Airline Aircrafts
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  • 1. Air Force One is the official air traffic control call sign of a United States Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States. In common parlance the term refers to those Air Force aircraft specifically designed, built, and used for the purpose of transporting the president. The Presidential aircraft is a prominent symbol of the American presidency and its power. The idea of designating specific military aircraft to transport the President arose in 1943, when officials of the United States Army Air Forces – the predecessor to the U.S. Air Force – became concerned with relying on commercial airlines to transport the President. A C-87 Liberator Express was reconfigured for use as a presidential transport; however, it was rejected by the Secret Service amid concerns over the aircraft's safety record. A C-54 Skymaster was then converted for presidential use; this aircraft, dubbed theSacred Cow, transported President Franklin D. Roosevelt to the Yalta Conference in February 1945, and was subsequently used for another two years by President Harry S. Truman. The "Air Force One" call sign was created after a 1953 incident during which a flight carrying President Dwight D. Eisenhowerentered the same airspace as a commercial airline flight using the same call sign. Several aircraft have been used as Air Force One since the creation of the presidential fleet, including two Boeing 707s introduced in the 1960s and 1970s, respectively; since 1990, the presidential fleet has consisted of two Boeing VC-25As – specifically configured, highly customized Boeing 747-200B series aircraft. The Air Force is looking into replacing the two VC-25 aircraft with three replacement aircraft beginning in 2017.
  • 2. HISTORY On 11 October 1910, Theodore Roosevelt became the first U.S. President to fly in an aircraft, although at the time of the flight in an early Wright Flyer from Kinloch Field (near St. Louis, Missouri), he was no longer in office, having been succeeded by William Howard Taft. The record-making occasion was a brief overflight of the crowd at a country fair but was nonetheless the beginning of presidential air travel. Prior to World War II, overseas and cross-country presidential travel was rare. Lack of wireless telecommunication and quick transportation made long-distance travel impractical; as it took much time and isolated the president from events in Washington, D.C. Railroads were a safer and more reliable option if the President needed to travel to distant states. By the late 1930s, with the arrival of aircraft such as the Douglas DC-3, increasing numbers of the U.S. public saw passenger air travel as a reasonable mode of transportation. All-metal aircraft, more reliable engines, and new radio aids to navigation had made commercial airline travel safer and more convenient. Life insurance companies even began to offer airline pilots insurance policies, albeit at extravagant rates, and many commercial travelers and government officials began using the airlines in preference to rail travel, especially for longer trips. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to fly in an aircraft while in office. The first aircraft obtained specifically for presidential travel was a Douglas Dolphin amphibian delivered in 1933 which was designated RD-2 by the US Navy and based at the Naval base at Anacostia D.C. The Dolphin was modified with a luxury upholstery for four passengers and a small separate sleeping compartment. The aircraft remained in service as a presidential transport from 1933 until 1939. There are no reports as to whether the president ever flew in the aircraft though. During World War II, Roosevelt traveled on the Dixie Clipper, a Pan Am-crewed Boeing 314 flying boat to the 1943 Casablanca Conference, in Morocco, a flight that covered 5,500 miles (in three "legs"). The threat from the German submarines throughout
  • 3. the Battle of the Atlantic made air travel the preferred method of VIP transatlantic transportation. Concerned about relying upon commercial airlines to transport the president, USAAF leaders ordered the conversion of a military aircraft to accommodate the special needs of the Commander in Chief. The first dedicated aircraft proposed for presidential use was a C-87AVIP transport aircraft. This aircraft, number 41-24159, was re-modified in 1943 for use as a presidential VIP transport, the Guess Where II, intended to carry President Franklin D. Roosevelt on international trips. Had it been accepted, it would have been the first aircraft to be used in presidential service, in effect the first Air Force One. However, after a review of the C-87's highly controversial safety record in service, the Secret Service flatly refused to approve the Guess Where II for presidential carriage. Also, the C-87 was a derivative of the Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber, so it presented strong offensive impressions to both enemy fighter aircraft as well as foreign dignitaries being visited, an issue not present with airframes that were used purely for transport. The Guess Where II was then used to transport senior members of the Roosevelt administration on various trips. In March 1944, it transported Eleanor Roosevelt on a goodwill tour of several Latin American countries. The C-87 was scrapped in 1945 Historically, several U.S. presidents have flown on Boeing aircraft. In 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt flew to Casablanca aboard a Boeing model 314 Clipper. In 1962, Boeing introduced U.S. presidents to modern jet transportation with the introduction of the Boeing model 707320B. In all, seven presidents were served by the 707-320B.
  • 4. Today, the chief executive flies aboard a specially configured 747-200B, the newest and largest presidential airplane. Its capabilities include: Longer range for presidential travel Aerial refueling Self-sufficiency at airports around the world The "flying Oval Office" has 4,000 square feet of interior floor space. Among its accommodations are: Conference/dining room Quarters for the president and the first lady An office area for senior staff members Another office that converts into a medical facility when necessary Work and rest areas for the presidential staff, media representatives and Air Force crews Two galleys that can provide 100 meals at one sitting Multi-frequency radios for air-to-air, air-to-ground and satellite communications Principal differences between Air Force One and the standard Boeing 747 include state-of-the-art navigation, electronic and communications equipment; its interior configuration and furnishings; self-contained baggage loader; and front and aft airstairs.
  • 5. SINGAPORE AIRLINE History Singapore Airlines began with the incorporation of Malayan Airways Limited (MAL) on 1 May 1947, by the Ocean Steamship Company of Liverpool, the Straits Steamship Company of Singapore and Imperial Airways. The airline's first flight was a chartered flight from the British Straits Settlement of Singapore to Kuala Lumpur on 2 April 1947 using an Airspeed Consul twin-engined aircraft. Regular weekly scheduled flights quickly followed from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Penang from 1 May 1947 with the same aircraft type. The airline continued to expand during the rest of the 1940s and 1950s, as other British Commonwealth airlines (such as BOAC and Qantas Empire Airways) provided technical assistance, as well as assistance in joining IATA.[citation needed] By 1955, Malayan Airways' fleet had grown to include a large number of Douglas DC-3s, and went public in 1957. Other aircraft operated in the first two decades included the Douglas DC-4 Skymaster, the Vickers Viscount, the Lockheed 1049 Super Constellation, the Bristol Britannia, the de Havilland Comet 4 and the Fokker F27. When Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak formed the Federation of Malaysia in 1963, the airline's name was changed, from
  • 6. "Malayan Airways" to "Malaysian Airways". MAL also took over Borneo Airways. In 1966, following Singapore's separation from the federation, the airline's name was changed again, to Malaysia-Singapore Airlines (MSA). The next year saw a rapid expansion in the airline's fleet and route, including the purchase of MSA's first Boeing aircraft, the Boeing 707s, as well the completion of a new high-rise headquarters in Singapore. Boeing 737s were added to the fleet soon after. Singapore Airlines operates a hub at Changi Airport and has a strong presence in the Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and "Kangaroo Route" markets. Singapore Airlines was the launch customer of Airbus A380, currently the world's largest passenger aircraft. SIA has diversified airline-related businesses, such as aircraft handling and engineering. Its wholly owned subsidiary, SilkAir, manages regional flights to secondary cities with smaller capacity requirements. Singapore Air offers two longest non-stop commercial flights aboard the Airbus A340-500 which fly to Newark and Los Angeles from Singapore. Singapore Airline has the London Heathrow Airport and the Sydney Airport as its focus cities. It offers its frequent flyer program under the KrisFlyer Club for passengers availing Singapore Air flights on a frequent basis. Singapore Airlines' Mission Statement "Singapore Airlines is a global company dedicated to providing air transportation services of the highest quality and to maximising returns for the benefit of its shareholders and employees." Services This Customer Service Plan has been introduced pursuant to the U.S. Department of Transportation Final Rule on enhancing airline passenger protections and is applicable for flights to and from the US. However, this does not mean that some of the services and assurances set out in this Customer Service Plan are not provided on our other non-US flights.
  • 7. 1. Singapore Airlines will always disclose on our website, at our ticket counters, and on our phone reservation line, that the lowest fare offered may be located elsewhere. 2. Singapore Airlines shall deliver baggage on time, make every reasonable attempt to return mishandled baggage within 24 hours, compensate passengers for reasonable expenses associated with delayed delivery as required by applicable international agreements, and reimburse customers for lost baggage. 3. Singapore Airlines will provide prompt refunds after receiving a complete refund application, where ticket refunds are due - within seven business days for credit card purchases and within 20 business days for purchases made by cash or check. 4. Singapore Airlines shall accommodate customers with disabilities as required by 14 CFR Part 382 and other special needs customers, including during lengthy tarmac delays. This will include: a) Provision of wheelchair assistance for transportation to, from, and between gates; b) Boarding assistance; c) Assistance with visual, auditory, cognitive, or mobility impairments while in the airport and on the plane; and d) Accommodation for certain medical requirements such as medical portable electronic devices. 5. Singapore Airlines shall meet the needs of customers during lengthy tarmac delays, as provided in Singapore Airlines’ Tarmac Delay Contingency Plan. 6. Singapore Airlines will inform you, upon your request, if the flight on which you are ticketed is overbooked. We also will provide information at all US airports about our policies and procedures for handling situations when all ticketed customers cannot be accommodated on a flight. 7. Singapore Airlines’ cancellation policies, frequent flyer rules, aircraft seating configuration and lavatory availability are available on our website and, upon request, from the our telephone reservation system.
  • 8. 8. Singapore Airlines shall notify consumers in a timely manner of changes to their travel itineraries. 9. Singapore Airlines shall ensure responsiveness to consumer complaints. We shall acknowledge a complaint within 30 days and provide a substantive response within 60 days of receiving it. 10. In the event that Singapore Airlines cancels, diverts or delays a flight, Singapore Airlines will, to the best of our ability, provide meals, accommodation, assistance in rebooking and transportation to the accommodation to mitigate inconveniences experienced by passengers resulting from such flight cancellations, delays and misconnections. Singapore Airlines will not be liable to carry out these mitigating efforts in cases where the flight cancellations, delays and misconnections arise due to factors beyond the airline’s control, for example, acts of God, acts of war, terrorism etc, but will do so on a best effort basis. 11. Singapore Airlines will notify consumers through our web site, telephone reservation system, and our boarding gates at U.S. airports, within 30 minutes of us learning of a delay, cancellation or diversion. 12. Singapore Airlines will allow consumers to cancel a reservation made using the Singapore Airlines web site without penalty for 24 hours after the reservation is made, as long as that reservation is made one week or more prior to a flight’s scheduled departure. Consumers will need to call our contact centre to cancel such online bookings. 13. Singapore Airlines will allow consumers to hold a reservation made at Singapore Airlines reservation office for 24 hours after the reservation is made without payment, as long as that reservation is made one week or more prior to a flight’s scheduled departure.
  • 9. In-flight services Cabins Singapore Airlines offers four classes of service – suites, first class, business class and economy class. Major upgrades to its cabin and in-flight service were announced on 17 October 2006, the first major overhaul in over eight years and costing the airline approximately S$570 million. Initially planned for its Airbus A380-800's introduction into service in 2006, and subsequently on the Boeing 777-300ER, the postponement of the first A380-800 delivery meant it had to be introduced with the launch of the first Boeing 777-300ER with the airline on 5 December 2006 between Singapore and Paris. On July 9, 2013, Singapore Airlines, in collaboration with two design firms, James Park Associates and DesignworksUSA, unveiled the next generation of cabin products for First, Business, and Economy class, which will enter service onboard new Boeing 777-300ERs and Airbus A350s. London will be the first city served with the new product in September. Singapore Airlines Suites Singapore Airlines Suites is a class available only on the Airbus A380. The product was designed by French luxury yacht interior designer Jean-Jacques Coste and consists of separate compartments with walls and doors 1.5 m high. The leather seat, upholstered by Poltrona Frau of Italy, is 35 in (89 cm) wide (with armrests up and 23 in (58 cm) wide when armrests are down) and a 23 in (58 cm) LCD TV screen is mounted on the front wall. The 78 in (200 cm) bed is separate from the seat and folds out from the back wall, with several other components of the suite lowering to accommodate the mattress. Windows are built into the doors and blinds offer privacy. Suites located in the center can form a double bed after the privacy blinds between them are retracted into special compartments between the beds and in the frame of the partition.
  • 10. Boeing 777-300ER First Class First class There are three variations of the first class cabin, although the Singapore Airlines Suites class is designated by Singapore Airlines as a "Class Beyond First" and uses a different fare code (R) (see above). Introduced on 17 October 2006, the "New" First Class is offered only on Boeing 777300 and Boeing 777-300ER aircraft. Designed by James Park Associates, it features a 35 in (89 cm) wide seat upholstered with leather and mahogany and a 23 in (58 cm) LCD screen. The seats fold out into a flat bed and are arranged in a 1-2-1 configuration. The First Class in 3-class-configured Boeing 777-200 features sleeper seats that are 21 in (53 cm) wide in a 2-2-2 configuration. It has a 10.4 inch display screen for IFE with AVOD technology. The first class product will be retired shortly in the third quarter of 2013, along with the withdrawal of all 3-class B777-200, awaiting on the delivery of the 24th A330 to Singapore Airlines and subject to regulatory approval. The latest first class seat was introduced on 9 July 2013. Features include a 24-inch in-flight entertainment screen with video-touch screen handsets, adjustable in-seat lighting, and passenger control unit, inside a fixed-shell cabin with an 35 in (89 cm) wide seat, foldable into an 80 in (203 cm) bed. Boeing 777-300ER Business Class Business class Formerly known as Raffles Class until 2006, the Business Class on the Airbus A380, Airbus A340-500, Boeing 777-300ER, a fully flat bed is available in a 1-2-1 configuration featuring 30 in (76 cm) of seat width. These seats are forward-facing, in contrast to the herring-bone configuration used by several other airlines offering flat
  • 11. beds in business class. The leather seats feature a 15.4 in (39.1 cm) diagonal screen size personal television, in-seat power supply and 2 USB ports. This seat is also being progressively introduced on Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. The new Singapore Airlines business class (usually operating on the A380, A340 and 777-300ER aircraft) was voted the world's best business class by Skytrax in 2011. On eight Airbus A380 aircraft, the first of which entered service in October 2011, Singapore Airlines extended the business class cabin to run the entire length of the upper deck, compared to the original configuration which shares the upper deck between 16 rows of business class and 11 rows of economy at the rear. New Regional Business Class is available on Airbus A330-300, Boeing 777-300 and select Boeing 777-200 aircraft, configured in 2-2-2 layout and with iPod connectivity. The Business Class seat is lie-flat at an 8-degree incline, featuring Krisworld on a 15.4 inch screen. SpaceBed seats are being progressively phased out and currently are available on three Boeing 777-200ER aircraft in a 2-2-2 configuration. The SpaceBed seats are 27 in (69 cm) wide and 72 in (183 cm) long and convert to an angled flat bed. They have a retractable 10.4 in (26.4 cm) personal television, and are being phased out in favor of New Business Class seats. Traditional Ultimo business class seats, which do not convert into beds, are offered on 7 Boeing 777-200 aircraft in a 2-3-2 configuration with an 8.4 inch screen. A new design of Business Class seat was unveiled on July 9, 2013. Features include power socket and ports all in one panel, stowage beside the seat, two new seating positions and a 18-inch in-flight entertainment screen. The seat has a recline of 132 degrees and can be folded into an 78 in (198.1 cm) length bed.
  • 12. Economy Class Airbus A380-800 Economy Class The old economy class seats in all 7 unrefitted Boeing 777-200s and 3 unrefitted Boeing 777-200ERs have VGA 6.1 inch personal television screens, footrests, adjustable headrests with side-flap "ears" and adjustable seat reclines. Baby bassinets are available at some bulkheads. These older Economy Class seats with the Wisemen 3000 AVOD system were introduced with the Boeing 777-200ER in 1997, for use alongside the existing Economy Class seats with the non-AVOD KrisWorld (at that time on board the airline's Boeing 747-400s and A340-300s, having been introduced in 1995) and the older-generation early 1990s seats without KrisWorld (at that time on board the airline's A310-200s and A310-300s). After the first Boeing 777-200ER had been delivered on 5 May 1997, the updated Economy Class seat was installed in all subsequent aircraft deliveries (including newer -SP* series Boeing 747-400s), as well as in refitted existing Boeing 747-400s in late 1997 and early 1998. The new Economy class seats on the Boeing 777-300ER, Airbus A380-800, and Airbus A330-300 are 19.5 in (50 cm) wide, have in-seat power and have a 10.6in personal television screen which has a non-intrusive reading light under it, which can be used by folding the screen outwards. These are configured 3-4-3 on the lower deck of the Airbus A380, 3-3-3 on the Boeing 777, and 2-4-2 on the Airbus A330, as well as the upper deck of the Airbus A380.[116] Other features include an independent cup holder (separate from the fold-out table), a USB port, and a power socket, as well as an iPod port exclusively on board the Airbus A330. Singapore Airlines introduced a similar design on board the Boeing 777 aircraft through their ongoing cabin retrofit program. The Boeing 777-300 is the first model to undergo refit and has introduced the product on the Singapore – Sydney route on 22 July 2009. Equipped with bigger 9-inch screens and AVOD in each seat. The seats are installed onboard 11 B777-200s, 7 B777-300s and 8 B777-200ERs.
  • 13. A redesign of the Economy Class seat was unveiled on July 9, 2013. Features include increased legroom, an adjustable headrest, and an 11.1 inch-touch screen in-flight entertainment system which also controllable with a video touch-screen handset. Food that they offer according to class Suites and First Class cuisine Indulge in sheer culinary bliss Wine and dine in style at your preferred time when you travel in Suites or First Class. Select your meals from our exquisite menus meticulously created by our International Culinary Panel comprising acclaimed chefs from around the globe. Our award-winning chefs’ creations are indicated by the wok symbol on your menu. Book the Cook - Your Premium Advance Meal Selection Service We are pleased to offer our exclusive Book the Cook Service where you can select your gourmet main course from a premium selection of dishes at least 24 hours before departure. Be tantalised by a wide range of gastronomical pleasures only available exclusively in our premium classes of travel. Out of Singapore, enjoy a wide range of over 60 diverse dishes, including dishes created exclusively for Singapore Airlines by the world's most sought-after culinary masters from our International Culinary Panel, all-time favourites, low-fat and lowcarbohydrate delights and comforting local fare.
  • 14. Sweet selections A classic favourite on the menu is our renowned Satay, a local delight of skewered slices of chicken, mutton or beef. Each satay dish is grilled to perfection and served with a tantalizing peanut sauce, along with some fresh cucumbers and onions. Savour a tasty treat any time with our extensive snack menu offering savoury and sweet selections, along with some of the finest gourmet coffee. Our finest wines To complement your meal, we offer a selection of the finest wines to ever grace a cellar, meticulously handpicked by our distinguished panel of wine experts. Singapore Airlines’ Suites and First Class customers can take their pick from our signature offerings, which include Dom Perignon and Krüg Champagnes. Epicurean Gallery Singapore Airlines invites you to experience the pinnacle of luxury dining when you fly in Suites or First Class. Indulge in the most exclusive culinary masterpieces in the sky, featuring intricate and luscious gourmet creations accentuated by highly-prized ingredients of the season. From the earthy white asparagus and satin-like tenderness of beef, to intense, indelible spices of biryani, the Epicurean Gallery continues to introduce new flavours that surprise and delight your palate as you embark on a gastronomical journey like no other.
  • 15. 名家珍馔 (Míng Jiā Zhēn Zhuàn) First Class customers travelling on selected flights between Singapore and China can look forward to a new Chinese fine dining experience with the introduction of 名家珍馔 (Míng Jiā Zhēn Zhuàn), an elegant and complete Chinese meal available for lunch or dinner service. The name - translated in English as ―treasured culinary creations from a famed and reputable establishment‖ - highlights the partnership between renowned master chefs and the Airline. 名家珍馔 (Míng Jiā Zhēn Zhuàn) is specially created for Singapore Airlines by acclaimed masterchefs Sam Leong and Zhu Jun, both members of our International Culinary Panel and renowned authorities in the art of Chinese cuisine. First Class customers will be treated to timeless Chinese fare made up of an exquisite array of ingredients that will impress even the most discerning of palettes. Japanese Kyo-Kaiseki Dine in elegance with our traditional Kyo-Kaiseki service, available on our Japan flights or when you order a Japanese special meal on selected international routes. Originating in the 1500s as a meal preceding the traditional Japanese tea ceremony, the Kaiseki has evolved into an art form cleverly balancing visual elements and a myriad of flavours. International Culinary Panel Chef, Kyoto-based Yoshihiro Murata has planned an array of Kyo-Kaiseki menus served on serviceware exclusively designed in collaboration with Japanese fine bone china manufacturer Narumi. Accompanied with crisp, fine sake, our Kyo-Kaiseki brings you the freshness of every season.
  • 16. Shahi Thali Shahi Thali is a distinguished Indian meal that features a dazzling spread of traditional Indian delicacies, specially designed by Sanjeev Kapoor, a celebrated chef from our International Culinary Panel. Available in both vegetarian and non-vegetarian versions, Shahi Thali comprises of a starter, two types of chutneys (Indian relish), up to four entrees, rice, Indian rotis (bread) and a signature dessert. Complete the grandiose meal service with Lassi (a yoghurt drink) or Masala tea. Business Class cuisine Exquisite dining experiences At Singapore Airlines, we present an array of deluxe dishes, which includes international favourites, such as our classic tender rib eye steak, served with a creamy red wine sauce, and pan-seared escalope of salmon, served with a light dressing of tomato, lemon and olive oil. Dishes specially created by our award-winning chefs are indicated by the wok symbol on your menu. Book the Cook - Your Premium Advance Meal Selection Service We are pleased to offer our exclusive Book the Cook Service where you can select your gourmet main course from a premium selection of dishes at least 24 hours before departure. Be tantalised by a wide range of gastronomical pleasures only available exclusively in our premium classes of travel.
  • 17. Out of Singapore, enjoy a wide range of over 60 diverse dishes, including dishes created exclusively for Singapore Airlines by the world's most sought-after culinary masters from our International Culinary Panel, all-time favourites, low-fat and lowcarbohydrate delights and comforting local fare. Fine beverages Sip fine Champagne, as well as a delightful selection of red and white wines, all specially selected by our renowned wine consultants. Coffee lovers can take their pick from espresso to cappuccino and tea lovers can enjoy a fine selection, which includes Earl Grey, Japanese Green tea, Chinese Oolong tea and Indian Masala tea on selected routes. Epicurean Gallery Singapore Airlines invites you to experience the pinnacle of luxury dining when you fly in Business Class. Indulge in the most exclusive culinary masterpieces in the sky, featuring intricate and luscious gourmet creations accentuated by highly-prized ingredients of the season. From the earthy white asparagus and satin-like tenderness of beef, to intense, indelible spices of biryani, the Epicurean Gallery continues to introduce new flavours that surprise and delight your palate as you embark on a gastronomical journey like no other.
  • 18. Hanakoireki – A culinary expression of nature's changing beauty through the seasons A lush service that uses only fresh seasonal ingredients to showcase the uniqueness of each season, Hanakoireki is an elaborate service exquisitely presented and served in a traditional Japanese style. Economy Class cuisine Delightful pleasures Relish in our delightful selection of Asian and International dishes when you travel with Singapore Airlines. Our inflight menus are specially created to reflect the culinary influences of the regions to which we fly. Explore our range of wine and beverages to enhance your meals. On long haul flights, a delightful range of delectable snacks is available in between meals for your blissful indulgence. Sweet delights Toothsome dessert treats are available on our menus, including our classic ice cream that never fails to delight. In-flight entertainment (IFE) refers to the entertainment available to aircraft passengers during a flight. In 1936, the airship Hindenburg offered passengers a piano, lounge, dining room, smoking room, and bar during the 2½ day flight between Europe and America. After the Second World War, IFE was delivered in the form of food and drink services, along with an occasional projector movie during lengthy flights. In
  • 19. 1985 the first personal audio player was offered to passengers, along with noise cancelling headphones in 1989 During the 1990s the demand for better IFE was a major factor in the design of aircraft cabins. Before then, the most a passenger could expect was a movie projected on a screen at the front of a cabin, which could be heard via a headphone socket at his or her seat. The largest manufacturers of IFE systems are Panasonic Avionics Corporation, Thales Group, Zodiac, Lumexis, Gogo, On Air, Row 44Rockwell Collins, and LiveTV Design issues for IFE include system safety, cost efficiency, software reliability, hardware maintenance, and user compatibility. The in-flight entertainment onboard airlines is frequently managed by content service providers. Airport check-in procedure uses service counters found at commercial airports handling commercial air travel. The check-in is normally handled by an airline itself or a handling agent working on behalf of an airline. Passengers usually hand over any baggage that they do not wish or are not allowed to carry on to the aircraft's cabin and receive a boarding pass before they can proceed to board their aircraft. Check-in is usually the first procedure for a passenger when arriving at an airport, as airline regulations require passengers to check in by certain times prior to the departure of a flight. This duration spans from 15 minutes to 4 hours depending on the destination and airline. During this process, the passenger has the ability to ask for special accommodations such as seating preferences, inquire about flight or destination information, make changes to reservations, accumulate frequent flyer program miles, or pay for upgrades. The airline check-in's main function, however, is to accept luggage that is to go in the aircraft's cargo hold and issue boarding passes. Check-in options and procedures vary per airline with some airlines allowing certain restrictions other airlines have in place, and occasionally the same airline at two
  • 20. separate airports may have different check-in procedures. Such differences are usually not noted by the average passenger and occasionally lead to service interruptions when one carrier refuses to abide by the procedure that another carrier normally would be willing to do. In-town check-in service is a service offered by some cities such as Abu Dhabi, Seoul, Hong Kong, Delhi, Kuala Lumpur, Stockholm,Vienna and Taipei, where passengers may check in luggage in designated places within the city but outside the airport. This reduces check-in time and queuing at the airport. A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust. A pressure difference is produced between the forward and rear surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blade, and a fluid (such as air or water) is accelerated behind the blade. Propeller dynamics can be modelled by both Bernoulli's principle and Newton's third law. A marine propeller is sometimes colloquially known as a screw propeller or screw. Aircraft propellers The twisted airfoil (aerofoil) shape of modern aircraft propellers was pioneered by the Wright brothers. While some earlier engineers had attempted to model air propellers on marine propellers, they realized that a propeller is essentially the same as a wing, and were able to use data from their earlier wind tunnel experiments on wings. They also introduced a twist along the length of the blades. This was necessary to ensure the angle of attack of the blades was kept relatively constant along their length.[13] Their original propeller blades were only about 5% less efficient than the modern equivalent, some 100 years later. The understanding of low speed propeller
  • 21. aerodynamics was fairly complete by the 1920s, but later requirements to handle more power in smaller diameter have made the problem more complex. Alberto Santos Dumont, another early pioneer, applied the knowledge he gained from experiences with airships to make a propeller with a steel shaft and aluminium blades for his 14 bis biplane. Some of his designs used a bent aluminium sheet for blades, thus creating an airfoil shape. They were heavily undercambered, and this plus the absence of lengthwise twist made them less efficient than the Wright propellers. Even so, this was perhaps the first use of aluminium in the construction of an airscrew. History In the second half of the nineteenth century, several theories were developed. The momentum theory or disk actuator theory—a theory describing a mathematical model of an ideal propeller—was developed by W.J.M. Rankine (1865), Alfred George Greenhill (1888) and R.E. Froude (1889). The propeller is modelled as an infinitely thin disc, inducing a constant velocity along the axis of rotation. This disc creates a flow around the propeller. Under certain mathematical premises of the fluid, there can be extracted a mathematical connection between power, radius of the propeller,torque and induced velocity. Friction is not included. The blade element theory (BET) is a mathematical process originally designed by William Froude (1878), David W. Taylor (1893) and Stefan Drzewiecki to determine the behaviour of propellers. It involves breaking an airfoil down into several small parts then determining the forces on them. These forces are then converted into accelerations, which can be integrated into velocities and positions. Theory of operation A propeller is the most common propulsor on ships, imparting momentum to a fluid which causes a force to act on the ship. The ideal efficiency of any size propeller (free-tip) is that of an actuator disc in an ideal fluid. An actual marine propeller is made up of sections of helicoidal surfaces which act together
  • 22. 'screwing' through the water (hence the common reference to marine propellers as "screws"). Three, four, or five blades are most common in marine propellers, although designs which are intended to operate at reduced noise will have more blades. The blades are attached to a boss (hub), which should be as small as the needs of strength allow - with fixed pitch propellers the blades and boss are usually a single casting. An alternative design is the controllable pitch propeller (CPP, or CRP for controllablereversible pitch), where the blades are rotatednormally to the drive shaft by additional machinery - usually hydraulics - at the hub and control linkages running down the shaft. This allows the drive machinery to operate at a constant speed while the propeller loading is changed to match operating conditions. It also eliminates the need for a reversing gear and allows for more rapid change to thrust, as the revolutions are constant. This type of propeller is most common on ships such as tugs where there can be enormous differences in propeller loading when towing compared to running free, a change which could cause conventional propellers to lock up as insufficient torque is generated. The downsides of a CPP/CRP include: the large hub which decreases the torque required to cause cavitation, the mechanical complexity which limits transmission power and the extra blade shaping requirements forced upon the propeller designer. For smaller motors there are self-pitching propellers. The blades freely move through an entire circle on an axis at right angles to the shaft. This allows hydrodynamic and centrifugal forces to 'set' the angle the blades reach and so the pitch of the propeller. A propeller that turns clockwise to produce forward thrust, when viewed from aft, is called right-handed. One that turns anticlockwise is said to be left-handed. Larger vessels often have twin screws to reduce heeling torque, counter-rotating propellers, the starboard screw is usually right-handed and the port left-handed, this is called outward turning. The opposite case is called inward turning. Another possibility is contra-rotating propellers, where two propellers rotate in opposing directions on a single shaft, or on separate shafts on nearly the same axis. One example of the latter is the CRP Azipod by the ABB Group. Contra-rotating propellers offer increased efficiency by capturing the energy lost in the tangential velocities imparted to the fluid by the forward propeller (known as "propeller swirl"). The flow field behind the aft propeller of a contra-rotating set has very little "swirl", and this reduction in energy loss is seen as an increased efficiency of the aft propeller. An azimuthing propeller is a propeller that turns around the vertical axis. The individual airfoil-shaped blades turn as the propeller moves so that they are always generating lift in the vessel's direction of movement. This type of propeller can reverse or change its direction of thrust very quickly,
  • 23. Type of propellers In designing propellers, the maximum performance of the airplane for all condition of operation from takeoff, climb, cruising, and high speed. The propellers may be classified under eight general types as follows: 1. Fixed pitch: The propeller is made in one piece. Only one pitch setting is possible and is usually two blades propeller and is often made of wood or metal. Wooden Propellers: Wooden propellers were used almost exclusively on personal and business aircraft prior to World War II .A wood propeller is not cut from a solid block but is built up of a number of separate layers of carefully selected .any types of wood have been used in making propellers, but the most satisfactory are yellow birch, sugar marble, black cherry, and black walnut. The use of lamination of wood will reduce the tendency for propeller to warp. For standard one-piece wood propellers, from five to nine separate wood laminations about 3/4 in. thick is used. Metal Propellers: During 1940, solid steel propellers were made for military use. Modern propellers are fabricated from high-strength, heat-treated, aluminum alloy by forging a single bar of aluminum alloy to the required shape. Metal propellers are now extensively used in the construction of propellers for all type of aircraft. The general appearance of the metal propeller is similar to the wood propeller, except that the sections are generally thinner. 2. Ground adjustable pitch: The pitch setting can be adjusted only with tools on the ground before the engine is running. This type of propellers usually has a split hub. The blade angle is specified by the aircraft specifications. The adjustable - pitch feature permits compensation for the location of the flying field at various altitudes and also for variations in the characteristics of airplanes using the same engine. Setting the blade angles by loosened the clamps and the blades are rotated to the
  • 24. desired angle and then tighten the clamps. 3. Two-position: A propeller which can have its pitch changed from one position to one other angle by the pilot while in flight. 4. Controllable pitch: The pilot can change the pitch of the propeller in flight or while operating the engine by mean of a pitch changing mechanism that may be operated by hydraulically. 5. Constant speed: The constant speed propeller utilizes a hydraulically or electrically operated pitch changing mechanism which is controlled by governor. The setting of the governor is adjusted by the pilot with the rpm lever in the cockpit. During operation, the constant speed propellers will automatically changes its blade angle to maintain a constant engine speed. If engine power is increase, the blade angle is increased to make the propeller absorb the additional power while the rpm remain constant. At the other position, if the engine power is decreased, the blade angle will decrease to make the blades take less bite of air to keep engine rpm remain constant. The pilot selects the engine speed required for any particular type of operation. 6. Full Feathering: A constant speed propeller which has the ability to turn edge to the wind and thereby eliminate drag and wind milling in the event of engine failure. The term Feathering refers to the operation of rotating the blades of the propeller to the wind position for the purpose of stopping the rotation of the propeller to reduce drag. Therefore, a Feathered blade is in an approximate in-lineof-flight position , streamlined with the line of flight (turned the blades to a very high pitch). Feathering is necessary when the engine fails or when it is desirable to shutoff an engine in flight.
  • 25. 7. Reversing: A constant speed propeller which has the ability to assume a negative blade angle and produce a reversing thrust. When propellers are reversed, their blades are rotated below their positive angle , that is, through flat pitch, until a negative blade angle is obtained in order to produce a thrust acting in the opposite direction to the forward thrust . Reverse propeller thrust is used where a large aircraft is landed, in reducing the length of landing run. 8. Beta Control: A propeller which allows the manual repositioning of the propeller blade angle beyond the normal low pitch stop. Used most often in taxiing, where thrust is manually controlled by adjusting blade angle with the power lever. List of large aircraft Fixed-wing Civilian Aircraft First flight Note Antonov An-225 Mriya Generally acknowledged as the largest airplane in the world, the Antonov An-225 is the world's 21 December heaviest aircraft ever (max. takeoff weight greater 1988 than 640 tons) and the largest aerodyne (in length and wingspan) ever entering operational service. Airbus A340-600 23 April 2001 World's second longest passenger aircraft at 75.36m. Airbus A380 27 April 2005 Largest mass-produced aircraft in the world and the highest-capacity passenger aircraft 1982 The second largest mass-produced aircraft in the world until the Airbus A380 was produced. Remains the World's largest military aircraft. Antonov An-124
  • 26. Aircraft First flight Note Antonov An-22 27 February World's largest turboprop-powered airplane 1965 Boeing 747 9 February 1969 Highest-capacity passenger aircraft until surpassed by Airbus A380 Boeing 747-8 8 February 2010 (F variant) World's longest passenger aircraft at 76.4m.[2] Boeing 747 LCF(Dreamlifter) 9 September 747 with enlarged fuselage for 787 parts transport 2006 (65,000 cubic feet) TupolevMaxsim Gorki Physically the largest aircraft, and heaviest landbased aircraft of the 1930s era (63 meter/206.7 ft 19 May 1934 wingspan, 53 tonne MTOW), required eight 900 hp Mikulin V12 engines for flight Dornier Do X Largest successful flying boat and heaviest aircraft in 12 July 1929 the world from 1929 until 1942 when the even heavier Boeing B-29 Superfortress first flew. Military Aircraft First flight Blohm + Voss BV 11 March Note Largest aircraft in the world 1944 to 1946 when the
  • 27. Aircraft First flight Note 238 1944 even heavier Convair B-36 first flew. Very large flying boat. Boeing B-29 Superfortress 21 September 1942 Largest aircraft in the world from 1942 to 1943 when the even heavier Junkers Ju-390 first flew. It was one of the largest bombers used during World War II Convair B-36 Peacemaker 8 August 1946 Largest aircraft in the world 1946 to 1947 when the even heavier Hughes H-4 Hercules first flew. First intercontinental strategic bomber, longest wingspan for a combat aircraft Convair XC-99 23 November 1947 Developed from B-36, largest piston-engined landbased transport aircraft ever built Kawanishi H8K January 1941 Largest WWII aircraft produced by Japan in any quantity Linke-Hofmann R.II 1919 Largest aircraft ever to fly with only one propeller, used largest airplane propellor ever used. Lockheed C-5 Galaxy 30 June 1968 Largest USAF strategic airlifter and one of the largest military aircraft in the world Martin JRM Mars 1941 Largest flying boat to enter production (7 built) Messerschmitt Me 1941 Biggest land-based cargo airplane during World War II
  • 28. Aircraft First flight Note 323 "Gigant" Myasishchev VM-T 1981 Tupolev Tu-160 Derivative of the M-4 as outsized cargo aircraft 18 December 1981 Zeppelin Staaken Circa 1917 R.VI Heaviest combat aircraft ever built Largest aircraft to see regular squadron service in World War I Experimental/proposed Aircraft First flight[Note Note 1] Airbus A380-900 Announced in 2006 as a derivative of the Airbus 2006 development A380-800. World's highest-capacity passenger aircraft in history Beriev Be-2500 1980s proposal Would be the largest aircraft ever, if built; development started in the 1980s Boeing Pelican 1990s proposal Concept only Ekranoplan KM October 16, 1966 The ekranoplan had wingspan of 37.6 m, length - 92 m, maximum take-off weight - 544 tons. Until An-225 it was the largest aircraft in the
  • 29. Aircraft First flight[Note 1] Note world.KM was tested at the Caspian Sea for 15 years until 1980. In 1980, pilot error caused a crash without human casualties. The vehicle was too heavy to be recovered from its watery wrecksite. Boeing 2707SST Planned as an answer to the European Concorde Supersonic Transport. At 306 feet (93 m) long it would have been one of the longest airframes ever flown. Problems with 1960s design. A the weight of the swing-wing mechanism and mockup was built air friction heating in Mach 3 flight provoked a but no prototype. drastic redesign, by which time airline interest in SSTs was dropping because of environmental concerns. The U.S. Congress cut government funding and airlines began canceling orders. Proposed passenger aircraft, Designed to compete with the A380 and the 747, canceled project McDonnell Douglas MD-12 1990 proposal Hughes H-4 Hercules"Spruce Goose" Largest aircraft in the world 1947 to 1952 when the even heavier Boeing B-52 Stratofortress first flew. World's largest flying 1947, 2 November boat, and largest wingspan of any aircraft. Only one was ever built and it performed only one short flight. Junkers Ju 390 1943, 20 October Largest aircraft in the world 1943 to 1944 when the even heavier Blohm & Voss BV 238 first flew. Selected and further developed as the Junkers firm's entry for the Amerika
  • 30. Aircraft First flight[Note Note 1] Bomber design contract. Sukhoi KR-860 1990s proposal KR-860 (Kryl'ya Rossii or Wings of Russia) early named as SKD-717 is super large transport aircraft with weights about 650 tonnes (Antonov An-225 weight is 600 tonnes), payload about 300 tonnes (An-225 payload is 250 tonnes) and 860 to 1000 passengers, a proposed Double decker wide-body Superjumbo jet by Russian aerospace company Sukhoi. Stratolaunch Carrier Aircraft 2011, 13 December Announcement a proposed aircraft being developed by Scaled Composites to provide air-launch capability for Stratolaunch Systems 1. Jump up^ For designs that never flew the year of design or conception is used instead. Helicopters and rotary wing aircraft[edit] Aeroflot Mil V-12 at Groningen Airport in May 1971. Aircraft First flight[Note 1] Note
  • 31. Aircraft First flight[Note 1] Note Mil Mi-26 1977, 14 December Heaviest (56 tonnes), largest and most powerful helicopter in production ever. Hughes XH-17 1952 Prototype heavy-lift helicopter with the largest rotor (129 ft) flown V-22 Osprey 1989, 19 March One of the largest (27 tonnes) VTOL aircraft and the first operational tiltrotor Mil Mi-10 1960, 15 June Heavy-lift "skycrane" developed from Mi-6, 114 ft rotor, 43 tonne MTOW Mil V-12 or Mi-12 1968, 10 July Largest helicopter ever built; not put into production. 2x 114 ft rotors, 105 tonnes MTOW. Sikorsky CH-53E Super Stallion 1981 At 33 tonnes, largest helicopter in service with the US armed forces 1. Jump up For designs that never flew the year of design or conception is used instead. Airships Hindenburg class airship compared to largest fixed wing aircraft.
  • 32. Aircraft First flight[Note 1] Note HM Airship R100 1929, 16 December 220 m, 146,000 m3 HM Airship R101 1929, 14 October 236 m, 156,000 m3 R102 Planned Also known as Project H, planned 240,000 m3 airship USS Akron 1931, 8 August 239 m, 180,000 m3 US Navy airship and largest helium-filled airship. USS Macon 1933, 23 June Sister ship to Akron LZ 129 Hindenburg 1936, 4 March, 245 m, 200,000 m3 Largest aircraft ever flown. LZ130 Graf Zeppelin 1938, 14 September Sister ship to LZ 129 Hindenburg
  • 33. List of light transport aircraft From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The list of light transport aircraft details single- and twin-engine aircraft used for hire by the very smallest of regional, commuter, feeder, air taxi, on demand, or charter type of operators for air service. A Piper PA-46 Malibu Single-engine A Cessna 206H Stationair Model Noorduyn Norseman Seats 10 Period 1935-1959 Built 900 Country Canada
  • 34. Model Antonov An-2 Seats Built Country 1947-2002 18000+ Soviet Union De Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 6 1947-1967 1657 Canada De Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 9-10 1951-1967 466 Canada Cessna 206 5 1962-present 8500+ United States Piper PA-46 Malibu and Matrix 5-6 1979-present ? United States Cessna Caravan 14 1984-present 2000+ United States SOCATA TBM 6 1988-present 800 France Pilatus PC-12 9 1994-present 1200+ Switzerland Extra EA-400/500 5 1996-present ? Germany Twin-engine 12 Period
  • 35. A King Air C90 at Centennial Airport Model Seats Period Built Country Piper PA-23 Aztec 5 1952-1981 6976 United States Beechcraft Queen Air 9 1960-1978 930 United States Cessna 411 6 1962-1968 302 United States Cessna Skymaster 4 1963-1982 2993 United States Beechcraft King Air and Super King Air 7-13 1964-present 7000+ United States Cessna 401/402 5-9 1966-1985 1535 United States Cessna 421 Golden Eagle 6 1967-1985 1901 United States Piper Aerostar 5 1967-1984 1010 United States Piper PA-31 Navajo 7-11 1967-1984 3942 United States Beechcraft 60 Duke 5 1968-1983 596 United States Cessna 414 8 1968-1985 1070 United States
  • 36. Model Seats Period Built Country Piper PA-34 Seneca 6 1971-present 5000+ United States Partenavia P.68 6 1972-present 431+ Italy Piper PA-42 Cheyenne 9 1974-1989 192 United States Cessna 404 Titan 10 1976-1982 396 United States Cessna 441 10 1977-1986 362 United States Cessna 425 6-7 1980-1986 236 United States Cessna T303 Crusader 5 1981-1986 315 United States