Universidad Veracruzana
                          México


           Sistemas Operativos de Red (SOR)
               Netw...
NOS



 Architectures
 Required Services
 Client NOS
 Server NOS
 Examples
Architecture



 Peer-to-Peer vs. Client/Server
 Required Services
 Client NOS
 Server NOS
Peer-to-peer
P e e r-to-P e e r




                     All workstations are loaded with
                     the same pe...
All workstations are loaded with
                      the same peer-to-peer network
                      operating syste...
Required Services
     APPLICATION                DIRECTORY            INTEGRATION/MIGRATION
      SERVICES               ...
Client NOS



   Capabilities
     OS capabilities
     Peer-to-peer networking capabilities
     capabilities of comm...
Client NOS


   OS capabilities
       32 bit OS
            real-mode device drivers vs. Virtual device drivers
      ...
Client NOS



   Peer-to-Peer Networking Capabilities
     File sharing
     Printer sharing
Client NOS


   Networking capabilities
       Network Client to Multiple Servers
          MAC  protocol - ODI (Open D...
Server NOS



   File Services
   Printer Services
   Application services
   Directory services
   Integration and m...
Window NT



   Structure
       Two parts
          user mode (protected subsystems)
          kernel mode (NT execut...
The Windows NT Kernel Architecture
                    Logon                   OS/2                      Win32            ...
Windows NT



   Protected Subsystems
     provides APIs that application programs can
      call
     When an applicat...
Windows NT



   Two types of protected subsystems
      environment subsystems
          a user mode subsystem that pr...
Windows NT

   Two types of protected subsystems
      internal subsystems
          security subsystems
             ...
Windows NT



   NT Executive
     consists of components
     each component has two sets of functions
         syste...
System Services
                            Local               I/O manager
Object   Security Process procedure Virtual
  ...
Window NT



   Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)
      places a layer of code between the NT executive and
       the ha...
NT Executive



   Kernel
       responds to interrupts and exceptions, schedule threads for
        execution, synchron...
How logon process works
                                           Access token determines
                             ...
How a Win32 program
                   starts
                                         


                 trap
       K...
Process Manager & I/O
Manager



                Win32
              Subsystem
    Create            Create
    Process   ...
Native Services

                                                        The system services provided
                  ...
I/O File Systems



 I/O system uses an asynchronous I/O
  model
 Support Multiple file systems
     FAT
     HPFA (hi...
NOVELL NetWare



 Performance
 Fault Tolerance
 NDS
 File System
 Security
 Network Printer
Performance



   Directory Caching
      the process of copying DET and FAT from disk to a file
       server’s memory
...
Fault Tolerance



 Read-after-Write Verification
 Hot Fix
     is dynamic bad block remapping
     enables disk media...
NDS (Name Directory Services)



   is a list of objects that represent network resources, such
    as users, servers, pr...
NDS Objects



   Two Types of Objects
     Container Object
     Leaf Object

   Container Object
       Root, Organ...
Object Management



 Create and delete NDS objects
 Move and rename NDS objects
 Assign rights to objects in the NDS t...
NDS Advanced Topics



   NDS Replicas
     keeping NDS running
     fault tolerance

   NDS Partitions
     partitio...
File System



   Volume
       a volume can be mounted or dismounted
 Directory
 Subdirectory
 File
Netware



   Security
       NDS Security
          Object Right - S, B, C, D, R
          Property Right - C, R, W, ...
Netware



   Printing Service
     Print Queue Object
     Printer Object
     Print Server Object
LAN Management via Objects



   Add a user account by creating a user object and
    setting up its properties
   Add a...
Nos Windows
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Nos Windows

1,402 views
1,330 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,402
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
43
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nos Windows

  1. 1. Universidad Veracruzana México Sistemas Operativos de Red (SOR) Network Operating Systems (NOS) Prof. Rubén Álvaro González Benítez 21/07/09
  2. 2. NOS  Architectures  Required Services  Client NOS  Server NOS  Examples
  3. 3. Architecture  Peer-to-Peer vs. Client/Server  Required Services  Client NOS  Server NOS
  4. 4. Peer-to-peer P e e r-to-P e e r All workstations are loaded with the same peer-to-peer network operating system. Each workstation is configured as service requester (client), service provider (server), or both. C lie nt/S e rve r
  5. 5. All workstations are loaded with the same peer-to-peer network operating system. Each workstation is configured as service requester (client), service Client/Serverprovider (server), or both. Client/Server Client workstations are loaded to other LANs with specialized client software. Server computers are loaded with specialized server software designed to be compatible with client software. Printer Server File Server with gateway to other networks. GOLDMAN: CSIS FIG. 09-03
  6. 6. Required Services APPLICATION DIRECTORY INTEGRATION/MIGRATION SERVICES SERVICES SERVICES Database back-end Global directory or namingAllow multiple different engines services client network operating Messaging/communication network objects defined All systems to transparently back-end engines in single location and interoperate with multiple shared by all applications different server network SUPPORT FOR: Directory information is operating systems 32-bit symmetrical stored in replicated, Provide easy-to-implement multiprocessing distributed databases for paths for upgrades to Preemptive multitasking reliability, redundancy, more-recent versions or Applications run in fault tolerance migration to different protected memory mode network operating systems Multithreading
  7. 7. Client NOS  Capabilities  OS capabilities  Peer-to-peer networking capabilities  capabilities of communicating with different server NOS
  8. 8. Client NOS  OS capabilities  32 bit OS  real-mode device drivers vs. Virtual device drivers  direct vs indirect hardware addressing and controlling  Preemptive multitasking  Protected memory space  Support for symmetrical multiprocessing  Multithreading  Plug-n-play (PnP)  interrupt setting, DMA channel, memory address, etc.
  9. 9. Client NOS  Peer-to-Peer Networking Capabilities  File sharing  Printer sharing
  10. 10. Client NOS  Networking capabilities  Network Client to Multiple Servers  MAC protocol - ODI (Open Data Link Interface)  network transport protocol  network redirectors  Remote Access  Windows NT RAS  Netware Connect  dial-up server  remote node server
  11. 11. Server NOS  File Services  Printer Services  Application services  Directory services  Integration and migration services  Management and administration services  Security services  Networking and connectivity services
  12. 12. Window NT  Structure  Two parts  user mode (protected subsystems)  kernel mode (NT executive)
  13. 13. The Windows NT Kernel Architecture Logon OS/2 Win32 Posix Applications process client client client OS/2 Posix Protected subsystem subsystem subsystems (servers) Security Win 32 subsystem subsystem User mode Kernel mode System services Local I/O manager Object Security Process procedure Virtual NT executive manager reference manager call memory File systems monitor facility manager Cache manager Device drivers Message passing Network drivers Kernel System Hardware abstraction layer trap Hardware manipulation Hardware
  14. 14. Windows NT  Protected Subsystems  provides APIs that application programs can call  When an application calls a API, a message is sent to the subsystem that implements that API routine via NT’s local procedure call (LPC).
  15. 15. Windows NT  Two types of protected subsystems  environment subsystems  a user mode subsystem that provides an API specific to an OS  Win32 subsystem  makes 32-bit Windows API available to application programs  provides Windows NT GUI  controls all user input and application output  Other subsystems  OS/2, 16-bit Windows, and MS-DOS subsystem  These system provides APIs but use the Win32 subsystem to receive user input and to display output
  16. 16. Windows NT  Two types of protected subsystems  internal subsystems  security subsystems  runs in user mode and records the security policies in effect on the local computer  maintains a database of information about user accounts, any special privileges the user owns.  Accepts user logon information and initiates logon authentication  networking system subsystem  workstation service  implements an API to access and manage the LAN Manager redirector  server service  implements an API to access and manage the LAN Manager server
  17. 17. Windows NT  NT Executive  consists of components  each component has two sets of functions  system services  environment subsystems and other executive components can call  internal routines  available only to components within the executive.
  18. 18. System Services Local I/O manager Object Security Process procedure Virtual File systems manager reference manager call memory Cache manager monitor facility manager Device drivers Network drivers Kernel Kernel Hardware Abstraction Layer
  19. 19. Window NT  Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)  places a layer of code between the NT executive and the hardware platform on which Windows NT is running.  hides hardware dependent details such as I/O interfaces, interrupt controllers, and multiprocessor communication mechanisms.
  20. 20. NT Executive  Kernel  responds to interrupts and exceptions, schedule threads for execution, synchronization the activities of multiple processors.  Trap  a mechanism for halting an executing thread when an interrupt or exception occurs, storing the execution state of the interrupted thread, and transferring control to code that handles the condition.
  21. 21. How logon process works  Access token determines  which system resources the user’s threads may access Logon Process info Security Win32 System A Subsystem Process w/ User Mode Access Token Local Procedure Call
  22. 22. How a Win32 program starts   trap Kernel User clicks on Process Win32 Manager Subsystem Object User Process Manager
  23. 23. Process Manager & I/O Manager Win32 Subsystem Create Create Process Files Process I/O Manager Manager
  24. 24. Native Services  The system services provided  by individual components OS/2 Win32 Subsystem SS  Environment subsystems implement their API routines by calling NT native services System Services  When a subsystem calls an NT I/O manager native services, hardware File systems detects the call and transfers Cache manager control to the NT executives. Device drivers Network drivers  The service then runs in kernel Kernel Kernel mode Hardware Abstraction Layer
  25. 25. I/O File Systems  I/O system uses an asynchronous I/O model  Support Multiple file systems  FAT  HPFA (high performance file system)  NTFS (NT file system)  extends the capabilities of both FAT and HPFA
  26. 26. NOVELL NetWare  Performance  Fault Tolerance  NDS  File System  Security  Network Printer
  27. 27. Performance  Directory Caching  the process of copying DET and FAT from disk to a file server’s memory  Directory Hashing  the process of indexing the memory-based DET  File Caching  it allows a server to store the heavily used files in its memory
  28. 28. Fault Tolerance  Read-after-Write Verification  Hot Fix  is dynamic bad block remapping  enables disk media defect detection on the fly  Disk Mirring  Disk Duplexing  Transaction Tracking System
  29. 29. NDS (Name Directory Services)  is a list of objects that represent network resources, such as users, servers, printers, etc.  is physically stored as a set of database files on a server  offers benefits, such as  easy of management - integrated management utility  single login  location-independent resources  global management
  30. 30. NDS Objects  Two Types of Objects  Container Object  Leaf Object  Container Object  Root, Organization, Organization Unit  Leaf Object  server, user, printer, volume, etc
  31. 31. Object Management  Create and delete NDS objects  Move and rename NDS objects  Assign rights to objects in the NDS tree  Manage properties of objects  Group objects  Manage inheritance  Netware Administrator - GUI-base Utility
  32. 32. NDS Advanced Topics  NDS Replicas  keeping NDS running  fault tolerance  NDS Partitions  partitioning allows you to take a part of the NDS from one server and put it on another server.  A partition is a logical division of the NDS database
  33. 33. File System  Volume  a volume can be mounted or dismounted  Directory  Subdirectory  File
  34. 34. Netware  Security  NDS Security  Object Right - S, B, C, D, R  Property Right - C, R, W, A/D self, S  File System Security  Directory Rights/Attributes  File Rights/Attributes
  35. 35. Netware  Printing Service  Print Queue Object  Printer Object  Print Server Object
  36. 36. LAN Management via Objects  Add a user account by creating a user object and setting up its properties  Add a group by containing a set of user objects  Set up printer services by creating a print server object and by managing a printer object  Manage files via volume object  Enforce access control by setting up the properties of file and directory stored in a volume object

×