.7 24.7 33.3 23.3 34.0 22.11998 34.7 22.4 36.2 24.3 37.9 25.2 37.5 26.1 36.9 26.3 35.3 25.7 34.2 25.1 33.8 25.1 32.9 24.8 33.3 24.4 32.3 22.7 31.7 21.71999 32.9 22.2 34.1 23.4 36.7 25.3 34.8 25.0 33.2 25.1 33.4 25.5 33.7 25.3 33.2 25.2 33.0 24.9 32.3 24.5 31.6 23.3 28.8 19.52000 33.0 22.2 33.8 22.1 35.6 24.7 34.6 25.6 34.2 25.4 33.5 25.0 33.3 24.5 33.2 24.9 32.6 24.1 32.7 24.4 32.0 21.4 33.1 22.72001 33.8 23.3 34.4 23.4 33.3 24.5 37.1 26.4 34.0 25.1 33.9 25.4 34.0 25.6 33.4 25.6 33.7 25.3 33.0 25.0 31.1 21.8 32.1 22.42002 32.8 21.6 34.9 24.4 35.5 25.4 37.0 26.1 34.4 25.1 34.0 25.5 33.9 25.6 32.9 25.0 32.4 24.9 32.8 24.5 32.7 23.9 32.7 23.22003 32.2 21.1 30.8 23.4 34.8 24.7 36.2 26.2 35.8 25.7 34.1 24.9 33.1 24.7 33.6 24.7 32.7 24.2 33.3 24.2 34.2 23.3 31.9 20.02004 33.1 21.1 33.2 21.6 35.9 24.5 37.2 25.9 34.7 25.5 33.8 24.8 33.9 24.7 33.7 24.9 32.4 24.4 33.1 24.5 32.6 23.0 32.3 18.92005 32.2 21.2 34.9 24.9 35.2 24.4 35.7 25.4 35.7 25.6 34.2 24.7 33.6 25.2 33.5 25.1 32.7 24.6 33.5 24.5 32.1 23.6 30.4 21.12006 33.0 20.7 34.6 23.8 35.5 24.5 35.2 24.5 34.2 24.4 34.1 23.9 33.4 23.5 33.1 24.7 32.8 24.4 33.1 24.3 34.0 23.2 32.3 21.82007 32.8 21.9 33.7 22.4 36.0 25.3 36.1 25.2 33.5 24.5 35.0 25.2 33.8 25.1 33.6 25.2 33.5 25.3 33.1 24.5 32.6 23.0 31.9 21.3 33.0 21.6 34.1 23.2 35.8 24.9 36.2 25.6 34.8 25.4 34.4 25.1 33.7 25.0 33.5 25.1 32.9 24.7 33.1 24.5 32.6 23.0 31.9 21.3 Source: Loburi Province Office 311
  • Table 4: Monthly Humidity 1997 to 2007 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total Average1997 61.18 60.1 54.52 62.74 67.3 65.12 71.08 73.96 80.46 78.73 69.82 65.27 810.28 67.521998 66.28 66.87 63.24 65.87 70.68 74.04 79.06 74.26 79.87 74.21 67.44 55.47 837.29 69.771999 55.28 56.18 60.86 74.86 78.88 76.89 77.65 77.35 79 79.48 70.52 53.68 840.63 70.052000 68.52 62.87 63.31 75.21 77.08 79.15 78.64 79.04 79.76 79.86 61.73 57.23 862.4 71.872001 66.52 63.38 74.06 70.13 78.85 75.02 74.42 74.91 78.16 80.08 62.92 59.35 857.8 71.482002 60.06 65.58 69.23 66.83 77.68 76.52 75.37 77.94 81.35 77.14 70.73 70.83 869.26 72.442003 59.06 66.12 71.62 71.13 70.65 76.08 79.47 77.98 82.04 72.27 63.3 52 841.72 70.142004 62.31 64.84 66.13 64.89 75.02 75.92 74.75 76.84 79.78 65.81 58.19 55.83 820.31 68.362005 64.91 71.37 65.61 71.74 73.78 77.31 76.5 76.67 81.79 73.35 74.27 62 869.3 72.442006 65 64.02 69.27 74.59 77.21 79.3 79.09 80.16 82.81 77.25 67.25 56.38 872.33 72.692007 57.02 69.38 71.8 72.46 80.2 77.21 76.54 77.52 80.06 - - - - -Source: Lopburi Province Office 312
  • Annex 2a: Coordination Schema: Natural Resources and Environment Management SectorMajor aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village)1.Topography & Climate 1.1Location Secondary Data -Province office Provincial, District and -Locations Coordinates -District Profile -District Office Tambon levels (longitude and latitude) -Topographical Map -Agriculture Department -Location Maps -TAO 1.2 Seasonal composition (electronic version) -Summer -Rainy Primary Data -Winter -Observation -Draught -Interview(flood, draught and storm) 1.3 Area - Total area (Km/Rai ) by Tambon - Distance from provincial centre and or Bangkok. - Boundary 1.4 Physical setting/Composition (mountain, Hilly, plain, upland) 1.5 Flood - Magnitude: low, medium, high - Frequency - Location - Impacts 1.6 Draught 313
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) - Magnitude: low, medium, high - Frequency - Location (Tambon wise) - Impacts 1.7 Storm - magnitude: low, medium, high - Frequency - Location - Impacts2. Temperature, rainfall 2.1 Temperature Secondary Data -District Office Provincial and District leveland humidity - Max/Min Temperature -Agriculture Department - Max/Min seasonal Temperature - Land Development - Trends in Temperature Department ( 11/decadal Years) 2.2 Humidity - Max/Min Humidity - Max/Min seasonal Temperature - Trends in Humidity ( 5 years Data) - Relative Humidity 314
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 2.3 Rainfall - Amount of rainfall (mm) - Average annual rainfall - Average Monthly/Seasonal rainfall - Trends in Rainfall (11 years data) 3.1 Types3. Water Resources Natural (rivers/streams, lakes, Secondary Data - Natural Resources Provincial, District and underground water, waterfall and and Environment Office Tambon levels hot springs) - NRD 2 C database - TAO - Number - Resource maps - District Office - Quality (suitability for drinking, - District Profile other domestic uses and agricultural use) Primary data - Observation 3.3 Problems and Potentials - Interview 3.4 Policies and Future Plans 3.5 Needs4. Soil - District Office Provincial, District and 4.1 Soil characteristics Secondary Data - Land Development Tambon levels - series & Name, type, pH, relief -Soil statistics Office(Provincial and slope and Drainage -Soil maps Level) - Department of 4.2 Soil Erosion Agriculture 315
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) - Severity (level of consequences) - TAO of Pollution Problem and impacts - Area prone to Soil erosion 4.3 Soil Suitability 4.4 Problems, Potentials 4.5 Needs5. Land 5.1 Total area of the district and Secondary Data - District Office Provincial, District, Tambon wise distribution (%) - Land use maps - Land development Tambon and village levels Office - Forest Office under 5.2 Land use pattern (2 out of 5 Natural Resource and Tambons) Primary Data Environmental Office - Interview - Land Development -Agriculture - Group Discussion Department -Forest Land (farmers) -Land/Human Settlement - TAO -Water Area/Water Bodies - Mix - Provincial Land Reform Office 5.3 Land Ownership - Type of certificate - per capita land availability - Land Title Processing (method) 5.5 Land Reform - Area under land reforms (by Tambon wise) 316
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) - Land reform process 5.6 Problems, Potentials - 5.7 Needs - 5.8 Policies and Future plans ,6. Forest 6.1 Types and area of forest Secondary Data - District Office Provincial, District and (Tambon wise) - Forest maps - TAO Tambon, - Documents/reports - Forest Office Community/household - case study - Community forestry - Natural Resource and levels Environment (Yang Rak) Primary Data Office 6.3 People’s Participation in the - Interview (villagers, - Local People forest management concerned forest officials) 6.4 Biodiversity ( number and - Observation variety of plant species and plants 6.5 Forest Encroachment - Existence and severity - Protection strategies and mechanisms (at local level) 6.6 Occurrence of forest Fire - Existence and reasons 317
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 6.7 Availability and Utilization of Forest Products ( timber and non- timber products) 6.8 Conservation (forest & Wild Life) activities 6.9 Reforestation (activities) 6.10 Deforestation (existence and severity) 6. 11 Problems and Potentials 6.12 Needs 6.13 Policies and Future Plans7. Mineral resources 7.1 Name and Types Secondary Data - NR and Environment Provincial, District and - District profile Office Tambon levels 7.2 Location and Coverage - Provincial Industry and Mine Office (at 7.3 Industrial Utilization provincial level) Primary (economic worth of the mineral resource) - Interview (district and Tambon level 7.4 Availability of Industries and officials) production sites 318
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 7.5 Potential and problems8. Environment 8. 1 Pollution Types and Impacts Secondary Data by - TAO Provincial, District, Tambon Literature review - District Public Health and village level - Air pollution (Sources, Situation Office and Impacts) - District Profile - Community/ village - Department level Organizations (if Reports any) - Case Study (Air pollution by open - Reports (if any) - Natural Resource Sugarcane burning and air pollution and Environment Office by sugarcane factory) Primary - Forest Office - Technical and - Local People - Noise and Odor Pollution empirical (Sources, Situation and impacts) observations - Interview - Solid Waste (Sources, situation (villagers, district, and impacts) Collection System , tambon and health disposal officers) - SWM practices (incineration, open dumping, RRR) 8.2 Policies and Future Plans 8.3 Problems and Potentials 8.4 Needs 319
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village)9.Peoples awareness 9.1 Environmental awareness Primary Data - Local villagers Tambon, Village andand perception on NR among the local people – Interview - TAO household levels 320
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village)and environmental - Observationissues 9.2 Perception of people on Environment and Natural Resource Issues 9.3 Activities undertaken in the area for the reduction of environmental and Natural Resource problems 9.4 Public Participation in Environmental and Natural Resource Management Campaigns 9.5 Problems and Potentials 9.6 Needs10. Vision, Mission, 10.1 Governmental Policies Secondary Data - Province Office Provincial, District andPolicies, Strategic and Natural Resources and - District Office Tambon levelsFuture plans (national, Environmental Sectoral - Policy documents - TAOprovince, district and Indicators - Internet surfingTambon level ) - Policies available at different levels (national, provincial, district Tambon) 321
  • Annex 2b: Coordination Schema: Agriculture SectorMajor aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village)1. Land for agriculture 1.1 Land types - Primary data - Land department - Province - Upland and lowlands - District - Secondary data - District - Sub-district - Size (differentiate lowland - District agricultural - Land development and upland) data base officer - Location (differentiate - Agriculture lowland and upland) development plan - Land title (differentiate lowland and upland) - Land use: - The policies for land use issue - Problems for land use policy - Land certificate policies - Problems in Implementing - land certificate - land certificate criteria - Problems for - implementing for land 322
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) reform - Future plan for land use policy - Land use problems 1.2 Land ownership - Secondary data - Land department - Province - Mapping - Agriculture - District - Land for agriculture - Agriculture officers - Sub-district - Average land holding per development plan - District - agriculture officer HH and land distribution - Landlessness - Heritage /transfer/ exchange/ government support et - Land Revenue / tax - Policy of land ownership 1.3 Agricultural land use (size, - Secondary data - Land department - District location and distribution) - Agriculture - Sub-district - Crop - Mapping officers - Villages - Horticulture - District - Agriculture - Orchard agriculture officer development plan - Pastureland - Land for aquaculture 323
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) - Barren land 1.4 Land development - Secondary data - Land department - District strategies - Agriculture - Sub-district - Mapping officers - Villages - Development strategies - District - Agriculture - Policies agriculture officer development - State or provision or Local level plan 1.5 Problems and constrains2. Soil for agriculture 2.1 Soil types and fertility - Secondary data - Land - Province - Structure /texture development - District - (Acidic, sand, clay, etc.) - Key informants district officer - Sub-district - Farmers - Villages - Fertility (PH, N, P, K) - Moisture - Salinity - Water logging - Water holding capacity 2.2 Soil suitability - Secondary data - Land - Provincial - Compare suitable cropping - Key informants development - District and present cropping - Agriculture officer - Sub-district development plan - Farmers - Village level 324
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 2.3 Soil erosion and - Secondary data - Agriculture Office - District conservation measurers - Land - Sub-districts - Area under soil erosion development - Causes for erosion office - Existing conservation practices 2.4 Problems and constraints and Potential3. Water resource 3.1 Source of water for - Secondary Data - Agriculture - Province agriculture - Key Informants Extension Officer - District - Irrigated or Rain fed Area - Irrigation - Sub district - Canal, Pond, Rain, Department - Village Turbine, Tube-well , Well - Farmers 3.2 Type of Irrigation - Secondary Data - Agriculture - Province - Flood Irrigation, sprinkler - Key Informants Extension Officer - District Irrigation, Furrow - Irrigation - Sub district Irrigation, Drip Irrigation Department - Village or Exudes etc. - Farmers 3.3 Area Under Irrigation - Secondary Data - Agriculture - Province - Irrigated Area - Key Informants Extension Officer - District - Rain fed area - Irrigation - Sub district Department - Village - Farmers 325
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 3.4 Water Distribution - Secondary - Agriculture - Province System Data Extension Officer - Down Stream - Key Informants - Irrigation - District - Upstream Department - Sub district - Time Division/ chart - Farmers - Village 3.5 Water Organizations / - Secondary Data - Agriculture - Province water users group and their Extension Officer - District role - Key Informants - Irrigation - Sub district Department - Village - Organizational structure/ - Farmers management - participation - Responsibilities 3.6 problems and constraints 4.1 Types of crops - Secondary data - TAO - District4. Crops Land suitability - Key informants - Agriculture - Sub-districts area under different crops officers - Villages - Farmers - Low land crops/ up land crops - Major crops and minor 326
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) crops (Paddy, cassava, mango, vegetables, flowers, beans etc.) (coverage area under each crops) 4.2 Cropping pattern - Secondary data - Agricultural - District - Seasonal crop calendar - Key informants officers - Sub-districts - cropping practices (mono - Case study of - TAO - Villages cropping, inter cropping, selected cropping - Farmers multi cropping) pattern - Crop rotation - Sowing methods (spread, rows, ridges etc) - Organic farming - Integrated farming - leguminous crops 4.3 Farm mechanization and - Secondary data - Agricultural - District agricultural inputs - Key informants extension officers - Sub-districts - Tractor, plough, cultivators, - Farmers - Villages threshers, harvesters, planking tools etc. - Mechanized agriculture area - Non-mechanized agriculture area - Scope / trend to commercialization - Agriculture inputs 327
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) - Seed, fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides, insecticides, manures, etcMajor aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 4.4 Input and output cost - Secondary data - TAO - District analysis - Key informants - Agricultural office - Sub-districts - Production cost officer - Villages - Input cost - farmers - Value of out - Gross income - Net profit - Input out put ratio 4.5 Diseases, pest and control - Secondary data - TAO - District measurers - Key informants - Agricultural office - Sub-districts - Major pests, smuts, weeds, - Case study on officer - Villages harmful insects selected crop - farmers - 2.Inorganic/ chemical - (Paddy) control - Biological control of pests and insects - Recommendations - Availability of pesticides - (biological - and chemical) 328
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 4.6 Post harvest technologies - Secondary data - TAO - District and processing (link between - Key informants - Agricultural office - Sub-districts post harvest and crop officer - Villages mechanization) - farmers - Harvesting (methods, technology) - Handling of commodities - storage - processing - Agro. Processing units - post harvest losses 4.7 Production and sale for - Secondary data - TAO - District each crop - Key informants - Agricultural office - Sub-districts officer - Villages - production cost of - farmers different crops - yield of crops - value of out put 329
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 4.8 Marketing - Secondary data - TAO - District - source market/ prices, - Key informants - Agricultural office - Sub-districts costs/input market officer - Villages channel - farmers - product market/market channel - pricing ( market prices, price floor, price ceiling) - Market access/ transportation, distance, conveyance losses from farm gate to market - impact of middle man 4.9 Problems and constraints5. Livestock 5.1 Type, size and location - Secondary data - TAO office - District - Cattle - Key informant - Livestock - Piggery department / - TAO - Chicken officer - Duck - Farmers - Others 5.2 Product and sale - Secondary data - Farmers District - Type of products - Key informant - TAO office TAO - Quantity of products - Livestock - Input cost department / - Output cost officer - Returns - Market 330
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 5.3 Animal health - Secondary data - TAO office District - (Line department service, - Key informant - Livestock TAO hospital. Dis, Dig, Lab,Dr. Pra, department / Vet, private Clinics) officer District - Major health - Provincial - Preventive measure - Treatment measure - Artificial insemination - Services from the line agencies 5.4 Contract farming - farmer - Farmers (TAO - TAO - Chicken contract farming office, Livestock - Village officer 5.5 Marketing - Secondary data - TAO office - District - Sources of information for - Key informant - Livestock inputs and outputs officer - TAO - Marketing channel / flow for - Farmers - Village inputs - Marketing channel / flow for products - Farm-gate markets / middlemen - Marketing facilities - Price variations 5.6 Problems , constraints and potentials 331
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village)6. Fishery 6.1 Type, size (quantity), and - Secondary data - Fishery - District location - Key informants department - TAO - Fish - TAO - Shrimp - Farmers - Others 6.2 Diseases - Secondary data - Fishery - District - Major diseases - Key informants department - TAO - Preventive measure - Case study on - TAO - Treatment measure during fishery raising - Farmers disease - Services from the line agencies 6.3 Product and sales - Secondary data - Fishery - District - Type of product - Key informants department - TAO - Input cost per month - TAO - Output cost per month - Farmers - Returns per month 332
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 6.4 Marketing - Secondary data - Fishery - District - Sources of information for - Key informants department - TAO inputs and outputs - TAO Marketing channel / flow - Farmers for inputs) - Marketing channel / flow for products - Farm-gate markets / middlemen - Marketing facilities - Price variations 6.5 Problems, constraints and potentials7. Integrated farming 7.1 Case study - Primary data - Farmers’ group - District - Project title - Interview - Extension - TAO - project period - Focus Group workers - Village - Areas’ size - Secondary data - Agriculture - Upland or lowland area Extension - Location Office - Target Area - Climate, topography - Soil condition - Water irrigation system - Number of farmers - Types of supported from extensions 333
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) - Types of crops and varieties - Types of crops - Types of breeds and aqua - Types of technology used - Cost of investment, - Number of beneficiaries - Outputs - Achievements - Problems and constraints8. Agricultural 8.1 Agricultural sector - Secondary data - TAO - Provinceemployment development - Key informants - Agriculture officer - District - Number of average labor - Labor officer - Village intake / hh for agriculture - Farmers ( household and hired labor) - - Total labor employed in agricultural sector. 8.2 Demand and source of - Secondary data - TAO - Province labor - Key informants - Agriculture officer - District - Migrant - Labor officer - Village - Season wise - Farmers - Place of migration (from) - 334
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 8.3 Wage per labour - Secondary data - TAO - Province - Key informants - Agriculture officer - District - Daily wage (baht) - Labor officer - Village - Farmers - 8.4 Problems, constraints and potentials9. Agricultural 9.1 Agriculture extension and - Primary data - Agriculture - Provinceextension and promotion - Interview Development - Districttechnology transfer - Organizational Chart - Secondary data Plan - Sub-district - Structure - District - Villages - Roles and Responsibilities Agriculture Officer - Number of extension - Extension officer / officers / workers workers - Coverage area - Members of the - Types of agriculture committee / promotion groups - Types of training and services provided - Frequency of training and services to farmers - Technology and knowledge adopted by farmers - Problems for adoption and adaptation - Budget and future plan 335
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) - Policies and strategies - Recommendations and suggestions from farmers 9.2 Tambon Agriculture - Primary data (key - District - District Technology Centre informant) Agriculture - Sub-district - Secondary data Extension Office - Villages - Organization Structure and - Case study - Rice Community established Promotion - Roles and functions of members extension workers - TAO - Local committees and their - Farmers effectiveness - Responsibilities and administration - Budget source - Coverage - Types of activities (training, visiting, demonstration site) provided - Technology and knowledge adopted by farmers - Support services and facilities from extension 336
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) - office - Outputs - Problems and for adoption - Potential to be adopted - Degree of farmers participation - Strategies and prospection 9.3 Community Rice - Primary data - District - District Promotion (key Agriculture - Sub-district informant) Extension - Villages - Organizational structure, - Secondary data Office Responsibilities - Case study - Rice - Coverage Community - Types of training and Promotion services provided members - Technology adopted by - TAO farmers, - Farmers - Problems for adoption, 337
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 9.4 Problems, constraints - Primary data (key - District - District & potentials informant) Agriculture - Sub-district - Secondary data Extension Office - Villages - Feedback from farmers to - Case study - Rice Community services, facilities and Promotion benefits members - Constraints of accessibility - TAO to extension, knowledge - Farmers and technology services - Difficulties to adopt, adapt and apply new technologies - Commends and Suggestions - Operational cost for/ each center - Future plan10. Agricultural credits 10.1 Types of formal credit - Secondary data - BAAC office - District institutions (BAAC) (brochures, - Farmers - Internal aspects of records, - (loan takers) organization reports) - Products and Services: - K2I (primary Types of products and data) services Rules and regulation Procedures and provisions 338
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) Loan - - - Number of beneficiaries - Number of beneficiaries/coverage - Major problems in terms of reaching to larger number of beneficiaries 10.2 Farmers saving groups - K2I (primary - Groups - District level data) with line - District - Village level - Internal aspects of organization agencies, other Agriculture Office supporting - Major activities agencies if any like for example - Savings mobilization: loan size, NGO interest and repayment rate, - Secondary loan demand source - Operation and management of Farmers’ Saving Groups - Detail information on Farmers Saving Groups - Major problems in mobilizing the savings and credits 339
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) 10.3 Other financial - K2I (primary - Commercial bank - District institutions (VDF, middle men data) with office and commercial banks) farmers/loan - Sub-district takers line - Village Headman - Village - available sources of credits agencies, - TAO concerned - services/products they are agency officers - Farmers providing - Secondary data - provisions for getting those services - Compare between and among service providers in terms of products and services, interest rates, number of beneficiaries etc - financing system exist - Major problems 10.4 Problems, constraints and potentials 340
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village)11. Farmers 11.1 Types of institutions and - K2I (Primary data) - District - Provinceinstitutions and groups groups - Secondary data Agriculture Office - District - Inventory of the farmers’ - Extension office - Sub-district institutions and groups - Farmers’ Group - Village (integrated farming, cow- raising, fish raising etc.) - Support from government and other line agencies - Details information about number of Farmers’ Saving Groups, total number of group members (name, objectives, activities)12. Agricultural policy 12.1 agricultural development - Secondary data - District - National programmes and policies - Agriculture Agriculture Office - Province - Land development Development - Extension - District Plan Department - Sub-district - Input policy - Livestock Department - Subsidy policy - Fishery - Credit policy Department - Irrigation - Marketing policies Department - BAAC - (floor price and ceiling price) - Cooperatives 341
  • Major aspects Key information needed Sources and Target Groups and Level of study ( Complex and simple variable) Methods Informants (province, district, sub- of data collection district and village) - Irrigation policy - Export policy - Capitalization policy for agriculture - Agricultural development policies for: Crop Livestock Fishery Integrated farming Organic farming Others 12.2 Problems, constraints and potentials Annex 2c: Coordination Schema: Non-Agriculture Sector Major Aspects Key Information Needed (Simple Variable) Source and Methods of Target Group(s) Level of Study Data Collection (Province, District, Sub-district and Villages1. Introduction 1.1 Overview – GDP (gross, per capita), Secondary data National & Provincial employment for non-agricultural sector at - National different levels, current status Statistics Office - Internet 1.2 General Information of Khok Chareon Primary data and District and sub- 342
  • Major Aspects Key Information Needed (Simple Variable) Source and Methods of Target Group(s) Level of Study Data Collection (Province, District, Sub-district and Villages District: structure, land use, income, secondary data district employment, occupation, working age group and educational level2. Industry Location (settlement, distance & zoning)2.1 Overview - Mapping Secondary data - Key informants Province, District, - OTOP group Tambon, and specific 2.2.1 Manufacturing, Agro-processing (Cassava, members, SMEs industry level2.2 Type of rice mill, sugarcane etc.) - Mapping (Industrial - Industry staffIndustry Zones) 2.2.2 Scale of production (large, medium, small) – based on SML industry criteria Primary data - Observation 2.2.3 Case Study (covering one industry from - Interview each type and scale) - Key informant - Sugar Industry interview - Cassava drying field -Rice mill Handicraft (Basketry) Weaving Industry Other OTOP products (Thongmuan, Klongkang production etc.) 2.2.4 Input Primary - Observation - Provincial Province, District, a. Capital - Key informant Industry Tambon & Village, - Financial capital (funding sources, loans etc.) interview Office and specific industry - Assets (land, buildings, equipment/machine, (employer & - Key level vehicle) employee) informants - Maintenance b. Raw Material Primary data - Provincial Industry Province, District & - Source of raw material (local / external) - Key informant Office Tambon, and specific 343
  • Major Aspects Key Information Needed (Simple Variable) Source and Methods of Target Group(s) Level of Study Data Collection (Province, District, Sub-district and Villages - Cost, quantity, quality interview (staff) - Private sectors industry level (industries) - OTOP centre and SMEs office c. Labour Secondary data - Provincial Industry Province, District & - Source of labour (local, immigrants) - Policy and recruitment Office Tambon, and specific - Type of labour (permanent, temporary) procedures and - Private sectors industry level - Number of employee requirements of industry (industries) - Wage / salary (daily, weekly and monthly) - OTOP centre and - Education of industrial labours (basic Primary data SMEs office education, informal education, special skills) - Key informant - Social security (welfare and insurance) interview (employer and employee) d. Infrastructure and facilities Secondary data - District reports and District & Tambon, - electricity, water supply, road network, NRD2C, Sub-district sub-district reports and specific industry telecommunication documents - Infrastructure group level Primary data - Industry office - Key informant -Key informants interview (staff) - Infrastructure group 2.2.5 Production Procedure Primary data - Provincial Industry Province, District & - Key informant Office Tambon, and specific Level of technology (traditional/modern) interview (employer and - Private sectors industry level Production line employee) (industries) Capacity of production - Observation - OTOP centre and SMEs office 2.2.6 Output Primary data - Provincial Industry District & Tambon, - Product (quality and quantity) - Key informant Office and specific industry - Packaging interview (employer and - Private sectors level 344
  • Major Aspects Key Information Needed (Simple Variable) Source and Methods of Target Group(s) Level of Study Data Collection (Province, District, Sub-district and Villages - Pricing employee) (industries) - Income - OTOP centre 2.2.7 Marketing channel of industrial products Primary data - Provincial Industry Province, District, a. Market location and linkage - Key informant Office Tambon & Village, b. Customers interview - Private sectors and specific industry (employer and (Industries) level employee) - OTOP center Mapping 2.2.8 Environmental Issues Secondary data - Provincial Province, District, a. Environmental Problems Industry Tambon & Village, - Noise pollution Primary data Office specific industry level - Air pollution - Observation - Private sector - Waste water and solid - Key informant (Industries) b. Waste Management and Control interview - Waste water treatment - Recycling of solid wastes - Solid waste disposal c. Pollution Control Measures - Air - Noise - Water 2.2.9 Promotion and Support Secondary data - Provincial National, Province, - Government Industry District, Tambon & Roles and incentives of institutional support official document Office village. - Board of Investment (BOI) Primary data - Private sector - TAO - Key Informant - Provincial - Community Development Department interview Administrative - Royal Project office 345
  • Major Aspects Key Information Needed (Simple Variable) Source and Methods of Target Group(s) Level of Study Data Collection (Province, District, Sub-district and Villages 2.2.10. Problems, Constraints, Prospects and Primary data - Provincial National, Province, Potentials - Key informant Industry District, Tambon & - Capital interview Office village, and specific - Infrastructure - Provincial industry level. - Raw material Administrative - Labor office - Production - Pollution - Marketing control - Quality of products Department - Pollution - Waste management - Logistics - Private sector - Policies - Institution 2.2.11. Policies, incentives, future plans and Secondary data - Provincial Province, District, recommendations - Government Industry Tambon and village official document Office National, provincial and district level - Private sector - Large and medium industries Primary data - Provincial - Small industries and OTOP - Key informant Administrative interview (private office sector, - Social welfare government department officers) - TAO - SWOT analysis Number of business (registered enterprises), Secondary Data:3. Trade and types of business - Tax and revenue - CD OfficerCommerce Products (sources, type of goods and services) office - District tax Taxation for each type of commerce - Directory and revenue 3.1 General Primary Data: office 346
  • Major Aspects Key Information Needed (Simple Variable) Source and Methods of Target Group(s) Level of Study Data Collection (Province, District, Sub-district and Villages information - Key informant interview - Private sector (individual businessman)3.2 Marketing (by Type and number of market (Mobile market, Secondary data: Interview key Provincial, district andeach product) weekly market and neighboring market) the report from district informant (officer), village level - Location authorities market vendors and - Distance buyers - Schedule Primary data: - Type of products observation District offices - Price trend of products (OTOP products interview (OTOPs, and clothes) grocery stores, different Market/shop - Marketing channel, Mapping, Market shops) sellers/community flow chart for each products (cloth, shops grocery, electricity ware, house ware) Marketing survey (where - Role of middlemen, cooperatives and they buy and sell each government (CD Office) product?)3.3Banking and Location Primary data: interview - Bank manager District level, Credit Distance Provincial level and Alternative financial service (BAAC, Nong - Customer Tambon Muang district) Saving groups - Tambon, saving • Share of loan for Non-Agriculture group • Loan monitoring committee • Interest rate and loan condition member. • Repayment rate Primary data: Interview - TAO officers 347
  • Major Aspects Key Information Needed (Simple Variable) Source and Methods of Target Group(s) Level of Study Data Collection (Province, District, Sub-district and Villages3.4 Supporting Number, types and roles of institutions for - Private sector Provincial, district,institutions on promoting trade and commerce, e.g. Secondary data: (businessmen) Tambon, village andtrade and TAO, District office, internet - Convenient householdcommerce VDF, and available documents. shop OTOP, - BAAC CD Offices, BAAC, Provincial Trade and Commerce Office3.5 Trade and Current policies for trade and commerce Primary: Interview National, Provincialcommerce policies - District and district level Secondary data: Officer District office, internet and available documents. - Provincial3.6 Potential and From the current practices of trade and Primary data: Key - Provincial Provincial, Districtproblems/ commerce informant interview, officers level and Tambonconstraints and group discussion and - District officerrecommendations observation - Traders - TAO3.7 Future plans Government policies on trade and commerce Primary data: Interview Provincial District Provincial and Districtand perspectives officer, trade and level commerce officer, group representative ( OTOP) Primary: Interview with Provincial officer Provincial and district4. Tourism key informant, Tourism level 348
  • Major Aspects Key Information Needed (Simple Variable) Source and Methods of Target Group(s) Level of Study Data Collection (Province, District, Sub-district and Villages 4.1 Overview of Provincial tourist statistics (Trend, number of officers. Tourism sector visitors etc.) in Khok Tourist sites Chareon District 4.2 Situational Current situation Primary: Interview with - Tourism officer National, Provincial, Analysis Existing tourist attractions (historical and natural key informant, Tourism at the district (if District, sub-district sites etc.) officers. not, provincial Types of tourism (Cultural tourism, eco-tourism) officer) Tourism of neighboring areas - Tourism Impacts of tourism on social, economic and services/products environment providers and tour operators - Community surrounding tourist sites 4.3 Problems and Based on the above information Secondary: from - Tourism officer District, sub-district Potentials website, provided at the district (if materials, Tourism not, provincial reports (if any) officer) Primary: Interview with - Community key informant, Tourism surrounding officers. tourist site4.4 Future Tourism policy/strategy/plan & promotion Primary: Interview with - Tourism officer Provincial, district,plan/prospective key informant - TAT officer sub-districtandrecommendation 349
  • 350
  • Annex 2d: Coordination Schema: Infrastructure Sector 351
  • Areas/components (complex /Simple Variable) Methods of Data Groups/ Informants (Province, District, Sub- (Parameter) Collection district and Village)Settlement 1 Demography and population - Secondary - TAO officials - Tambon distribution data/NRD2C - DAO officials - District( The DATAD for - Area (Sq.km.) - Use Mapsthis parameter is - Population Density (person /Sq.km.)supposed to be - Number and location, household densitycollected by social of all settlementsgroup) - Person average per household by settlement - Maps of population distribution 2 Connection network : Time distance - Secondary - TAO officer - Tambon and accessibility data/NRD2C - DAO officials - District - Connection to public services (school, - Use Maps health o station, market, local banks) - Connection to national road network - Connection to local office/community center 3.Development level analysis of - Secondary - TAO officials - Tambon/Villages settlements based data/NRD2C/ BMN - DAO officials - District on NRD-2C dataRoad Network 1.Type and density of road - Use Maps - TAO officer - Tambon - Community level (2 lanes) - Secondary data/ NRD - Rural highway - District o Density 2C office o Length o Quality of road and speed limit o Volume of transports 2. Distribution of public facilities and services - Use Maps - TAO officers - village - How many health centres, Education - Interviews - Provincial officials - Tambon facilities, Post office and TAO. - Province - Main problems 3. Durability and road types - Secondary data/NRD - TAO officer - Tambon - Maps 2C - District office - District - Asphalted road 352 - Province - Concrete road - Earth /gravel o Length
  • Major Detailed Aspects Indicators/ Techniques and Target Level of Study Areas/components (complex /Simple Variable) Methods of Data Groups/ Informants (Province, District, Sub- (Parameter) Collection district and Village)Water Supply 1.Existing water sources and Maps - Primary data - TAO officer - Tambon, District andSystem - No. of Deep and Shallow Wells - Secondary data - Villagers, WUG Province - Hand pumps - Use Maps - Regional Water Resource - Ponds - Irrigation - Reservoirs Provincial Office - Water supply systems - Streams - Others 2. Capacity or water sources - Primary data - TAO officer Tambon and District - Volume in cubic meter from the - Secondary data - Villagers, WUO existing sources - Interviews 353
  • 3. Water supply installation cost - Secondary data - TAO officer and Tambon and District - Installation charges - Interviews DAO - Deposit money - Villagers and - Others WUG4. Operation and Maintenance - Authority in charge of management and maintenance (community/ local leader involvement) - Water supply fee (Baht/cubic meter) - Private company/TAO/community 354
  • Water Supply 5. Village water supply system – 1 case - Primary data - TAO officer - VillagerSystem studies by villages - Secondary data and - Local committee - Tambon - Source of water supply system interview of water supply, - District - Capacity of water supply DAO - Networking of water supply system - Distribution of water supply household coverage - Checking water level (Automatic system) - Financial contribution, sources - Capacity of staff and technicians - Administrative organization - Local level committee for the management - Cost of Installation per household (Baht) - Role of local committee and people participation - Operation and Maintenance - Future plan for the water supply system 6. Irrigation system network – case study of 1 Tamboon - Primary data - TAO officer - Tambon - Source of irrigation water ( - Secondary data / - Department of - District reservoirs, weir, canals, pone, deep NRD-2C irrigation - Province well and shallow well) - Interview - Department of - Capacity Agricultural - Length and density of irrigation Extension system (Km.) - Mineral Resource - Area coverage Department - Investment cost of irrigation system Water & Natural - Operation and maintenance Resource Department Future plan 355
  • Annex 2e: Coordination Schema: Social Sector Major Areas/ Detailed Aspects and Techniques and Target Level of Study Components Indicators Methods of Data Groups/Informants/ (Province, District, Sub- (Parameters) Collection Organization district and Village)1. Population 1.1 Population structure Secondary Data District Registration District level (District Census) office 1.1.1 Population size Secondary Data District level 1.1.2 Population density Secondary Data District and tambon level 1.1.3 Population distribution Secondary Data District and tambon level - by area - by age - by gender (population pyramid) 1.1.4 Type of religion and ethnic Secondary Data District and tambon level groups 1.1.5 Household size Secondary data and District and tambon level interview 1.2 Population Projection District Registry Office District and tambon level 1.2.1 Population (5 or 10 years) Secondary Data District and tambon level 1.2.2 Birth rate/growth rate Secondary Data District and tambon level 1.2.3 Mortality rate Secondary Data District and tambon level 1.3 Migration (regarding seasonal migration) 1.3.1 In-migration, Out-migration: Secondary Data and Registration office at District and Tambon number, sex, age and reason interview for reason district, TAOs and local Level people 1.3.2 Impacts of out- Interview TAOs staff District and Tambon migration/in-migration (social and Level economic aspects) 1.3.3 Future plan regarding Secondary Data and District Level migration interview 356
  • Major Areas/ Detailed Aspects and Techniques and Target Level of StudyComponents Indicators Methods of Data Groups/Informants/ (Province, District, Sub-(Parameters) Collection Organization district and Village) 1.4 Employment 1.4.1 Type of occupation and Secondary Data District and Tambon distribution by area Level 1.4.2 Population structure by Secondary Data District office and TAO District and Tambon occupation Level 1.4.3 Number of unemployed Secondary Data TAOs Tambon level (approximate number) ` - By areas - By age - By gender - By education background 1.4.4 Policy regarding Secondary Data District office Provincial and district unemployment (trainings, labor, level market, etc) 1.5 Poverty Situation 1.5.1 Household incomes Secondary Data and District Office, TAOs District and Tambon interview (BMN) level 1.5.2 HHs under National Poverty Secondary Data District Office, TAOs District and Tambon line (BMN) level 1.5.3 Poor households by Secondary Data Registry Office, TAOs District and Tambon occupation level 1.5.4 Poverty alleviation programs Secondary Data; Provincial Community Provincial, district and Interview Development Tambon level Office(CDD), TAOS and relevant websites 1.6 Problem/constraint/potential Secondary Data Leaders village, TAO Provincial and district (BMN), Interview and level groups discussion 357
  • Major Areas/ Detailed Aspects and Techniques and Target Level of Study Components Indicators Methods of Data Groups/Informants/ (Province, District, Sub- (Parameters) Collection Organization district and Village)2. Public Health and 2.1 Health Organization Secondary Data Provincial/District Public Provincial, district andSanitation Structure Health Office Tambon levels - Health policy & future plan - Role and functions of Health Organizations at each level 2.2 Health Facilities 2.2.1 No. of public/private Secondary Data District Public Health District and Tambon hospitals/health Office levels centers/clinics/drug stores Interview 2.2.2 Capacity of health unit i.e. no. of beds 2.2.3 Case study of one hospital, Tambon health o Organizational structure o Working procedure o Problems/issues 2.2.4 Distance from the Secondary Data District office District and Tambon district/Tambon office levels 2.2.5 Location of Health units 2.3 Health Personnel set up at each level 2.3.1 Health personnel set up Secondary Data Provincial/District Public Provincial, District, (medical and paramedical, Health Office, PHSC Tambon levels administrative) (Public Health Station 2.3.2 No. of vacant post Center) 358
  • Major Areas/ Detailed Aspects and Techniques and Target Level of StudyComponents Indicators Methods of Data Groups/Informants/ (Province, District, Sub-(Parameters) Collection Organization district and Village) 2.3.3 No. of Secondary Data Provincial/District Public District level doctors/dentists/nurses/technicians Health Office / Pharmacists and ratio to population 2.3.4 Standard ratio as per rules 2.3.5 Number of Volunteers and Secondary Data District Public Health District level 2.3.6 Jobs they performed and the Interview Office difficulties they faced 2.3.7 (a case study of Volunteer Interview Volunteers worker) 2.3.8 Criteria of selection of Secondary Data & Public Health Officials, Tambon level volunteers (education, motivation, Interview Health Volunteers and others) 2.3.9 Training for volunteers Secondary Data & Public Health Officials, Tambon level Interview Health Volunteers 2.3.10 Roles and responsibility of Secondary Data & Health Volunteers Tambon level volunteers Interview 2.3.11 Incentives and benefit Secondary Data & Health Volunteers Tambon level Interview 2.3.12 Public Health Schemes like Interview District officers District level (HIV vaccination) 2.4 Health services 2.4.1 Types of treatment: General Secondary Data, Provincial/District Public District level treatment in Health units (out Interview Health Office patients) - Level of medical facilities in health units - Procedures of treatment 359
  • Major Areas/ Detailed Aspects and Techniques and Target Level of StudyComponents Indicators Methods of Data Groups/Informants/ (Province, District, Sub-(Parameters) Collection Organization district and Village) - Comparison between private and public health units 2.4.2 Diseases Secondary Data, District Public Health District level / Tambon - Major diseases Interview Office level - Causes and morbidity Health station (Yang - Prevention measures and Rak) treatment - No. of potential referred to Bangkok 2.4.3 HIV , Heart , Cancer etc Secondary Data, District Public Health District level - Number of infected people Interview Office - Number of deaths (disease wise) - Future plans to reduced the figures 2.4.4 Drug-addicted people by Secondary Data Drug Control Database District level type Center, District Public - Ages wise and gender wise Health Office - Level and type of drugs 2.4.5 Maternity and child care Interview Public Health Officials District level (maternal care, reproductive care, vaccination, nutritious,) 2.4.6 Health Projects and Secondary Data, Provincial/District Public District and Tambon insurance (30 bahts for all, Interview (Case study Health Office, Hospital levels children’s smile, and others) on 30 baht for all Director, Public Health (A case study of 30 baht for all) program, covering Officials, villagers benefits, delivery mechanism) 360
  • Major Areas/ Detailed Aspects and Techniques and Target Level of StudyComponents Indicators Methods of Data Groups/Informants/ (Province, District, Sub-(Parameters) Collection Organization district and Village) 2.4.7 Health education (awareness Interview Public Health Officials District level training, sex education, nutrition, community health campaign) 2.4.8 Cost of availing health District office District level facilities - General treatment - Drug-addicted - Maternity etc 2.5 Sanitation 2.5.1 Safe drinking water Secondary Data, Provincial/District Public District and Tambon (availability, treatment and Interview Health Office, Public levels accessibility) Case study from Health Officials - Storage methodology and Tambon Yang Rak its uses(NRMg) - Any hazard by the use of water 2.5.2 Latrines (Number and types) Secondary Data, Public health Officials District level /Tambon - Current situation Interview level - Type of Latrines ( open , closed) 2.5.3 Household environmental Interview Public Health Officials Tambon level issue (Solid waste management, drainage system, nuisance pollution) - System of SWM & cost - Type of drainage system (open or under ground) - Types of pollution - Situation & problems in rainy season 361
  • Major Areas/ Detailed Aspects and Techniques and Target Level of Study Components Indicators Methods of Data Groups/Informants/ (Province, District, Sub- (Parameters) Collection Organization district and Village) 2.6 Nutrition 2.6.1 Eating habits Secondary Data, Public Health Officials District level /Tambon - Major foods & its cost Interview level - Any health hazard by food (if any then reasons) - 2.7 Problems/constraint/ Interview District Officers, Provincial/District, Potentials Saraburi Hospital, Tambon level - Role of local community Public Health Officials - Any change in the policies by new government - Lack of Funds, training or staff 2.8 Health Policies Secondary Data Tenth Five Year Plan Provincial level - Targets (2006 – 2011) - Programs/Operational Budget - New government policies3. Education 3.1 Formal Education 3.1.1 Number and distribution of Secondary Data Provincial Education District /Provincial level schools (primary, secondary, high Office District level school and others) 3.1.2 School Facilities (no of class Secondary data District Education Office District and tambon level rooms/library/lab/other facilities) and schools 3.1.3 Accessibility Interview School head and local Tambon and village level people 3.1.4 Education Personnel (no of Secondary Data and Education Service Area District and school level teachers and qualification, ratio of Interview Office (provincial), teachers to students) headmaster 362
  • Major Areas/ Detailed Aspects and Techniques and Target Level of StudyComponents Indicators Methods of Data Groups/Informants/ (Province, District, Sub-(Parameters) Collection Organization district and Village) 3.1.5 No of students in primary, Secondary Data Provincial Education District and school level secondary and high schools Office 3.1.5 No of children not attending Secondary Data Provincial Education District and Tambon school Office level 3.1.6 Enrolment rate Secondary Data Provincial Education District and school level Office and school head 3.1.7 Drop-out rate at all levels Secondary Data and District Education Office District level /Tambon and reasons Interview level 3.1.8 Literacy rate between 15-60 Secondary Data District Office District level years old 3.1.9 Activities of the schools Secondary data, Headmasters, teachers School level - Sports Interview - Cultural - Others (mini-projects, herbal gardens, etc) 3.1.10 School committee: Secondary data, Headmaster, Teachers School level - Role and responsibilities for Interview education - Fund. - Linking with other organizations 3.1.11 Policy and programs for Secondary data and District Education Office provincial, and school education encouragement Interview and School head level (scholarship, loan, etc) 3.1.15 Problems/Constraints and Interview and District Education Provincial and school Potentials discussion Office, Headmaster, levels Case study Yang Rak Teachers, parents shcool 363
  • Major Areas/ Detailed Aspects and Techniques and Target Level of Study Components Indicators Methods of Data Groups/Informants/ (Province, District, Sub- (Parameters) Collection Organization district and Village) 3.1.11 Policy and programs for Secondary data and District Education Office provincial, and school education encouragement Interview and School head level (scholarship, loan, etc) 3.2 Non-formal Education 3.2.1 Informal education centers Secondary Data Non-Formal Education Provincial and District (types, number) Office levels 3.2.2 Location and accessibility Secondary Data and Non-Formal Education District levels interview Office 3.2.3 Personnel (Number of staff, Secondary Data Non-Formal Education District level teachers, qualification and Office responsibilities) 3.2.4 Types (public library, Secondary Data Non-Formal Education District level classroom learning) Office 3.2.5 Activities and details (The Secondary Data, Non-Formal Education District and tambon level target beneficiaries, budget, Interview Office program, objectives, etc): 3.2.6 People’s benefits and their Interview Non-Formal Education Tambon and shcool level feedback Office, local people 3.2.7 Problems/Constraints and Interview and Non-Formal Education District level and school Potentials discussion Office level 3.2.8 Policies for informal Secondary Data Department; district district levels Education NFE office4. Local Institution 4.1 Local government District, TAOs District and Tambonand people’s organizations (District, TAOs) levelparticipation 4.1.1 Structure of local Secondary Data, District office, TAOs Province / District level Administration Interview and tambon level 364
  • Major Areas/ Detailed Aspects and Techniques and Target Level of StudyComponents Indicators Methods of Data Groups/Informants/ (Province, District, Sub-(Parameters) Collection Organization district and Village) 4.1.2 Role and responsibilities of Secondary Data, District office, TAOs District level, Tambon district and TAOs in the villages Interview level 4.1.3 Formal and informal groups Secondary Data, District office, TAOs, District, tambon and formed by local government and interview, Key officials and the village level by people Informants committee of each group (Production group, VDF group, woman group, youth organization) case study of women weaving group for formal and elderly group for informal group 4.1.4 Structure, funding, function Secondary Data, District office, TAOs and District, tambon and and services of these groups Interview officials village level 4.1.5 Problems/Constraints and Interview and District office, TAOs District /tambon level Potentials discussion 4.2 People’s participation and Local people and TAOs District ,Tambon and feedback village level 4.2.1 People’s participation in Secondary data, TAOs and local people Tambon and village level local groups (membership) Interview and group - Participation (% of HHs and discussion in terms of gender) - Networking - Benefits 4.2.2 Participation in local Interview, Group TAOs Tambon and village level planning process discussion local people - Process (meetings, discussions) - Level of participation (listening, contributing ideas) - Gender participation level 365
  • Major Areas/ Detailed Aspects and Techniques and Target Level of StudyComponents Indicators Methods of Data Groups/Informants/ (Province, District, Sub-(Parameters) Collection Organization district and Village) 4.2.3 Feedback from local people Interview and group TAOs and local people Tambon and village level (Institution performance and discussion cooperation with community) 4.2.4 Effectiveness of local groups Interview and TAOs Tambon and village level in terms of participation and discussion Local Groups capacity (case study) 4.3 Institutional support, policies Secondary Data and District office, TAOs, District and Tambon and projects (GOs, NGOs and interview NGOs and private sector level civil society) 4.4 Problems/Constraints and Interview and District office and TAOs District and Tambon potentials discussion level SWOT 366
  • Annex 3a: Checklist for Natural Resources and Environment1. Topography:1.1 Location: Longitude and latitudeSource: District/Provincial Profile1.2 Distance Distance from Distance from Distance fromDistrict Tambon Provincial District Bangkok HallDHQ District Khok CharoenNang MakhaKhok CharoenKhok Samae SanWang ThongYang RakSource: District and Provincial Profile1.3 Seasonal CompositionSeason Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecSummerRainyWinterSource: Department Of Agriculture1.4 Physical SettingsDistrict Tambon Hilly (area) Mountain Plain ( area) Upland (area) (area)Khok CharoenYang RakNang MakhaWang ThongKhok Samae SanTotalSource: Department of Agriculture 367
  • 1.5 Flood and DraughtTambons Flood Draught Magnitude Frequency Magnitude Frequency Low Medium High Low Medium HighKhok CharoenYang RakNang MakhaWang ThongKhok Samae San Source: TAO meeting, Province/district office, Irrigation Department, agriculture department Note: write the location of flooding in each respective Tambons Supporting Documentation to be Collected: Topographical Map of District Topograhpical Map of Province Geography Location Map 368
  • 2. Temperature, Rainfall and Humidity2.1 Temperature Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecYear Average Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min20072006200520042003TrendSource: District / Provincial Office2.2 Humidity Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Yearly Year Average Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 TrendSource: District / Provincial Office 369
  • 2.3 Rainfall Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearlyYear Average Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min20072006200520042003TrendSource: District / Provincial Office 370
  • 3. Water ResourcesTambons Distribution of water Resources Stream River Water Underground Brook/Canal Swamp fall Water Deep well Shallow others wellKhokCharoenYang RakNangMakhaWangThongKhokSamaeSanSource: NR and Environment Office (Provincial level), Department of Underground WaterResources, Agriculture department, TAO, PAOWater User groups (if any), district officePeople’s perception on water resource availability/access, their distribution process,policies and government initiatives/interventionNeedsWater UtilizationIrrigationDrinkingDomestic uses other than drinkingIndustrial usesLivestockWater situationWhat is the Quality of water (drinking, domestic use and agricultural point of view)What are the major problems in water management and distribution?Potentials of the area in term of water resourcesPolicy- policies on water resources and distributionGovernment projectFuture plan for proper water management 371
  • 4. Soil4.1 Soil Texture and CharacteristicsSoil Texture and CharacteristicsSoil Relief & Characteristics of Quality ofSeries Soil Name Types pH Drainage Slope Horizon A NutritionNo.Source: Soil Map, Department of Agriculture4.2 Soil Series Soil Series Area CoveredSoil Series No Nang Makha Khok Charoen Samae San Wang Thong Yang RakSource: Soil Map, Land Development Office/ District Office, Department ofSoil ConditionWhat are the main problems, constraints and potentials of soil?What are the soil conservation plan/strategies?- District Office- Land Development Office- Department of Agriculture- TAO 372
  • 5. Land 5.1 Land Use Pattern- Tambon wiseTambon Land Use Pattern Agriculture Fallow Grassland Forest land Land/human Water bodies (pasture) SettlementKhok CharoenYang RakNang MakhaWang ThongKhok Samae San Source: Land Development Office, Department of Agriculture 5.2 Land Title Tambons Land Title types and area (Rai) Without % of title of the Land total area (rai) Certificate Land Deed NS3 SK SPK 401 Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nang Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San Source: Source: Land development Office, District Office/ province office, TAO, Land Office (district level) Notes: • Land ownership or land deed: (Amphoe Trajong) is the right of ownership which Land Department had inspected and measured it. • NS3 : (Nor Sor 3) is recommended to owner that he/she is using land which will register as Land Ownership later • SK : (Sor Kor) is the right to use but not ownership. Land Title Situation - Average household land holding size - Per capita land availability - How is the procedure of issuing of land title? - How long does the land certificate validate? - Who does own the most land? 373
  • 5.4 Land reform - area under land reforms - land reform process - land reform certificate - Distribution and purpose5.5 Land ReformTambon Area under land Purpose of Number of land How much forest reforms Reform reform areas has been certificates reformed?Khok CharoenYang RakNang MakhaWang ThongKhok Samae SanSource: Land development Office, District Office/ province office, TAO, Land Office (districtlevel)Land Reform SituationWhat is the process of Land reform??People’s perception on land reform process, policies and government initiatives/interventionProblem and Policy:- What are problems in land reforms process?- What are the problems in land tenure sytems/process?- What are the problems, constraints and potentials concerning land ownership?- What is government’s policy regarding the land reforms- What are the government’s policies regarding land tenure- What are government’s policies regarding land ownerships- What are potentials associated with land reforms?- What are potentials associated with land tenure ?- What are the roles of government and projects regarding land tenure and land reforms?Target groups of data collection:-District Office-Land development Office- Forest Office under NR and Env Office-Land Office (district level)- TAO-Provincial Land Reform Office 374
  • 6. Forest6.1 Forest Distribution among TambonsTambon Reserve Community Forest Conservation Others(in Rai) Forest (in Rai) area/green (in Rai) areas(in Rai)Khok ChorenKhok Samae SanYang RakNang MakhaWang ThongTotal Forest AreaSource: -Forest Office (province level), NR and Env Office(provincial level), Forest UserGroups, -Department of Royal Forestry,district office, TAOIs there any forest land reformed? if, yes what is your view and its impacts? (Question forTAO officers and villagers)Forest Situation - How and what are the utilization of forests (Benefits and effectiveness of community and government)? - What type of forest products are available and what are their commercial valuation? - Are their any non timber product activities and where are their markets? - Are their forest factories or industries (saw mill and furniture) - Role of government policy - Main problems & Constrains in forest management - Future plans for forest conservationQuestions on community forestry for Yang Rak Tamboon officials - How many community forests are there? - How big is the coverage? - What are the advantages of community forestry? - Current policy in community forest? - Is there local participation? - What is government support for community forestry? - What is the organization and management of community forestry? - What are the problems future plans and constrains and Potentials?Forest Plantation and reforestation - Is there any ongoing forest plantation in the area - Is there any motivation for people in forst plantation or forest management activities 375
  • - Are there and forest reforestation projects in the area (if yes location area) - What species are recommended for plantations - What is the government support for tree plantation - What are future plans for scaling up and management. - What is public participation in forest plantation and forest management? 6.2 Wild animals and plant Species Plants and number Tambon Wild life Type No Type NO Khok Choren Khok Samae San Yang Rak Nang Makha Wang Thong Total Forest Area Source: -Forest Office (province level), NR and Env Office(provincial level), Forest User Groups, -Department of Royal Forestry, district office, TAO How many species of wild animal are available in the area? Are there any productive and conservative activities in the area? Are there any zoos in the area? What are Government Policy on wildlife? Wild life conservation and protection? 6.3 Forest Encroachment -Existence and severity 6.4 Occurrence of forest Fire -Existence and reasons -Protection strategies and mechanisms 7. Mineral ResourcesName of MineralName of Amount Location (Tambon) Production Site Area Industrial UtilizationMineral Source: District Office, Department of Mineral Resources, NR and Environment Office, Industrial Office (at provincial level) 376
  • Mineral Situation - What is the royalty collection and distribution mechanism for mineral resources? - What are the currents policies about the management of mineral resources? - What are main problems associated with mineral resources in the area? - What are potential that can be developed for better management of mineral resources in the area - What are ongoing projects in mineral resources mobilization? - What are future plans in management of mineral resources? - Coverage Industrial Utilization (economic worth of the mineral resource) - Availability of Industries and production sites8. Environmental Issues8.1 Pollution - Types of pollution q Water pollution q Air pollution q Solid/hazardous waste q Noise/odor pollution q Others…………………………….………… - Impacts of pollution - Pollution control mechanisms if any - Awareness among people on impacts of pollution•8.2 Deforestation - Is there any deforestation taking place? - Is there any government policy and programs to control deforestation ? - What is the control mechanism to avoid deforestation? - What are ongoing projects for dealing deforestation?NeedsFuture plans to control deforestation and what are potentials that can be developed tocontrol deforestationForest encroachment - Is there forest encroachment taking place? If yes what is the degree of severity? - What are government policy guidelines for controlling forest encroachment? - What is the control mechanism to avoid forest encroachment? - What are ongoing projects for dealing forest encroachment? 377
  • NeedsFuture plans to control forest encroachment and what are potentials that can be developedto control forest encroachment?Soil erosion - Is there any sort of soil erosion taking place? If yes what is the degree of severity? - What are government policy guidelines for controlling soil erosion? - What is the control mechanism to avoid and mitigate soil erosion? - What are ongoing projects for dealing with soil erosion?NeedsFuture plans to control and mitigate soil erosion what are potentials that can be developedto control soil erosion?People Perception on environmental issues: - What environmental issues and problems do people see and feel in their lives? - How do people perceive them? - What is the level of people awareness in environmental issues? - What is the scope and incentives for people’s participation in solving environmental problems. - What are ongoing projects which intend to address environmental problems though peoples’ awareness and participation. - What are the benefits that people enjoy by their participation? - What are the challenges that the area is currently facing or is likely to face in near future? - What are potentials that can be developed to overcome these challenges?People Perception on Natural resources: - How do people living in forest area perceive environmental resources as a major determinant of their livelihoods? - How do people interact with these resources to satisfy their needs? - What is people perception regarding the proper utilization and management of these natural resources? - What is the degree of awareness regarding different issues (like sustainability and pollution) associated with natural resources? - What is people perception regarding the owner ship of these resources. - How people participate in the natural resources management decision making process? - What is the prospect of people participation in NRM in the area? What policy guideline is in place which gives the provisions for people participation in NRM? - What are present obstacles which are hindrance in people participation in NRM? - Is there any on-going project which attempts to ensure people participation in NRM? - What is the prospect for community based Natural resources management in the area? 378
  • Department/Tambon wise (Policy, vision, mission statement)Sources: -TAO - Land Development office - district office -District Public Health Office -Community/ village level Organizations (if any) - NR and Env Office -Forest Office - Kasetsart University Research Station (accommodation station) 379
  • Annex 3b: Checklist for Agriculture sector1. Agricultural creditTypes of formal credit institutions: BAAC • What is the objective of BAAC? • What is organizational structure of BAAC? • How many BAAC offices operating in the district and sub-districts? • What are roles, functions and regulations (with activities and supportservices?) • Who are their target clients? • What kinds of services they are providing? • What are the provisions for accessing loan and its otherservices? • What types of loan and size of loan is BAAC providing? • Eligibility for loan access • Size of loan • Purposes of loan and duration of loan according to purpose • Total number of borrowers/clients (if possible of the previousfive years) • Total amount disbursed (if possible of the previous five years) • Loan demand (see trends whether it is increasing or decreasing and why) • What is interest rate? Is there any change in the interest rate since 5 year? • Repayment rate: in %age and see the trend whether it is decreasing orincreasing and why • %age coverage of the population by its services (credit) • What are the major problems of BAAC in terms of reaching to larger number of beneficiaries? (if needed, verify itfrom the farmers side)Responses from the farmers on bank’ services and its performance 380
  • Table: Number of Beneficiaries Total Total amount amountBAAC Units Beneficiaries disbursed repaid Repayment rate T-1 T-3 T-4 T-5 T-5 Total HHSource: secondary data (brochures, records, reports) and primary data (BAAC executives and itsbeneficiaries)Agriculture CooperativesIn general: for supporting agencies • How many cooperative organizations registered, renewed and operational atpresent? • Total number of members/households associated withcooperatives? • What kinds of services they are providing to its members? • %age coverage by the agricultural cooperatives by itsservices (credit) • Total capital mobilized/deposited (share, savings and others) • Source of funds • What are the major problems of cooperative development? • Do you see any potentials of cooperative development? What are the government policies for cooperativedevelopment?Tambon wise informationCooperative specific: for cooperative executives • Objective, structure, staff, voluntary or paid staff, number of members male/female, • Number of board members and its composition • What kinds of services they are providing? • What are the major problems of cooperatives? (management, product development and others) 381
  • VDFIn general: for supporting agencies • Major objective, organization structure • Major activities of VDF • Major sources of VDF for implementing projects • What are the supports provided by the government bodies toVDF? • What do you see as the major constraints VDF for itsdevelopment? • Total funds provided by the government to VDF • Total funds mobilized by the VDF (share, savings, grants and other incomes • Main purposes of loan disbursed and %age loan utilized by the agriculture sector • %age coverage by the VDF in terms of its services (credit) • What are the government policies for VDF strengthening?VDC specific: VDF executives • Number of members (male and female) and households (one member one household?) • Number of board members (male and female) • Total fund managed and mobilized • Sources of funds • Total fund disbursed as credit and in agriculture in particular • Future plan • Major constraints in VDF management and developmentTambon wise informationTraders • What kinds of business activities are? • What are interest rate and its repayment system?Farmers Saving GroupsIn general: for supporting agencies • Total number of farmers’ saving groups • Total number of members (Tambon wise) and households associate • Major activities of farmers saving groups • Total funds managed and mobilized 382
  • • %age coverage by the farmers saving groups • What is the government supports to capacity building of these farmers saving groups?Tambon wise informationGroup specific: for groups members • Total number of members (female and male) • Activities of the groups • Total capital managed and mobilized • Sources of funds/income • Savings mobilization: loan size, interest and repayment rate, loan demand • Future plan • Major problems of farmers saving groups2. Farmers Institutions and GroupsTypes of institutions and groupsIn general: for supporting organizations • Total number of farmers/households associated with these groups • Major activities: rearing, marketing etc. • Members Constituency (formation procedure)Group specific: for groups members • Objectives of groups • Major activities • Members associated (female and male) • Organization management system • Fund generation! Sources? • Major problems?Case of this particular group3.Agricultural policies • land development • increase access to credit • increase access to market • avail irrigation facility 383
  • • develop agriculture sector (crop, livestock, fishery, integrated farming, organic farming) • Do they have particular policy to develop agriculture sector of Khock Charoen District?Check-list for Livestock and Fisheries ProductionPhase 1- Start up; initial information collection and detailed planningInformation gathering using various formal and informal sources to gain an initial picture of the situation and context, Example, • Collect secondary data • Meeting • Initial institutional analysis • Identify partners • Assemble team • Select survey area • Develop budget • Arrange logisticsPhase 2- Field work: based on semi structural interview techniques, meetings with government official, collection and analysis ofinformation in the field so that a picture of the situation can gradually be build up. Example, • Collect primary data • Analysis of data • Develop and test key areas and hypothesisPhase 3_write up presentation and disseminationFinal analysis and write up of the actual assessment, presentation to government and dissemination, example • Analysis • Write up report • Present to the government and circulate Possible additional tasks: • Develop road map • Develop project profile 384
  • Services of Livestock Department in Khok Charoen District Hospitals Dispensaries Diagnostic lab Research Lab A.I, Centers Farms Teaching Inst: Veterinary Doctors Para Veterinary Staff OthersLivestock population in Khok Charoen District (verify with secondary data) 2008 No Type of Animals District Population (millions) Remarks 1. Beef Cattle 2. Dairy Cow 3. Buffalo 4. Sheep 5. Pig 6. Duck 7. Local Chicken 8. Meat Chicken 9. Ostrich 385
  • Product and Sale in Khok Charoen District (Farm level) as case study Type of Live animal* Milk** Egg Manure Yogurt Skin Remarks productsQuantity ofproductionInput CostOut put costReturnTotalSale* Product**Expenditure, Benefit and Credit Description Farm 1 Farm2 Farm3 RemarksInform incomeExpenditure rangeCredit sourceBenefitedAnimal HealthCommon animal health disease Disease Symptoms Treatment Prevention/control Services from the Remarks line agencies* 386
  • *Government and Private Artificial Insemination Source Conceive rate (%) Birth rate (%) Mortality rate (%) Remarks • What type of training provided for the farmers? • What kind subsidy and facilities from government authority to the farmers? • Major problems and constraints in livestock production? • Suggestion/recommendations for developing production? Same data will collect for livestock and fisheries Marketing • Sources of information for inputs and outputs (availability and price) • Marketing channel / flow for inputs • Marketing channel / flow for products • Farm-gate markets / middlemen • Marketing facilities • Price variations 387
  • • Problems, constraints & potentialsFisheries data collect from provincial departmentMajor aspects Complex and Simple Variables Target Group/s Checklist1. Agricultural 1.1 Types of formal creditcredit institutions: BAAC 1. Internal aspects of • BAAC office • What is the objective of BAAC? organization • What is organizational structure of BAAC? 2. Products and Services: • How many BAAC offices operating in the district and sub- • Types of products and districts? services • What are roles, functions and regulations (with activities • Procedures and provisions and support services?) • Who are their target clients? 3 Number of beneficiaries • What kinds of services they are providing? • Number of • What are the provisions for accessing loan and its other beneficiaries/coverage services? • What types of loan and size of loan is BAAC providing? 4. Major problems in terms of • Eligibility for loan access reaching to larger number of • Size of loan beneficiaries • Purposes of loan and duration of loan according to purpose • Total number of borrowers/clients (if possible of the previous five years) • Total amount disbursed (if possible of the previous five years) • Loan demand (see trends whether it is increasing or decreasing and why) • What is interest rate? Is there any change in the interest Farmers (loan rate since 5 year? receiver)/Village • Repayment rate: in %age and see the trend whether it is headman decreasing or increasing and why • %age coverage of the population by its services (credit) 5. Farmers responses • What are the major problems of BAAC in terms of reaching to larger number of beneficiaries? (if needed, verify it from the farmers side) 388
  • Responses from the farmers on bank’ services and its performance Note: 1. Sources of information • Secondary data (brochures, records, reports) • KII (primary data) 2. Collect reports, brochures and other documents related to organizationAgriculture CooperativesIn general1. Total number of agricultural D/TAO • How many cooperative organizations registered, renewed cooperatives and operational at present?2. Total number of members • Total number of members/households associated with associated cooperatives?3. If available, information about • What kinds of services they are providing to its members? services like loan and other • %age coverage by the agricultural cooperatives by its services services (credit) • Total capital mobilized/deposited (share, savings and others) • Source of funds • What are the major problems of cooperative development? • Do you see any potentials of cooperative development? What are the government policies for cooperative development? Tambon wise information Note: 1. Source of information • Data AgricultureCooperative specific Cooperatives • Other reports, records etc1. Internal aspects of 2. Collect information regarding cooperative activities organization2. Major activities • Objective, structure, staff, voluntary or paid staff, number of3. Products and services members male/female,4. Provisions of accessing to • Number of board members and its composition 389
  • services • What kinds of services they are providing?5. Major problems • What are the provisions of accessing to its services? Can non-share members access to its services? • What are the major problems of cooperatives? (management, product development and others) Note: 1. sources of information • cooperative reports, brochures, annual plans etc 2. Collect all relevant reports, recordsVDFIn general1 Total number of VDF operating D/TAO • Does the government have separate provision or strategy2 Total number of members for supporting two different VDF? If yes, what?3 Total number of households • Major objective, organization structure4 What are major problems of • Major activities of VDF VDC • Major sources of VDF for implementing projects • What are the supports provided by the government bodies to VDF? • What do you see as the major constraints VDF for its development? • Total funds provided by the government to VDF • Total funds mobilized by the VDF (share, savings, grants and other incomes • Main purposes of loan disbursed and %age loan utilized by the agriculture sector • %age coverage by the VDF in terms of its services (credit) • Total members benefited by the VDF activities (agriculture) especially credit (agricultural purposes) • What are the government policies for VDF strengthening? Note: 1. Sources of Information: • Secondary data VDF secretariat • KIIVDF specific Village headman 2. Collect reports, data and any other information materials1. Internal aspects of Beneficiaries relevant to VDF and its activities 390
  • organization2. Major activities • Number of members (male and female) and households3. Major products and services (one member one household?)4. Loan: interest rate, target • Number of board members (male and female) group • Total fund managed and mobilized5. Provision of accessing services • Sources of funds6. Future plan • Total fund disbursed as credit and in agriculture in particular7. Major obstacles at present and • Future plan to achieve the future aim • Major constraints in VDF management and development Tambon wise information Note: 1. Sources of information: • KII • Secondary sources 2. Collect plans and progress reports and any other relevant documents availableTraders1. Type of business/trade Traders/Sugarcane • What kinds of business activities are?2. Location of business and its processors • Business location and its coverage area? (geographic coverage areas Farmer/Loan takers and/or number of farmers if it is contracted)3. Loan financing, provision, • Do they provide loan to farmers? If yes, do they provide interest and repayment advance money? If yes, what is the provision? system • What are interest rate and its repayment system?4. Contracting system • Is there contracting system done with the particular5. Pre-financing commodity producer like sugarcane/cassava?Farmers Saving GroupsIn general:1. Inter-organizational aspects D/TAO • Total number of farmers’ saving groups2. Number of farmers’ saving • Total number of members (Tambon wise) and households groups associated (female and male)3. Number of members • Major activities of farmers saving groups associated • Total funds managed and mobilized4. Major activities • %age coverage by the farmers saving groups5. Saving and saving mobilization • What is the government supports to capacity building of6. Organization management these farmers saving groups? 391
  • 7. Major problems Tambon wise information Note: 1. Sources of information • Secondary sources • KII with D/TAO officers 2. Collect all relevant and available information Group members Group specific • Total number of members (female and male) 1. Total members • Activities of the groups 2. Activities • Total capital managed and mobilized 3. Saving and saving mobilization • Sources of funds/income 4. Major problems • Savings mobilization: loan size, interest and repayment rate, loan demand • Future plan • Major problems of farmers saving groups Any commercial banks operating: if yes, types of services, coverage, number of beneficiaries, interest rates, total amount disbursed, repaid, problems etc.2. Farmers Types of institutions and groupsInstitutions and In general • District • What kinds of farmers groups are operating? Like cowGroups 1. Inventory of the farmers’ Agriculture rearing, fish farming, integrated farming etc. (single and institutions and groups Office multipurpose) and number of groups accordingly • Total number of farmers/households associated with these (integrated farming, cow- • Extension office groups raising, fish raising etc.) • Major activities: rearing, marketing etc. 2. Support from government and • Members Constituency (formation procedure) other line agencies • Approval with any line agencies: legal status (are they 3. Details information about registered? Where? Do they need to register or do they number of Farmers’ Saving need to take approval for group formation? Groups, total number of group • Support from government and other line agencies (by members (name, objectives, whom, what kinds of supports, in cash or kind, what are activities) the provision, if cash: grant or loan) Tambon wise information Note: 1. Sources of information: • Secondary data 392
  • • KII with Officials 2. Collect data and other relevant information regarding this farmers’ institutions and groups (Tambon wise information) Group specific • Farmers’ Group 1. Objectives • Objectives of groups 2. Group activities • Major activities 3. Problems and prospects • Members associated (female and male) • Organization management system Case of this particular group • Fund generation! Sources? • Major problems?3. Agricultural Agricultural development • District • Key question to Tambon, District and Provincial officials:policies programmes and policies Agriculture what is the key policy constraint to the issue related to: Office • land development 1. Land development • increase access to credit 2. Input policy • Extension • increase access to market 3. Subsidy policy Department • avail irrigation facility 4. Credit policy • Livestock • develop agriculture sector (crop, livestock, fishery, 5. Marketing policies (floor price Department integrated farming, organic farming) and ceiling price) • Fishery • Do they have particular policy to develop agriculture sector 6. Irrigation policy Department of Khock Charoen District? 7. Export policy • Irrigation Note: 8. Capitalization policy for Department 1. Source of information agriculture • BAAC • Secondary data 9. Agricultural development Cooperatives policies for: • Crop • Livestock • Fishery • Integrated farming • Organic farming • Others Policy constraints 393
  • Table: Cooperative and its members’ information Tambon No. of agricultural Number of members/HHs Loan disbursed Repayment coop status (%age) Female Male Total Agriculture Others sectorTable: VDFVDF/Village Members Households Number of Total amount Repayment loan taker disbursed rate (%age) Female Male TotalTable-1: Number of person accessed to credit Sources of Credits/Credit Providers Number of beneficiaries T-1 T-2 T-3 T-4 T-5 TotalTable-2: Farmers’ Institutions Tambon Village Purpose No. of Number of members Total %age of (single/multi) cooperatives population people involved in cooperatives 394
  • Female Male TotalVerify: is one household one cooperative member!Table-3: Farmers’ saving groups Tambon Farmers’ Members Loan size Interest Rate Repayment Total loan Loan Demand Saving Group Rate Disbursed Female Male Total 395
  • Annex 3c:Checklist for Non-agriculture sector Aspects Characteristics Remark1.1.1 GDP - National (gross, per capita) - Province (gross, per capita)1.1.2 Employment in non- - National agricultural sector - Province1.2.1 General information on - Land use Khok Chareon district - Income - Employment - Occupation - Working age group - Educational levelII. Industry1. For Provincial, District and Tambon Officers1.1 General Information about Industry 1. How many industries are there in the District? 2. What are they? What types of industry? What are problems and potentials of industries in the District? 3. What are policies and strategies of the government (province, district or Tambon), including incentives, tax, subsidy, facilitation, etc. to promote industry in the district? 4. Do you have any mechanisms in regards to labor protection and social welfares of labor? 5. What is future plan of the government (province, district or Tambon) related to industry?1.2 For a particular industry - name of Industry1.2.1 Profile of Industry Aspects Characteristics Remark 1. Type of Industry q Agro-processing q Manufacturing q Handicraft q Weaving q Other………………………………… 396
  • 2 Scale of Production q Large q Medium q Small q Cottage 3 OTOP Product (cottage q Yes industry) q No 4 Location 5 Accessibility (main road, market, TAO, electricity, water supply, etc.) 6 Year of Establishment 7 Initiated By 8 Initiated For1.2.2 Inputa. Capital Aspects Characteristics Remark 1. Initial investment 2. Source of funding 1. ………………………….……………………… 2. ………………………….……………………… 3. ………………………….……………………… 4. ………………………….……………………… 3. Ownership of assets 1. ………………………….……………………… (land, building, 2. ………………………….……………………… equipment/machine, 3. ………………………….……………………… vehicle) 4. ………………………….……………………… 4. Maintenance of assets (frequency, duration) 397
  • b. Raw material Aspects Characteristics Remark 1. Types and quality of 1. ………………………….……………………… raw materials 2. ………………………….……………………… 3. ………………………….……………………… 4. ………………………….……………………… 2. Sources of raw 1. ………………………….……………………… materials 2. ………………………….……………………… (Where and how?) 3. ………………………….……………………… 4. ………………………….……………………… 3. Cost of raw materials 4. Quantity of raw materials obtainedc. Labour Aspects Characteristics Remark1. No. of Employee Total: ………………………….……………… Female…………………………….....… q Full-time………………….......……….. Female…………………………….....… q Part-time………………….………........ Female…………………………….....…2. No. of Laborers Total: ………………………….……………… Female…………………………….....… q Permanent………………….......……… Female……………………………......… q Temporary………………….………..... Female……………………………......…3. Salary for Employees Minimum: …...……........… Baht /month Maximum: …...…....…...… Baht /month4. Patterns of Payment for q SalaryLaborers q Wage q Hour q Day q Week Minimum: ………………...… Baht/….... Maximum: ………………….. Baht /…… 398
  • 5. Basic Educational Level of Employee: …………………………......…Employees and Laborers Laborer: …………………………......…..…6. Sources of Labor Supply q From local areas q In-migrants from outside province (Specify: …......…......…......…......…......)1.2.3 For Industry’s Workers 1. How long do you work for the industry? 2. Are you better off after working for the industry? 3. Are you satisfied with the working conditions of the industry? Why or why not? 4. What are social welfare benefits (bonus, allowance, health insurance, etc.) you get from the industry? 5. What do you spend your salary or wages on? 6. Can you support other members in your family?1.2.4 Production procedure Aspects Characteristics Remark 1. Level of technology q Traditional q Modern 2. Production line – steps in processing 3. Capacity of production - Per day - Per month - Per year 399
  • 1.2.5 Output Aspects Characteristics Remark1. Outputs of Production Product 1: …………………….…………… (per day/month) Product 2: …………………….…………… Product 3: …………………….……………2. Cost of Product Product 1: ……………………. Baht/unit Product 2: ……………………. Baht/unit Product 3: ……………………. Baht/unit3. Price of Product Product 1: ……………………. Baht/unit Product 2: ……………………. Baht/unit Product 3: ……………………. Baht/unit1.2.6 Marketing Channel of Industry Aspects Characteristics Remark 2.2.7 Market Outlets (Domestic, Export, Retail, Wholesale) • location of each markets • Distribution of Goods q By Wholesaler (How?) q By Retailer q Direct Distribution to Markets q Others: ………….……………………… • Target Customers 1. ………………………….……………………… 2. ………………………….……………………… 3. ………………………….……………………… 4. ………………………….……………………… Means of Transportation in Distributing Goods 400
  • 1.2.7 Environmental Issues2. Questions for government’s officers What are the main impacts of the industry on the environment? q Water pollution q Air pollution q Solid/hazardous waste q Noise/odor pollution q Others…………………………….…………2.1 Air Pollution 1. What is the type of air pollution from the industry? 2. Do you have any equipment to treat them before discharging? 3. Does the emission meet the standard of the government/ISO? If no, do you get any complains regarding air pollution from the nearby residents? 4. How often do you monitor air emission from your factory? 5. What do you think about the air quality in this area? If bad, what should the factory and government do to improve it? 6. Is there any policy to address this problem (reduction and control)? 7. Who is concerned with this problem? Is there any government or company responsible? 8. If people get sick from air pollution, who is responsible for this (government or industry)? 2.2 Solid waste and hazardous waste 1. What are the sources of solid waste (market, industry, tourism, household, others)? 2. Are the District, Tambon or Village facing solid waste disposal problem? 3. Is there any solid waste disposal system or techniques? If landfill, where? 401
  • 4. Do you have any suitable disposal technique i.e. recycling method, which is to improve the sanitary condition of district? 5. How to minimize and control solid waste, which affects the health and natural environment? 6. Do you have any hazardous waste produced from the factory? If yes, please specify the types of them 7. How do you dispose them (hazardous waste)? 8. Are there any reported cases that hazardous waste affected the health of the people, property and polluted the environment? 9. What is the factory’s policy in waste management?2.3 Waste water / Waste treatment 1. Is there any waste water problem in the area? 2. What are the sources of waste water? 3. Do you have waste water treatment plan in the industry before discharging? 4. Does the volume of waste water that discharge out from the factory per day? 5. Where does the effluent/sludge go? (e.g. river, pond, etc.) 6. Does the effluent meet the environment standard? 7. How often do you monitor effluent/sludge? 8. In the past, did you have any case that the water bodies nearby are polluted by the waste water discharged from your factory? If yes, how do you solve that problem? 9. How are they treated? What technique or method?2.4 Noise/Odor Pollution 1. Do you have any noise/odor problem in working place? If yes, does it affect the workers / people nearby? Are there any complaints and reported cases about noise/odor pollution? 402
  • 2. What are the measures of factory to reduce the noise/odor pollution? 3. What is the noise/odor level of your factory?3. For Provincial, District and Tambon Officers3.1 General Questions about Strategy and Policy Issues 1. What is the policy of the government; measures initiated and law enforcement to mitigate the pollution problem and its effect to the environment in the identified area? 2. Which organization (by level) is taking care of the waste management? 3. Is there any local groups/committees/NGOs in charge/concerned with pollution control? q Yes, how: q No, why: 4. Are there any local awareness-building programs, activities and campaign regarding the above problems? q Yes, how: q No, why: 5. How is public participation organized for environmental issues and frequency of activity organized at village, Tambon and district level? 6. Are the policies effective in terms of implementation? 7. What are the impacts of the policies?4. Promotion and support Aspects Characteristics Remark 1. Supporting 1 ……………………….. institutions/organisations 2 ……………………….. 3 ……………………….. 4 ……………………….. 2. Supporting programs / 1 ……………………….. activities 2 ……………………….. 3 ……………………….. 4 ……………………….. 403
  • 5. Problems, Constraints and Future Plan Aspects Problems/ Potentials Future Plan Constraints 1. Production 2. Price 3. Supply of Raw Materials 4. Distribution of Products 5. Employees/Laborers 6. Customers 7. Market Information (price of raw materials and goods) 8. Machinery/Processing Technology 9. Environmental Issue 10. Policies of the Government 11. Infrastructure • Electricity • Water Supply • Road Network • Telecommunication • Others: ……….………………… 12. Promotion of Industry 13. Management 14. Finance 15. Other……………….………………… 404
  • 6. Suggestions and RecommendationsSection 2: Trade and Commerce I. General Information 1. Number of enterprise in Khokcharoen district Scale Name of Tambon Small Enterprise Medium Large Enterprise EnterpriseKhok CharoenYang rakNong MakhaWang ThongKhok Samae San 2. Ownership and scale of trade and commerce Type of Sole Partnership Private Public Ltd. Agri- Others Enterprises Trader Ltd.com, Com, CooperativeSmallMediumLarge 3. Type of trade and commerce Type of Goods Services Enterprises Food Cloths Equipments Others Accom- Banking Others modationSmallMediumLarge 4. Capital of investment Type of Enterprises Registered Cost Other InvestmentsSole Trader (grocery shop)PartnershipPrivate Ltd.com,Public Ltd. Com,Agri-CooperativeOthers 405
  • 5. What are the potential resources for running trading and commerce in the district? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… II. Marketing. 1. Market types, location and scale Morning/evening Mobile WeekendName of Tambon Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium LargeKhok CharoenYang rakNong MakhaWang ThongKhok Samae San 2. Types of product being traded in particular market (inflow and outflow, and estimate the volume of each product) Types of Market Non-Agricultural Product ………………………………...................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... Morning /Evening ...................................................................................................................... Market ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ………………………………...................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... Mobile Market ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ………………………………...................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... Weekend Market ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... 3. Trends of the non-agricultural product’s price a. How is the price of each product changing during the year 2007? Months Products Jan-Mar. Apr.-Jun. Jul.-Sep. Oct.-Dec. 406
  • b. How is the trend of price of each product during previous years? Years Products 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 4. Where are the sources of origin, and final consumers of each product? Non-Agri. Products Produce at where, sell to whom, bring to where, and who is the final consumers? 5. Marketing functional: a. Middle man: What is the role of middlemen on trading?.............................. b. Cooperative: What is the role of cooperative?............................................... c. Government (Community Development): What is the role of CD office?.... III. Banking (Mobile Banking –Bangkok Bank) 1. Information of the bank in the district • What day of the week does the bank come and provides service? • Where the mobile bank goes to serve (villages)? Or villagers need to come to get service at district? • Are there other banks or credit provision in the district? If yes, what are they? 2. Detail Information of the bank servicesAspect BAAC (if there is Mobile Bank Others any service) (Bangkok Bank) (TAO/Happiness)Number of staffType of servicesType of clientNumber of saversNumber of borrowersCredit monitoringsystem 407
  • 3. Credit information a. Mobile banking (Bangkok Bank)Type of Outstanding Amount Interest Rate/year Repayment Rate (2007)credit Short Medium Long Short Medium Long Short Medium Long term term term term term term term term termLoan inCashLoan inKindsSaving b. BAACType of Outstanding Amount Interest Rate/year Repayment Rate (2007)credit Short Medium Long Short Medium Long Short Medium Long term term term term term term term term termLoan inCashLoan inKindsSaving c. Others (TAO/Happiness society)Type of Outstanding Amount Interest Rate/year Repayment Rate (2007)credit Short Medium Long Short Medium Long Short Medium Long term term term term term term term term termLoan inCashLoan inKindsSaving 4. Checklist for Bank Official and Financial Institution 1. Is there any special incentive from the bank/financial institute to promote trade and commerce? 2. Has the bank/financial institute made any assessment on the credit (whether or not it meets the requirement of loan in the district?) 3. There are any policies from the government related to loan providing and monitoring? 4. What are the internal and external problems/constraints facing based on the previous and current implementation? 5. What are the future plans and perspectives of the bank based on the experiences? 6. Does BAAC work with other local organizations or GOs to promote trade and commerce? If yes, what are the roles? And how do they work? 408
  • IV. Checklist for Supporting on Trade and Commerce Provincial Trade and Commerce Office 1. What are the role and support of trade and commerce office in term of promoting trade and commerce? 2. What are the policies and strategies of the office to promote trade and commerce in term of provincial level (food, cloth, other consumer goods and OTOP)? 3. How many level of trade and commerce covered in term of providing service in the whole country? 4. What kind of trade and commerce that the office works on? 5. What are the NGOs and GOs that the office works with in order to promote trade and commerce? 6. What are problems/constraints and potential faced by the office in term of working on and promoting trade and commerce? 7. What are the future plans and perspectives of the office to promote trade and commerce? Community Development Office 1. How many types of institutional involve in trade and commerce affairs? What are they 2. What are the major roles and supports of each institution for trade and commerce? 3. Is there any form of private sector group to promote trade and commerce? 4. Is there any project formulate by the specific organization to promote trade and commerce? 5. What are the policies and strategies of CD department to promote trade and commerce (food, cloth, other consumer goods and OTOP)? 6. What kind of support provided by CD department to promote trade and commerce? 7. What are the problems/constraints and potentials of CD department in implementing affairs related to trade and commerce? 8. What are the future plans and perspectives of CD department to promote trade and commerce?Section 3: Tourism sector I. Overview of Tourism sector in Khok Chareon District (District and Tambon level) 1. Tourist statistics Number of international and domestic visitors to the area in the last 5 years Revenue generated by tourism sector in the area 2. What are the tourist sites in the area? Which one is the most popular? 3. What are the reasons of visiting the area by international and domestic visitors? II. Situational Analysis a. Types of tourism and existing tourist attractions (District and Tambon level) 1. What are types of tourism in your area? (Ecotourism, cultural, historical...) Where? 409
  • 2. What are the existing tourist attractions in the area? (Historical, natural) Which one is the most attractive?Tourist attractions Names of providers Location Details Historical Natural Cultural Artificial Otherb. Tourism of neighboring areas (District and Tambon level) 1. Are there any tourist sites in neighboring areas? 2. What are they? and is there any link/connection between those tourist sites and your touristsites? How?c. Impacts of tourism 1. What are the impacts of tourism on social, economic and environment? Impacts Dealing with negative Positive Negative impactsSocialEconomicEnvironmental 410
  • d. Tourism promotion and marketing 1. What is the tourism promotion and marketing plan of the area? 2. What are the tourism promotion and marketing activities you have done and will do in the future?4.3 Tourism policy and plan1. What are policies and plans at provincial and district level in order to promote tourism?2. What are the roles and responsibilities of relevant agencies in tourism development? 4.4 Problems and potentials 1. What are the problems of tourism development and management in your area? 2. What are the potentials for tourism development in your area?4.5 Future plans and recommendations 1. What are the future plans for tourism development in your area? 2. What are your recommendations in order to develop and promote tourism in your area? 411
  • Annex 3d:Checklist for Infrastructure sectorTable 1.1: Population Density and Settlement Pattern of District Khock Charoen (data from social group) No. of Area Population Pop. Density No. ofName of Tambon Villages 2 2 Persons/Household (km ) (person) (sq. km ) HouseholdsKhok CharoenYang RakNong MakhaWang ThongKhok Samae San TotalSource: for secondary data; DAO, TAO, NRD 2C and population density mapsTable 1.2: Classification of Settlement by Population Size (based on secondary data) (data from social group) % of Settlement Based on No Size of Population Numbers of Settlement Population Size 1 2 3 4 5 TotalSource: for secondary data; DAO, TAO, NRD 2C and population density maps 412
  • Table 1.3: The time distance and accessibility (from nearest and farthest) by car/motor bike Public health Name of Local Police Local station District District TAO Bus Tambon School Market Station Post (Tambon Hospital Office Office Station Mobile Banks Local Office Level)Khok CharoenYang RakNong MakhaWang ThongKhok SamaeSanSource: for secondary data; DAO, TAO, NRD 2C and population density maps and for primary data from villagesTable 1.4: Development level analyses of settlements of NRD 2C data Name of Tambon Total of Villages Level.1 Level .2 Level .3Khok CharoenYang RakNong MakhaWang ThongKhok Samae San Total Percentage %Level 1. Backward, Level 2. Moderate, Level 3. ProgressiveSource: for secondary data; NRD 2C 413
  • 1. Road NetworkTable 2.1: Type and density of road Type of road its length and density Quality of road and speed limit Volume of Name of High way Motor Road (4 Community Road Asphalted Concrete Gravel/Earth (2 lanes) transports Tambon ( > 6 lanes) lanes) Km. Km/ Km. Km/ km2 Km. Km/ km2 Km. Km/ hr. Km. Km/ hr. Km. Km/ hr. No of vehicle/day km2Khok CharoenYang RakNong MakhaWang ThongKhok SamaeSanSource: for secondary data; DAO, TAO, NRD 2C and using mapsTable 2.2: Construction and Maintenance Construction Operation and Maintenance Type of road Future PlansName of Tambon Source of Fund Investment Agency Source of Fund Investment Agency Motor RoadKhok Charoen Community road Motor RoadYang Rak Community road Motor RoadNong Makha Community road Motor RoadWang Thong Community roadKhok Samae Motor RoadSan Community road 414
  • Questions 1. What are the major problems of transport network? 2. What are the maintenance procedures? How often the road is maintained? 3. Any local participation for operation and maintenance? How? 4. Policy and potentials (new plans for road upgrading)?3. Transportation Facility and NetworkTable 3.1: Public Transportation facility No. of No. of bus Public Transportation Name of Terminal Tambon Private Govt. From - to Distance Fares Frequency (km.) (Baht)KhokCharoenYang RakNongMakhaWangThongKhok SamaeSanSource: for secondary data; DAO, TAO, NRD 2C and using mapsQuestions 1. What are the purposes of using public transport services by villagers? 2. What are users and local people feedback? No. of bus enough or not? 415
  • 3. Feed back on the quality of vehicles? 4. What kind of other private transportation is usually used? 5. What is the future plan to improve the situation?Table 3.2: Private Transportation Others Name of Tambon No. of motor bike No. of truck No. of Pick up (specify)Khok CharoenYang RakNong MakhaWang ThongKhok Samae San Total4. Water SupplyTable 4.1: Existing Water Sources (data from NRE) Shallow well/ water supply Deep Well Pond Hand pump Reservoir Stream systemTambon Capacity Capacity Capacity Capacity Capacity Capacity No. No. No. No. No. No.Name (M3) (M3) (M3) (M3) (M3) (M3)Khok CharoenYang RakNong MakhaWang Thong 416
  • Khok Samae San TotalWater supply installation cost (length of pipe and joints, Installation charge, deposit money and other expenses)Source: for secondary data; DAO, TAOTable 4.2: Water Supply System Water Supply System (WSS) Responsible Agent Charges No. No. No. Storage Authority to / Name of Village HH W.S. capacity mange/main- Source of Investment per Month/ Connection TAO/Local Tambon coverage coverage Station of WS ain WSS Fund System HH Cost Leaders Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San TotalQuestions: Feedback of the community (users) regarding satisfaction of WSS as well as problems if any? 417
  • Table 4.3: Irrigation system Water Source Construction Operation and Maintenance Length ofName of Area No. Irr. Weir Capacity Fund Investment Charges/ Operation ReservoirTambon coverage of farmers System (cub m) Source Cost Farmer/month AgencyKhok CharoenYang RakNong MakhaWang ThongKhok SamaeSan TotalSource: for secondary data; DAO, TAO, NRD 2C5. Power Supply SystemTable 5.1: Electricity Name of Total No. No. of Village Village Electrified Total No. of No. of HHs. No. of HH. Tambon of Village Electrified in % HHs. electrified electrified in %Khok CharoenYang RakNong MakhaWang ThongKhok SamaeSan Total 418
  • Source: for secondary data; DAO, TAO, NRD 2CTable 5.2: Electricity by purposes (Village No.) No of power Domestic Industrial Agriculture Commercial Name of (KW or percentage) (KW & percentage) (KW & percentage) (KW & percentage) distributing Total KW Tambon stations supplied KW KW % % KW consumed % KW consumed % consumed consumedKhokCharoenYang RakNongMakhaWangThongKhokSamae San TotalTable 5.3: Alternative Energy Sources Private generator and Tambon Type of Why they use the others Source of energy Problems and constraint Name alternative alternative energy Private Government Solar EnergyKhok Charoen Biogas/Bio diesel Solar EnergyYang Rak Biogas/Bio diesel 419
  • Solar EnergyNong Makha Biogas/Bio diesel Solar EnergyWang Thong Biogas/Bio diesel Solar EnergyKhok Samae San Biogas/Bio dieselQuestions 1. What are the possible solutions? 2. Why they use the alternative energy? 3. How can the people have the solar cell installed? Cost and service charge? 4. How often do you maintain the solar cell in the village? 5. What are the maintenance procedures6. TelecommunicationTable 6.1: Telephones Networking (Public Phones) Type of telephone Booth Frequency of Total Name of Tambon checking and Responsibility No of Prepaid Pin Phone Budget Coins Others maintenance of Management Booth Cards Cards (time/Month) Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha 420
  • Wang Thong Khok Samae SanSource: for secondary data; Telecom office, Provincial Office, DAO, TAOQuestions 1. What types of problems can arise? 2. The satisfaction level on the quality of service?Table 6.2: Telephones (Household Phone) Tambon Total No of HH Percentage Charge per Total No. of HH Name owned the service unit(Bath) Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San TotalQuestions 1. What are the major problems? 2. How long does it take to get the service? 3. Subscriber’s satisfaction level? 421
  • Table 6.3: Telephones (Cell Phones) No. of Mobile Service Providers mobile DTAC AIS ORANGE HUTCH Others Tambon shop Name No. of Quality Micro No. of Quality Micro No. of Quality Micro No. of Quality Micro No. of Quality Micro Users of wave Users of wave Users of wave Users of wave Users of wave network towers network towers network towers network towers network towersKhokCharoenYang RakNongMakhaWangThongKhokSamae San TotalQuestions 1. What are the major problems? 2. Subscriber’s satisfaction level?Table 6.4: Internet Accessibility to Internet Total Household Post office TAO Internet School net internet No. of Tambon Café/shop Purpose of No. of Service Service Name Internet use users Unit charges/ Unit charges/ Unit charges/ Unit charges/ Unit charges/ providers hour hour hour hour hour Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong 422
  • Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San TotalNote: For fix packages we can calculate on monthly basisQuestions 1. Who is the service provider? Govt. or private sector? 2. Is/are there any local website in the area?Table 6.5: Fax Total No. of Fax Tambon Name Charge/unit No. of users/ week/month Providers Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San Total 423
  • Table 6.6: Postal service No Types of service available and postal volume No ofTambon No. of of Registered mail EMS Parcel Money Order Telegraph DHL oversea post Name offices postmen post No. of Fee of No. of Fee of No. of Fee of No. of Fee of No. of Fee of No. of Fee of No. of Fee of boxes sending charge sending charge sending charge sending charge sending charge sending charge sending chargeKhokCharoenYang RakNongMakhaWangThongKhokSamaeSan Table 6.7 Community information service No. of Accessibility to Community No. of Village No of Tambon Village No. of No. of No of TV information service broadcasting Radio Nme reading books Newspaper channels No. of Govt./ tower Channel No. of HH center Companies Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong 424
  • Khok Samae SanTable 6.8 Satellite communication and cable TV. Distant No. of Type of cable TV Cost of Service charge per Tambon users installation/ month/ Purpose of using Name Private Govt. HH. (Baht) HH. (Bath) Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae SanQuestions 1. What is the feedback from the users? 2. What are the beneficiaries from the satellite of using cable TV? 425
  • Checklist for Social Sector1. Population (Target groups: “Report of District Registration office and document from each tambon of Khok Charoen district”)Questions1.1 Population structure (Population size, Population density and Population distribution by area, age, gender)1.2 Population Projection (Births rate, Death rate, Population by years in each tambon?1.3 Type of religion and ethnic groups in each tambon?1.4 Household size1.5 What are the push and pull factors for migration? Tambon push factors Pull factors Remarks1.Khok Chaoren2.Yang Rak3.Nong Makha4.Wang Thong5. Khok Samae SanTotalNote give number is dealing with main push factors 1. Unemployment 2.lack of capital 3. Landless 4.others………………………And main pull factors 1.Higher and more stable income 2. Resettlement and employment 3. Others……………………………………………1.5.1 What are the main factors and reasons for migration in Khok Chaoren district? (Case study and group discussion)1.5.2 How many number of in-migration and out-migration by sex, age in each tambon?1.5.3 What are the policies of Government to migration people in this area? (Provincial, District, Sub-district)1.5.4 What is the problem in relation with migration?1.6 What is situation about employment and unemployment in each tambon?1.6.1 Type of occupation and distribution by area (Agriculture sector or non agriculture)1.6.2 Number of unemployed (number by area, age gender, education background)1.6.3 Do you have policies for this situation and future plan ? 426
  • Poverty Situation 1.7 Households Income in each tambon 1.8 How many households registered as poor households in each tambon ? Tambon 2004 2005 2006 2007 Remarks 1.Khok Chaoren 2.Yang Rak 3.Nong Makha 4.Wang Thong 5. Khok Samae San Total 1.8.1 What is the poverty line for this area? How far below or high from National Level line? 1.8.2 What are the Programs/ Projects on Poverty Alleviation in the district and tambon level? 1.8.3 What are the key problems / constrains about population in this area? 2. Checklist for data collection of Public Health & Sanitation 2.1. Health Organizational Structure and Chart: Could you please give us your organizational structure and chart? Provincial Public Health Office District Public Health Office Public Health Stations What is the organizationstructure in your health institute? What is the role of health organization in district or tambon? 2.6 Health Policies: Interview at and/or with Provincial Public Health Office, District Public Health Office, and TAOs (can we have a copy of it?) Questions Provincial Public Health Office District Public Health OfficeWhat are your strategies toimplement the policies? 427
  • Questions Provincial Public Health Office District Public Health OfficeAre there any specific localneeds in health to be reflectedin the future policies?How much of annual budgetare your organizations givenfrom the central government? 2.2. Health Facilities: Interview at Provincial Public Health Office/ District Public Health Office, 2.2.1.Can we have a map of locations/areas where hospital, health stations & private clinic exist? 2.2.2.Do you think whether the number of beds is sufficient in serving people within the district? If not, what is the ideal ratio? 2.2.3.How many ambulances are there in the district and who own them? 2.2.4.What is the strength of medical and paramedical staff in the district? 2.2.5.What is the recommended ratio of medical staff to the population as per Government health policy? Do there are any vacant posts in the district? Doctors Dentists Nurses Pharmacists Technicians Administrative Community staff Volunteers Standard ratio Vacant posts 2.2.6.Any specific problem in recruiting the medical staff for the district or any other general issue regarding the medical staff? 2.2.7.CASE STUDY on Public Health Volunteers: Questions Public Health Volunteer (PHV) Public Health District Officer(PHDO) How long you had been working as a volunteer?(PHV) Why you join as Volunteer? What are your major responsibilities of a volunteer?(PHDO) 428
  • Questions Public Health Volunteer (PHV) Public Health District Officer(PHDO)What are the criteria for theirselection?(PHDO)How they trained for thejob?(PHDO)What is the incentive for theVolunteers?(PHDO)How they are important to thecommunity?(PHDO)What do you feel about theirrole?Any suggestion to improvetheir working?(PHDO)What are the difficulties youare facing?(PHV)Are you satisfied with thepresent policy regarding thevolunteers?(PHV)How your role can be mademore effective?(PHV)Commits from villagersregarding the volunteers? 2.3. Health services: Interview at Provincial Public Health Office, District Public Health Office, and Public Health Volunteer 2.3.1.What are the birth , death rates and life expectancies of the province and/or district? 2.3.2.What types of treatments are there (i.e. general, special and/or traditional treatments)? (can we have a hospital/health station profile?) 2.3.3.What is the cost and procedure of getting treatment for the public? 2.3.4.What are the major diseases within the district and there main causes? 2.3.5.what are the top five diseases within the district wit h past patient record? 2.3.6.How many patient has been referred to Bangkok due to non- availability of special doctors or equipment or for another reason? Top Five Causes No. of Preventive Treatment Campaigns Diseases Measures and/or 429
  • in- out- Morbidity patients patients 2.4.6 What is the situation of HIV/AIDS within the district? Total Total Living HIV-Infected HIV Deaths No. of Male No. of Female Infected People People 2.4.7 Where do they get the HIV/AIDS treatment? 2.4.8 What is the situation of drug within the district? 2.4.9 Could we have the numbers of drug drug-addicted persons by types? Heroine Marihuana Inhalant Tranquilizers Opium Others TOTAL Male Female Age Group 2.4.10 What are causes of drug addiction? 2.4.11 Is there any special drug –addicted caring medical institute, if yes what types of treatments do those centers give to the drug- addicted people? 2.4.12 What is the situation of maternity and childcare within the district? 2.4.13 Do district had some vaccination programs? If yes then what is the program? 2.4.14 Are there any programs and/or projects implemented? If yes, what are they (i.e. raising awareness, sex education, sanitation, nutrition and so on)? Who are their target groups? 2.4.15 CASE STUDY on the ‘30 baht’ program (Answer where applicable): Provincial and/or Public Health Station Questions District Villagers Remarks (Yang Rak) Public Health OfficesCould you please tell usbriefly about the ‘30 baht’program?What are its objectives? 430
  • Provincial and/or Public Health Station Questions District Villagers Remarks (Yang Rak) Public Health OfficesWhen is it implemented in thedistrict?Who are the target groups?How many cardholders arethere?Does it cover all targetgroups?What illnesses do the programnot cover?How budget is given?Do patients using the ‘30 baht’card get the same services(treatment and/or medicine) aspatients paying full amount?Have you ever received the‘30 baht’ service?If yes, Please give yourcomment on the programwhether it is efficient and/orreliable!If no, why not?What are the problems of theprogram?What are the potentials of theprogram?Do you think whether theprogram benefits the ruralpoor? 431
  • Provincial and/or Public Health Station Questions District Villagers Remarks (Yang Rak) Public Health OfficesDo you have any suggestionon how the program couldwork more efficiently? 2.5 Sanitation: 2.5.1 What is the situation of safe drinking water within the district? Interview at District Public Health Office 2.5.2 What is the system of getting safe water supply to community? Interview at District Public Health Office 2.5.3 How you ensure the quality of water? Interview at District Public Health Office 2.5.4 Which sources of water do they use for drinking? Interview with Villagers 2.5.5 Do you think that the water you drink is safe? If yes, why? If no, why not? Interview with Villagers 2.5.6 What is the situation of latrines within the district? Interview at District Public Health Office 2.5.7 What is the situation of household environmental issues within the district? Interview at District Public Health Office 2.5.8 What do the local people do with solid waste? Interview with Public Health Volunteer and/or Villagers 2.5.9 What do the local people do with domestic wastewater? Do they have any drainage system? Interview with Public Health Volunteer and/or Villagers? 2.6 Nutrition: Interview at and/or with Public Health Station, Public Health Volunteer and Villagers 2.6.1 What are the local people’s eating habits? 2.6.2 How many cases of malnutrition are there? Tambon No. of Cases Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San TOTAL 2.6.3 How many types of malnutrition are there? 2.6.4 Are there any campaigns and/or projects promoting clean and nutritious food? If yes, what are they? 432
  • 2.6.5 Who supports such the campaigns and/or projects (both financially and for human resources)? 2.7 Local People’s Satisfaction: Interview at and/or with Public Health Volunteer and TAOs Public Health Facilities Public Health Personnel Public Health Services Target Any suggestion Any suggestion Any suggestion Groups / How do you on how these How do you on how these How do you on how theseOrganizations think about these? could serve you think about these? could serve you think about these? could serve you more efficiently more efficiently more efficientlyPublic HealthVolunteerVillagers 2.8 Problems and Potentials: Interview at and/or with Provincial Public Health Office, District Public Health Office, Public Health Station, Public Health Volunteer and TAOs What are the major problems Target Groups / What is your plan in order to What are the strengths and weaknesses regarding public health care Organizations address those problems? of public health care within the district? within the district?ProvincialPublic Health OfficeDistrictPublic Health Office 433
  • What are the major problems Target Groups / What is your plan in order to What are the strengths and weaknesses regarding public health care Organizations address those problems? of public health care within the district? within the district?Yang RakPublic Health StationDistrict HospitalPublic Health VolunteerTAOs 434
  • 3. Education 3.1 Formal Education 3.1.1 Organization Structure ( Educational Service District Office) - What is the organizational structure of Formal Education at each level? (National, Provincial, District and Tambon level) (Prepare a white paper to have a drawing of organization chart) - Could we have a chart of organization structure? - What are the responsibilities for each functional department? 3.1.2 Infrastructures ( Education Service Area Office) - How many schools are there in each Tambon? (Primary, Secondary, High and Vocational school) - Is there any private school in each tambon? (Primary, Secondary, High and Vocational school) What’s the rank of private school at tambon level? Why? - Is there any recognition of the best schools? If any, pls mention the name of the schools and year and why? 3.1.3 School Facilities ( Education Service Area Office) - How many classrooms/library and labs are there in each school? 3.1.4 Education Personnel (Education Service Area Office) - How many teachers and supporting staff are there in each school? (Primary, secondary, high school and vocational school) - What is the qualification of the teachers? (Primary, secondary, high school and vocational school) - What is the ratio of teachers to students? - Is there any recognition of best teachers? If any, mention the name of school and years and why? 3.1.5 Students ( Education Service Area Office, Head Master) - How many students are there in each school? (Primary, secondary, high school and vocational school) - Is there any recognition of best students? If any, mention the name of school and years and why? - What are the enrollment /drop-out/literacy rates in each school? (Primary, secondary, high school and vocational school) Enrollment Rate Drop-out Rate Literacy rate The longest distance of school Students from village School Boy Girl Boy Girl Male Femal Kilometers Hours (walking to Boys Girls e School from village)1.Khok Chaoren2.Yang Rak3.Nong Makha4.Wang Thong5. Khok Samae San Total 435
  • Case Study Parent feedback on Education Curriculum Key Points: 1. What major/subjects/knowledge are student studying/learning? 2. How do you think the subject they studying are relevant to their practical life? 3. What kind of subjects or topic should we add to the curriculum to support their particle life? 4. What kind of knowledge should the student learn? 3.1.6 Activities of the schools (Head Master, teacher) - What kinds of activities are there in the school? (handicraft, sports, cultural and others) No. School Activities Involvement and support of other stakeholders 1 2 3.1.7 School committee and Parent Association: (School Committee/ parent association) - What are the roles and responsibilities of the school committee? (education and fund raising program, linking mechanism with other agencies and community for curriculum design) - What are the perceptions of committee on the scholarship and education loan program, curriculum, teacher performance and students performance ? And suggestions to promote the quality education. Roles and Responsibilities Perception on Suggestion to promote Scholarship and Curriculum Teacher Students the quality education Edu. Loan qualification and performance program performanceSchool CommitteeParents Association 3.1.8 Education loan and scholarship? (Education Service Area Office) - What kinds of education loan program/ scholarships do they have? - How many students have been received education loan/scholarship? - What are the requirements to apply the loan/ scholarship? - What is the procedure of the loan/scholarship application? (steps) 436
  • - What is the nature of the loan? (loan size, repayment system)No. Program No of Students Requirements/ Step/Procedure/Process Loan size/ Repayment system Feedback from (Tambon wise) criteria Amount of (interest rate? students and scholarship Period) parents 1 Education Loan 2 Scholarship 3.1.9 Distance of schools from villages ( Education Service Area Office) Mapping - What is the average distance of school from the village (Tambon wise)? (Primary, secondary, high school and vocational school) Pre-Primary Primary Lower Secondary High Vocation Remarks Secondary Average distance of a particular school from each village 3.1.10 Problems/Constraints and Potentials (Feedback from parents) Ninth Five Year Plan (2002 – 2006) - What problems and constraints related to the formal education are there? If any, how did they overcome the problems? What are the possible solutions? - What are the potentials to improve the quality of formal education? Problems/ Constraints Suggestion for the Improvement Sufficiency of the teachers (qualification/delivery) Infrastructure and school facilities Accessibility 437
  • 3.2 Non Formal Education 3.2.1 Organizational Structure ( Non-Formal Education Office) - What is the organizational structure of non-formal education? ( Central, province, district and tambon level) 3.2.2 Personnel and Organizational Chart ( Non-Formal Education Office) - How many staff/teachers/volunteers are there? - What are their roles and responsibilities?No. Role and Responsibilities Number Perception on NFE strategy 1 Administrative Staff 2 Teachers 3.2.3 Program, Activities/components ( Non-Formal Education Office) - What kinds of NFE programs are operating in each tambon? (distance learning, public library, classroom learning and others) - What activities are implementing? - Who are the cooperating agencies to implement the five activities of NFE? - Who are the target beneficiaries? - How do they develop the curriculum? - How do they mobilize the operational budget? - What is the contribution of NFE on local development? No. Activities/ Topics/ Focus areas Target beneficiaries and Resource Person Contribution of Budget components contribution from and Honorarium NFE to local participants development 1 2 3 - What is the benefit of the people and their feedback? (Case Study) (The beneficially) 3.2.4 Community learning center and public library ( Non-Formal Education Office) - How many community learning center are there in each tambon? - Where does the learning center locate? - How does the community access the center? 438
  • Community learning center Public libraryNumber Tambon Numbers Location Program/Activities People participation Numbers Location 1 Khok Charoen 2 Yang Rak 3 Nong Makha 4 Whang Thong 5 Khok Samae San TotalCase study: The feedback from the beneficially of Community Learning Center.Key points: 1. How many days (time) do you go to the Community Learning Center in a week? 2. What kind of activities are you involving in Community Learning Center? Please explain? 3. How do you feel learning from Community Learning Center? If good/not good, please explain? Why? 4. What kind of benefit do you get? 5. What kind of activities should we add/need to do more? 6. Finding and recommendation.3.2.7 People perception on the educational reform (Headmasters, Education Service Area Office, School committee, Parent Association,teachers )Education Service Area Approach (student- Implementation Difficulties Improvement for futureOffice center/passive receiver/ interaction)Headmasters/teachersSchool committee/parentassociation 439
  • 3.2.6 Problems/Constraints and Potentials (Feedback from parents) - What problems and constraints related to the non- formal education are there? If any, how did they overcome the problems? What are the possible solutions? (Brain storming) - What are the potentials to improve the quality of non-formal education? (SWOT analysis) Problems/ Constraints Mitigation - Staff and teacher (sufficiency) - Program implementation - Budget 3.3 Education Policies ( Education Service Area Office 10th Five year plan 2007-2011) - What are the National Education Policies? - What kind of programs are implementing to materialize the policies? - How about the operational budget? - What is gap between the policies and the actual implementation? Questions Provincial Level District LevelWhat are the NationalEducation Policies?What are your strategies toimplement the policies?Are there any specificlocal needs in health to bereflected in the futurepolicies?How much of annualbudget are yourorganizations given fromthe central government? 440
  • IV. Local institution and people’s participation 4.1. Local government organizations (District, TAOs) 4.1.1 Structure of local administration (Chart) - National - District Khok Charoen and tambon level (Secondary data) - Community development department (Friday morning) 4.1.2 Roles and responsibilities of district and TAOs in the villages: (secondary data and interview district office and TAOs) District Tambon RemarksRoles in the villageResponsibilities in the villageHuman resourcesOngoings programs orprojects (name and activities)The process of planning andthe involvement of the peoplein the planning andimplementing of theprojects/programs. (genderand % of HHs)The success and failure of theprogramsThe problems that they facedduring the planning andimplementing of the programsPotential/opportunity andthreats of the programsThe strengths and weaknessesof the program 441
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  • Community Development Department • What is the Annual Budget Allocation per year for the department? How is the sharing for community development project/program? 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008Budget • Is there any role of local people or representatives in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation the process? If yes, what are those? • What are the key Community Development strategies in working with the local people? * What are the relationships between village and wider society (private, NGOs, etc)? 4.1.3 Local groups: - How many informal group and formal group in each tambon? How are the structure, funding, function and services of these groups? 4.1.3.1 Informal Groups (woman group, youth group, temple group, etc) - General information: Year of Numbe Official Roles and Reason for Criteria for Locatio group r of position in responsibilitie Major group ReportingGroups group member n establi membe the group s of the group activities (7) Systems (8) formation (1) selection (4) shmen rs (3) (5) members (6) t (2)1.2. 4.2 People’s participation and feedback of informal group Leadership (9) - What are the criteria for selecting group leader? - What are the roles and responsibility of the leader? - How does the group leader mobilize the financial resource from Tambon/District level? - Are there any the group members holding the official positions in any village/Tambon level formal groups? 443
  • Participation (10) - Are there any rule and regulation for the groups? If so, what are those and how were they set up? - How often the village meetings are hold? - How do the group members participate in the village meetings? - How do the group members involve in the decision making process? How the decision is finally made? - What are the issues raised by the group members in group and village level meetings? (fund raising, services, accessibility and self assessment) - What are the outcomes after the issues raised? Networking (11) - How is the group linked with the other existing groups in the village (networking mechanism)? Are there any forums of group representatives to interact with local organizations for community benefits? Support (11) - What kind of support have the group received from the government agencies? (financial, facilities, trainings, etc) - What has the trainings that the group received from the Government Agencies (Group management, Reporting System, leadership, marketing, networking and others?) Benefits (12) - What are the benefits for the members from the group’s activities? - Does the group have saving account? If yes, how did they generate the fund (from where, who)? - What are the main purposes of savings? - How does the group take the benefit from the savings? Empowerment (13) - How have been the changes on people’s participation after they join the group? Groups Leadership (9) Participation (10) Networking/Supports Benefits to Empowerment (11) group members (participation and (12) capacity)(13)1.2. * What are the problems and potentials of these groups? * What are the weaknesses and strengths of these groups? 444
  • 1.4.3.2 Formal Group Year of Number Official Roles and Reason for Criteria for Major group of position in responsibilities of ReportingGroups group member selection group establish member the group the group Systems (8) formation (1) (4) activities (7) ment (2) s (3) (5) members (6)1.VDF(location)2.OTOP(location)3.Weaving(location) Leadership (9) - What are the criteria for selecting group leader? - What are the roles and responsibility of the leader? Participation (10) - How do the group members involve in the formulation of annual action plan? - How do the group members involve in the decision-making process? How is the decision made finally? - How often do the group members participate in the group meetings? - What are the issues raised by the group members in group and village level meetings? (fund raising, services, accessibility and self assessment) - What are the outcomes after the issues raised? - What are the constraints the group(s) sees at present as well in the future? Formal Support and Networking (11) - What are the financial supports the groups received from Govt. agencies? - How do the groups utilize the financial resources? - What are the other supports that the groups received beside the financial one? (Training, technical support, institutional, others) - How does the group link with the other existing groups in the village (networking mechanism)? Benefits and Empowerment (12, 13) - What are the benefits that these groups bring to the local social life? - How does the economic empowerment link with the benefits provided by the groups (Income generation and independency, sustainability of the group)? 445
  • - What are the benefits of VDF to the local development (infrastructure, service provision, financial support, capacity building)?- How do the women involve in VDF activities (Position, decision making, responsibilities to group activities)?Strengths and weaknesses of these groups:Social Welfare, Security and Social Issues • What types of social welfare programs are there in the area (disable person; elderly; women; orphan; widow; ethnic and the poor)? • Day care center for small children (Objectives, Activities, Benefits to children) • What is the current situation of safety net and crime in the district (Type and occurrence) • Target group: Police station • What is the situation of drug-addiction in the district (No. of addicted people and the trend during the current years)? How is the rehabilitation center operating? What are the treatment services provided by the center? • What is the situation of road accidents in the district (No. of accident and death cases; Whent is the high time of accidents? Causes of accidents? Trend during the current years)? • What are the recreation activities to support the social welfare programs in the district (sports; cultural centers; park; creating learning opportunities)? • What are the main problems in implementation of the social welfare programs in the district? • What are the potentials of the social welfare programs in the district (Help to reduce drug addiction, accidents, and strengthen family unity and community cohesion)? Case study: Special LopBuri Educational service Area Office 2: • General Information of the Special Education Center. 1. Year of establishment………………………………….. 2. Vision……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… • What are the major types of activities at the office? • What are the activities undertaken for the office? • What kind of moral, psychological and emotional supporting the center provides to the beneficiaries? • How is the Special Education office benefiting? • How are the learning materials being developed? • What are the achievements of the office? • What are the strengths of the office? • What are the problems the office has been faced? • What are the potentials of the office (development of training manual, human resource, replication) 446