THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

PARTICIPANTS RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
ADULTS DO INDEED LEARN
DIFFERENT...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

FACILITATORS’ RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
FACILITATORS’ HAVE THE RIGHT TO...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

PURPOSE OF TRAINING
IT’S NOT THAT YOU DON’T
KNOW THESE THINGS
ALREADY. YO...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

LEARNER – CENTRE TRAINING

EXPERT:
EX: A HAS BEEN
SPURT: A DRIP UNDER
PRE...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING

TO DEFINE WHAT ADVOCACY MEANS FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

ADVOCACY TRAINING
Course Outline
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOC...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

GOALS:
1. TO THINK ABOUT ADVO...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

DEFINITIONS OF ADVOCACY:
WHAT...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

DEFINITIONS OF ADVOCACY (CONT...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

WHY ADVOCATE?
(FROM SENIORS A...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

WHAT GIVES US THE RIGHT TO AD...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

THE BIG PICTURE: ADVOCACY AS ...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

ADVOCACY OCCURS BECAUSE SOMEO...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

THE BIG PICTURE: AN ADVOCACY ...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

VALUES
•
•

ONE’S PRINCIPLES ...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

VALUES AND BELIEFS
VALUES ARE...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTI...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

CHARACTERISTICS (CON’T)

DIPL...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

A STRENGTHS PERSPECTIVE

ATTE...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

EVERY SINGLE PERSON HAS
CAPAB...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

EMPATHY REQUIRES THE ABILITY ...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

DEVELOPING EMPATHY

EMPATHY, ...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

BUILDING TRUST AND RAPPORT – ...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

ROADBLOCKS TO EFFECTIVE ADVOC...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

AN INEFFECTIVE ADVOCATE MAY:
...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

ADVOCATES NEED TO FEEL
EMPOWE...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
IN ORDER...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

PEOPLE WHO HAVE EXPERIENCED L...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

GOALS:
1. TO DISCUSS HOW C...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

ETHICS
IN MODULE 1, WE LOO...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

SAMPLE CODE OF ETHICS
PREA...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

PRINCIPLES:
A. AN ADVOCATE...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

B. AN ADVOCATE IS RESPONSI...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

E. ADVOCATE IS RESPONSIBLE...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

CONFIDENTIALITY

CONFIDENT...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

•

SOMETIMES THE
INFORMATI...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK
WOMANSPACE RESOURCE CENTRE
...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

OATH OF CONFIDENTIALITY
IN...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

ADVOCACY STYLES

A GOOD RU...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

ONE ELEMENT OF
CONSTANCY I...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

•

DECISION-MAKERS ARE GEN...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

PUSHING BUTTONS

•
•
•

TH...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

TELEPHONING THE GOVERNMENT...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

BEING ON THE DEFENSIVE
(AD...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

CHARACTERISTICS OF
ASSERTI...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

AN ASSERTIVE PHILOSOPHY

...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

KEEPING YOUR “COOL”
IN A S...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK

EVERY SYSTEM COMPRISES IND...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE

GOALS:
1. TO UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF EM...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE

EMPOWERMENT

ADVOCACY IS OFTEN REQUIRE...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE

AN ADVOCATE ALSO NEEDS TO FEEL
EMPOWER...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE

HOW DOES THE ADVOCACY PROCESS LEAD TO
...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE

PLANNING FOR INTERVIEWS
INFORMATION RE...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE

ASSESSING THE SITUATION
ASSESSING HOW ...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE

QUESTIONS TO ASK YOURSELF BEFORE YOU G...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE
MORE QUESTIONS TO HELP ASSESS AN ADVOCA...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE
EXERPTS FROM “TRAINING FAMILIES IN THE ...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE

6) BE WILLING TO COMPROMISE.
POLITICS ...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE

THE PROCESS: START THE PROCESS OF ADVO...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE

DECIDING ON THE MOST APPROPRIATE ADVOC...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE

PROBLEM SOLVING
ONE WAY OF THINKING AB...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE

ENDING AN ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP [
ENDI...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

GOALS:
1. TO SHARE INFORMATION ABOUT T...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

DO’S AND DON’TS FOR ADVOCATES
LISTEN T...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER
ADVOCACY TECHNIQUES
BY DIANE BRENNAN
LE...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER
YOU CAN DO THIS USING SOME OF THE FOLLO...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY

MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER
OFTEN TIMES, HOWEVER THE PROBLEM REQUI...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

5. SOMETIMES GETTING MORE INFORMATION ...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

THIRTEEN THINGS…
THIRTEEN THINGS EVERY...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

10. ALWAYS GET BACK TO PEOPLE.
IF YOU ...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

COMMUNITY RESOURCES
MAKE YOURSELF AWAR...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

LETHBRIDGE:
ISSUES SPECIFIC TO WOMEN T...
THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY
MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

LOCAL COMMUNITY RESOURCES

67
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Skills and knowlege for effective advocacy

1,370

Published on

http://www.womanspace.ca/oldsite/Resources_files/Skills%20and%20Knowlege%20For%20Effective%20Advocacy.pdf



Skills and knowlege for effective advocacy

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,370
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
57
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Skills and knowlege for effective advocacy"

  1. 1. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY PARTICIPANTS RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES ADULTS DO INDEED LEARN DIFFERENTLY THAN CHILDREN AND CAN THEREFORE BRING A RICHNESS AND DEPTH TO TRAINING THAT, WHEN TAPPED AND RESPECTED, CAN ADD IMMENSE DIMENSION TO THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE. S. VINEYARD, 1995 PARTICIPANTS HAVE THE RIGHT TO: BE HEARD SUPPORT THEIR OWN VIEWS AND VALUES BE TREATED WITH FAIRNESS, COURTESY AND RESPECT FEEL PHYSICALLY COMFORTABLE AND SAFE PARTICIPANTS HAVE THE RESPONSIBILITY TO: LET THE FACILITATOR KNOW IF THEIR TRAINING NEEDS AREN’T BEING MET LET THE FACILITATOR KNOW IF THEY FIND THE TRAINING MATERIAL PUZZLING OR CONFUSING BE AWARE OF THE DIVERSE NATURE OF THE GROUP AND HOW SOME WORDS OR ACTIONS COULD BE POTENTIALLY OFFENSIVE FIND RESPECTFUL WAYS TO LET EACH OTHER KNOW IF THEIR WORDS, ATTITUDES OR BEHAVIOURS ARE HURTFUL OR OFFENSIVE SHARE RESPONSIBILITY WITH THE FACILITATORS FOR THE OUTCOME OF THE TRAINING i
  2. 2. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY FACILITATORS’ RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES FACILITATORS’ HAVE THE RIGHT TO: BE TREATED WITH COURTESY, FAIRNESS AND RESPECT RESPECTFULLY LIMIT DISCUSSION ON ANY TOPIC RENEGOTIATE THE TRAINING PLAN AS NEED ARISES FACILITATORS’ HAVE THE RESPONSIBILITY TO: HELP CREATE A SAFE AND FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT VALUE THE DISAGREEMENT OF PARTICIPANTS AS MUCH AS THEIR AGREEMENT ENSURE THAT EACH AND EVERY PARTICIPANT HAS AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY TO BE HEARD RESPECT THE RIGHT OF PARTICIPANTS TO BE SILENT IF THEY CHOOSE TO DO SO SHARE RESPONSIBILITY WITH THE PARTICIPANTS FOR THE OUTCOME OF THE TRAINING ii
  3. 3. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY PURPOSE OF TRAINING IT’S NOT THAT YOU DON’T KNOW THESE THINGS ALREADY. YOU DO. BUT YOU NEED SOMETHING TO HELP YOU NAME THEM AND KNOW THEM, AND THAT IS WHAT THIS PROCESS IS. S. BERLIN, 1993 TO PREPARE AND SUPPORT SELF-ADVOCATES TO HELP THEMSELVES TO PREPARE AND SUPPORT VOLUNTEER ADVOCATES TO HELP OTHERS HELP THEMSELVES TO CREATE A SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH VOLUNTEER ADVOCATES CAN DEVELOP AND/OR IMPROVE THE SKILLS THEY NEED TO DO EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY CITIZEN ADVOCACY OCCURS WHEN AN ORDINARY CITIZEN DEVELOPS A RELATIONSHIP WITH ANOTHER PERSON WHO RISKS SOCIAL EXCLUSION OR OTHER UNFAIR TREATMENT BECAUSE OF HANDICAPS, ILLNESS OR OTHER SIMILAR DISADVANTAGE. AS THE RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPS, THE ADVOCATE CHOOSES WAYS TO UNDERSTAND, RESPOND TO, AND REPRESENT THE OTHER PERSON’S INTERESTS AS IF THEY WERE THE ADVOCATE’S OWN. SELF-ADVOCACY OCCURS WHEN AN INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS WHO USE LONG-TERM PUBLIC, PRIVATE OF VOLUNTARY SERVICES, BEGIN TO INFLUENCE AND EVENTUALLY DETERMINE DECISIONS WHICH AFFECT THEIR LIVES. AS THEY ACQUIRE AND DEVELOP SKILLS OF COMMUNICATION, ORGANIZATION AND SELF-DETERMINATION, LEARNED IN AN INDEPENDENT CONTEXT, SELF-ADVOCATES ACHIEVE GREATER AUTONOMY WITH REGARD TO THE EFFECTIVE REPRESENTATION OF THEIR INTERESTS AS CITIZENS. THE INDEPENDENT VOICE OF ADVOCACY DR. BOB SANGER: 1989 MENTAL HEALTH CARE IN CRISIS iii
  4. 4. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY LEARNER – CENTRE TRAINING EXPERT: EX: A HAS BEEN SPURT: A DRIP UNDER PRESSURE SOURCE UNKNOWN PEOPLE EXPERIENCING THIS METHOD ARE BOTH LEARNERS AND TEACHERS. THUS THE FACILITATOR IS NOT A TEACHER, NOR AN EXPERT, BUT IS AN EQUAL GROUP MEMBER WITH PERHAPS A SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT ROLE. NORTH ISLAND WOMEN’S SERVICES SOCIETY, 1984 iv THERE ARE MANY WAYS OF APPROACHING ADVOCACY TRAINING. THIS MANUAL TAKES A LEARNER-CENTRED APPROACH THAT IS BASED ON THE FOLLOWING PRINCIPLES: EVERY PARTICIPANT IS BOTH A TEACHER AND A LEARNER; ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF AN ADVOCATE IS TO MODEL OTHER WAYS OF THINKING AND ACTING TO THE PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY. NONE OF US ARE EXPERTS. SOME OF US ARE EXPERIENCED ADVOCATES; SOME OF US ARE NOT. WE ALL HAVE SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE TRAINING. LEARNER-DRIVEN EDUCATION TAKES THE FOCUS OFF OF EXPERTS ‘DOING FOR’ PASSIVE PARTICIPANTS AND FOCUSES ON ACTIVE PARTICIPATION; IN THE SAME WAY PEOPLE SEEKING ADVOCACY CAN BE ENCOURAGED TO BECOME ACTIVE PARTICIPANTS IN AN ADVOCACY SITUATION.
  5. 5. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING TO DEFINE WHAT ADVOCACY MEANS FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL TO THINK ABOUT ADVOCACY INTERACTIONS AS TAKING PLACE WITHIN A SYSTEM TO DISCUSS THE IMPORTANCE OF VALUES TO ADVOCACY SITUATIONS TO EXPLORE THE WAYS IN WHICH VALUES AFFECT HOW PEOPLE IN ADVOCACY SITUATIONS RELATE TO ON ANOTHER TO DISCUSS HOW CONFIDENTIALITY AFFECTS ADVOCACY WORK TO UNDERSTAND THE NEED FOR ETHICS IN ADVOCACY TO LOOK AT BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY TO LOOK AT THE PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY FROM A STRENGTHS POINT OF VIEW TO NAME THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE ADVOCATE TO DEVELOP AND PRACTICE EMPATHETIC COMMUNICATION SKILLS TO SHOW HOW THE ADVOCATE’S STYLE, CONDUCT AND PERSONAL PREFERENCES AFFECT AN ADVOCACY SITUATION TO UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF EMPOWERMENT IN THE ADVOCACY PROCESS TO DEVELOP TECHNIQUES FOR ASSESSING ADVOCACY SITUATIONS TO OBSERVE AND PRACTICE SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY TO LEARN HOW TO ACCESS COMMUNITY RESOURCES TO LEARN HOW TO APPROACH LARGER SYSTEMS SUCH AS PROVINCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES, LOCAL MLA’s AND PROVINCIAL MINISTERS v
  6. 6. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY ADVOCACY TRAINING Course Outline MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY DEFINITIONS OF ADVOCACY THE BIG PICTURE: ADVOCACY AS A SYSTEM VALUES A STRENGTH’S PERSPECTIVE EMPATHY COMMUNICATION ROAD BLOCKS TO EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY LEARNED HELPLESSNESS MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK ETHICS CONFIDENTIALITY ADVOCACY STYLES (CLIENT/ADVOCATE) MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF AN ADVOCATE EMPOWERMENT ASSESSING IF AND HOW YOU CAN HELP START THE PROCESS OF ADVOCACY ENDING AN ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER DO’S AND DON’TS FOR ADVOCACY ADVOCATING TECHNIQUES THIRTEEN THINGS EVERY ADVOCATE SHOULD KNOW COMMUNITY RESOURCES vi
  7. 7. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY GOALS: 1. TO THINK ABOUT ADVOCACY INTERACTIONS AS TAKING PLACE WITHIN A SYSTEM 2. TO DISCUSS THE IMPORTANCE OF VALUES TO ADVOCACY SITUATIONS 3. TO EXPLORE THE WAYS IN WHICH VALUES AFFECT HOW PEOPLE IN ADVOCACY SITUATIONS RELATE TO ON ANOTHER OUTLINE: MODULE 1 1. DEFINITIONS OF ADVOCACY 2. THE BIG PICTURE – ADVOCACY AS A SYSTEM 3. VALUES 4. A STRENGTH’S PERSPECTIVE 5. EMPATHY 6. COMMUNICATION SKILLS 7. ROADBLOCKS TO EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY 1
  8. 8. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY DEFINITIONS OF ADVOCACY: WHAT IS ADVOCACY? ADVOCACY IS THE DELIBERATE EFFORT TO CHANGE PRIVATE AND PUBLIC DECISIONMAKING WITH RESPECT TO POLICY, ORGANIZATIONAL AND PERSONAL BEHAVIOURS. IT IS A DELIBERATE ATTEMPT TO CHANGE HOW THINGS WORK IN ORDER TO ATTEMPT TO CHANGE HOW THINGS ARE. ADVOCACY TO REDUCE POVERTY: IS THE PROCESS OF INFLUENCING DECISION-MAKING SUCH THAT LIVING CONDITIONS (ECONOMICAL, CULTURAL, PERSONAL, POLITICAL AND ECO SYSTEMATIC) ARE HEALTHIER. A PREREQUISITE TO AND FOR HUMAN WELL-BEING 1. POLITICAL WELL-BEING - INCREASED EQUITY IN POWER MORE OPPORTUNITIES FOR POLITICAL PARTICIPATION BY RELATIVELY POWERLESS GROUPS PERSONAL/COMMUNITY SAFETY AND SECURITY 2. ECONOMIC WELL-BEING - INCOME ADEQUACY AND GREATER INCOME EQUITY - ADEQUATE FOOD, SHELTER AND BASIC GOODS AND SERVICES - EDUCATION AND LITERACY ENRICHMENT - ACCESS TO WELL PAID JOBS 3. CULTURAL WELL-BEING - RESPECT AND TOLERANCE FOR DIVERSITIES IN GENDER, ETHNO CULTURAL HISTORY, AGE, RELIGIOUS PREFERENCE, SEXUAL PREFERENCE AND FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES CREATION OF COMMUNITY AND SPIRITUAL NEEDS 4. PERSONAL WELL-BEING - 2 PERCEPTION OF CONTROL IN ONE’S LIFE HEALTHY AND SUPPORTIVE SOCIAL NETWORKS ABILITY TO CONTRIBUTE IN MEANINGFUL WAYS TO ONE’S COMMUNITY OPPORTUNITIES FOR RECREATION
  9. 9. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY DEFINITIONS OF ADVOCACY (CONTINUED): SELF-ADVOCACY IS: - STANDING UP FOR YOUR RIGHTS - SPEAKING OR ACTING FOR YOURSELF - FIGHTING FOR PERSONAL RIGHTS OR AGAINST PERSONAL DISCRIMINATION - DECIDING WHAT IS BEST FOR YOU AND TAKING CHARGE OF GETTING IT INDIVIDUAL ADVOCACY IS: - A PERSON OR GROUP REPRESENTING THE RIGHTS AND INTERESTS OF ON OTHER PERSON - ACTING WITH AND FOR A PERSON TO MAKE SURE THEIR NEEDS AND VIEWPOINTS ARE RESPECTED AND THAT FAIR PRACTICES ARE USED IN THE DECISION MAKING THAT AFFECTS THEM (BCCPAC, 1995) CAUSE ADVOCACY IS: (ALSO KNOW AS FORMAL, SYSTEMS OR LEGAL ADVOCACY) - INFLUENCING SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS TO BRING ABOUT CHANGE FOR GROUPS OF PEOPLE - MAY INFLUENCE SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS TO BRING ABOUT CHANGE FOR GROUPS OF PEOPLE 3
  10. 10. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY WHY ADVOCATE? (FROM SENIORS AS LEADERS: A GUIDE FOR LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT ALBERTA COUNCIL ON AGING, P. 35) IN ACTION THROUGH ADVOCACY BY J. MCNIVEN. 1. IF THE DECISION-MAKERS DO NOT HEAR ABOUT PROBLEMS, THEY WILL ASSUME THERE ARE NO PROBLEMS 2. GROUPS (AND INDIVIDUALS) THAT ADVOCATE ARE MORE LIKELY TO HAVE THEIR INTERESTS REPRESENTED FAIRLY 3. ADVOCACY IS OFTEN MOST EFFECTIVE WHEN CARRIED OUT BY PEOPLE WHO ORGANIZE ON THEIR OWN BEHALF 4. THE SKILLS AND CONFIDENCE GAINED THROUGH ADVOCACY CAN BE USED IN OTHER SITUATIONS THINGS WILL CONTINUE TO GET WORSE UNTIL ENOUGH OF US WAKE UP AND TAKE CHARGE. S. M. ABULLAH, 1995 4
  11. 11. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY WHAT GIVES US THE RIGHT TO ADVOCATE? 1. THE LEGITIMACY OF THE CAUSE 2. THE LEGAL, MORAL OR CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS OF PEOPLE SEEKING ADVOCACY 3. THE MANDATE OR PRACTICE OF SPONSORING AGENCIES 4. PROFESSIONAL CODES OF ETHICS, OR PRINCIPLES WE LIVE BY “IN GERMANY THEY FIRST CAME FOR THE COMMUNISTS, AND I DIDN’T SPEAK UP BECAUSE I WASN’T A COMMUNIST. THEN THEY CAME FOR THE JEWS, AND I DIDN’T SPEAK UP BECAUSE I WASN’T A JEW. THEN THEY CAME FOR THE TRADE UNIONISTS, AND I DIDN’T SPEAK UP BECAUSE I WASN’T A TRADE UNIONIST. THEN THEY CAME FOR THE CATHOLICS, AND I DIDN’T SPEAK UP BECAUSE I WAS PROTESTANT. THEN THEY CAME FOR ME, AND BY THAT TIME NO ONE WAS LEFT TO SPEAK UP.” AUTHOR UNKNOWN SOURCE: ANN LANDERS COLUMN 5
  12. 12. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY THE BIG PICTURE: ADVOCACY AS A SYSTEM THE BIG PICTURE LOOKS AT ADVOCACY AS A SYSTEM POWER (IS LIKE) A PYRAMID WHERE THE PERSON AT THE TOP IS SEEN AS POWERFUL AND PEOPLE AT THE BOTTOM FEEL THEY HAVE LITTLE POWER. WHAT THEY DO NOT REALIZE IS THAT IS TAKES A LOT OF PEOPLE TO HOLD UP THE PERSON(S) IN THE POWER AT THE TOP. E.D. TAYLOR 1987 AND AT THE WAY IN WHICH ALL PARTS OF THE SYSTEM INTERACT WITH EACH OTHER. THERE ARE COMMONAL TIES AND DIFFERENCES AMONG ALL PARTS OF THE SYSTEM. DISCOVERING WHAT THOSE ARE AND FINDING WAYS TO MAKE THOSE COMMONAL TIES AND DIFFERENCES WORK ON OUR BEHALF, IS AN IMPORTANT PART OF BEING AN EFFECTIVE ADVOCATE WORKING WITH SYSTEMS. FOR OUR PURPOSES, THE WORD ‘SYSTEM’ IS USED IN THIS MANUAL TO DESCRIBE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY, AN ADVOCATE (WHEN THERE IS ONE), AND THE TARGET SYSTEM. IT IS SOMETIMES DIFFICULT TO FIND EXACTLY THE RIGHT WORDS TO TALK ABOUT THE COMPONENTS OF AN ADVOCACY SYSTEM. A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY COULD BE A SELF-ADVOCATE, OR HE OR SHE COULD BE KNOW AS A CLIENT, A PATIENT, A RESIDENT, A CONSUMER, A MEMBER OF A CONGREGATION OR A SERVICE USER. IN ORDER TO BE AS INCLUSIVE AS POSSIBLE, THIS MANUAL USES THE TERM ‘PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY’ TO REFER TO THE PERSON WHO WANTS THE ADVOCATING DONE. THE PLACE WHERE ADVOCACY IS BEING DONE CAN BE EQUALLY AS AWKWARD TO DESCRIBE. 6
  13. 13. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY ADVOCACY OCCURS BECAUSE SOMEONE, OR A NUMBER OF PEOPLE, IS EXPERIENCING DIFFICULTY WITH THE “SYSTEM”. IN SOME CASES ADVOCACY WORK WILL BE WITH AN INDIVIDUAL WITHIN A BUREAUCRACY; AT OTHER TIMES THE WORK WILL FOCUS ON THE POLICIES, AND REGULATIONS OF THE SYSTEM ITSELF. A BUREAUCRACY COULD BE A GOVERNMENT AGENCY, AN ORGANIZATION, A BUSINESS, OR AN INSTITUTION; IN THIS MANUAL WE CALL IT THE “TARGET SYSTEM”. AN ADVOCATE CAN BE A SELF-ADVOCATE OR SOMEONE WHO IS ADVOCATING FOR OR ON BEHALF OF SOMEONE ELSE. ADVOCATES CAN ALSO BE PEOPLE WHO WORK WITHIN THE TARGET SYSTEM OR OTHER PEOPLE WHO DO ADVOCACY AS PART OF THEIR JOB. REGARDLESS OF THE TERMINOLOGY USED, IN EVERY ADVOCACY SITUATION AT LEAST THREE POINTS OF VIEW ARE REPRESENTED; 1. THE PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY, 2. THE TARGET SYSTEM AND 3. THE ADVOCATE. PARTICIPANTS ARE ASKED TO KEEP TWO THINGS IN MIND WHEN THINKING ABOUT ADVOCACY: 1. THAT AN ADVOCATE REPRESENTS ONLY ONE PART OF THE ADVOCACY SYSTEM 2. THAT IGNORING THE PERSPECTIVES OF THE OTHER PARTS OF THE SYSTEM MAY POTENTIALLY DO A DISSERVICE IN THE ADVOCACY PROCESS. EVERY PERSON INVOLVED IN THE SITUATION BRINGS HIS OR HER OWN UNIQUE PERSPECTIVE TO IT, BASED ON THEIR OWN BELIEFS, VALUES, KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE. AN ADVOCATE IS CHALLENGED TO FIND SOME COMMON GROUND TO MOVE FORWARD IN THE SITUATION WHILE, AT THE SAME TIME, RESPECTING EACH INDIVIDUAL INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS INCLUDING HER/HIM SELF. 7
  14. 14. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY THE BIG PICTURE: AN ADVOCACY SYSTEM PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY ADVOCATE 8 TARGET SYSTEM
  15. 15. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY VALUES • • ONE’S PRINCIPLES OR STANDARDS ONE’S JUDGMENT OF WHAT IS VALUABLE OR IMPORTANT IN LIFE VALUES ARE ALWAYS PRESENT. THEY DETERMINE INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR AND AFFECT ALL GROUP DECISIONS. WHEN PEOPLE UNDERSTAND THEIR OWN VALUES AND HOW THOSE MAY BE SHARED (OR NOT SHARED) BY OTHERS, THEY ARE BETTER ABLE TO UNDERSTAND THE BEHAVIOUR AND DECISIONS OF THEIRS. (LIVING OUR VALUES: A GUIDE TO REACHING COMMON VALUES AND PUTTING THEM INTO PRACTICE – SPARC OF BC, 1995) SELF VALUES: ARE A WAY OF UNDERSTANDING YOUR ATTITUDES TOWARD YOURSELF ARE A WAY OF UNDERSTANDING YOUR REACTIONS TOWARDS OTHERS INDIVIDUAL VALUES: ARE AN ATTITUDES ARE A WAY OF VIEWING AND REACTING TO OTHER HUMAN BEINGS CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE WHEN EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF BEHAVIOUR ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES: ARE AT THE HEART OF WHAT AN ORGANIZATION STANDS FOR ARE SHARED BY THE PEOPLE IN THE ORGANIZATION HELP DETERMINE PRIORITIES 9
  16. 16. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY VALUES AND BELIEFS VALUES ARE STRONG BELIEFS ABOUT HOW THINGS OUGHT TO BE B.W. Sheafer et.al, 1994 A BELIEF IS A CONVICTION, A FIRM OPINION OR AN ACCEPTANCE OF (A THING) Oxford Dictionary THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND ABOUT VALUES AND BELIEFS: • WE FILTER ALL EXPERIENCE THROUGH OUR OWN LENS OF VALUES, BELIEFS, KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE • OTHER PEOPLE’S VALUES AND BELIEFS ARE DIFFERENT FROM OUR OWN • OUR OWN VALUES CHANGE OVER TIME; SO DO THE VALUES OF OTHERS • BEFORE WE CAN MOVE TOWARD WHAT WE WANT, WE HAVE TO KNOW WHAT WE VALUE; THAT IS, WHAT IS IMPORTANT TO US • WHEN OUR OWN VALUE SYSTEMS ARE THREATENED, WE REACT; SO DO OTHERS IN THE ADVOCACY SYSTEM 10
  17. 17. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE ADVOCATE • COMMITTED TO TAKING WHATEVER ACTIONS ARE NECESSARY TO BRING ABOUT CHANGE • ABLE TO PERSUADE OTHERS • WILLING TO PUT THE NEEDS OF THE PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY FIRST • COMMITTED TO GROWING AND LEARNING AND TESTING AND RISKING • TACTICAL-ABLE TO SENSE WHEN TO MOVE AHEAD AND WHEN NOT TO MOVE AHEAD, WHEN TO PUSH AND WHEN TO WITHDRAW, WHEN TO BE HIGHLY VISIBLE AND WHEN TO BE SUBTLE • RESILIENT-ABLE TO THINK THROUGH MORE THAN ONE STEP AT A TIME, BUT ABLE TO MOVE FORWARD ONE STEP AT A TIME • PERSISTENT • AWARE OF HOW OUR OWN VALUES INFLUENCE THE WORK IN THE ADVOCACY SYSTEM • ABLE TO ADAPT TO EACH ADVOCACY SITUATION AS UNIQUE; DOES NOT RELY ON A SET OF RULES ABOUT “HOW TO DO ADVOCACY” • HAS A POWER “WITH”, RATHER THAN A POWER “OVER” PERSPECTIVE • KNOWS WHEN TO QUIT 11
  18. 18. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY CHARACTERISTICS (CON’T) DIPLOMATIC EMPATHETIC ABLE TO ACCESS COMMUNITY RESOURCES ABLE TO LISTEN ABLE TO GO TO BAT FOR RESPECTFUL FRIENDLY UNDERSTANDING REALISTIC SUPPORTIVE ABLE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE AND INFO HONEST DEDICATED ABLE TO FIND FUNDING DETERMINED ABLE TO GET NEEDS KNOWN AND MET GOAL ORIENTED COMMITTED ENCOURAGING COMPASSIONATE ABLE TO SET PRIORITIES KNOWLEDGEABLE ABOUT SYSTEMS AND RIGHTS WILLING TO GO THE EXTRA MILE VALIDATING RESOURCEFUL ABLE TO PROVIDE EMERGENCY HELP STRENGTH OBJECTIVITY CLEARNESS 12 PRACTICAL EMPOWERING CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENT COURAGEOUS CREATIVE NONJUDGMENTAL
  19. 19. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY A STRENGTHS PERSPECTIVE ATTENTION TO PEOPLE’S INABILITY TO COPE IS A CENTRAL EXPRESSION OF THE PREVAILING PERSPECTIVES ON HELPING. A. WEICK ET AL, 1989 WHAT WE FOCUS ON GETS STRONGER. FOCUSSING ON THE PROBLEM MAKES THE PROBLEM STRONGER. THE LANGUAGE OF HELPING PROFESSIONALS (WHO COULD BE THERAPISTS, SOCIAL WORKERS, DOCTORS, MENTAL HEALTH WORKERS, OR FINANCIAL AID WORKERS) MAY IMPLY THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE PROBLEMS ARE PEOPLE WHO ARE PROBLEMS; PROBLEMS THAT CAN ONLY BE ‘FIXED’ BY ‘EXPERTS’. PEOPLE WHO ARE LABELED PROBLEMS OFTEN GET STUCK WITH LABELS SUCH AS ‘ DEVIANT’, ‘DYSFUNCTIONAL’, ‘DEPENDANT’, ‘TROUBLEMAKER’, ‘WELFARE BUM’, ‘PARASITE’….THE LIST GOES ON AND ON. EXPERTS WHO VIEW PEOPLE AS PROBLEMS MAY CLAIM THEY KNOW WHAT IS BEST FOR THE PERSON AND TRY AND RETAIN PROFESSIONAL CONTROL OVER ‘TREATMENT’. MONEY IS USED TO CREATE MORE AND MORE SERVICES, WHICH PROFESSIONALS THEN DELIVER TO PEOPLE IN ‘NEED’. S. ABDULLAH, 1995 IN THIS WAY, ‘PROBLEM’ PEOPLE MAY COME TO VIEW THEIR ‘SELF’ AS A PROBLEM. THEY COME TO BELIEVE THAT THEY ARE HELPLESS AND DEPENDENT BECAUSE ‘EXPERTS’ SAY THEY ARE. SOMETIMES THEY BEHAVE IN UNPRODUCTIVE WAYS THAT ‘PROVE’ THAT THEY DESERVE ALL THE LABELS THAT PEOPLE ATTACH TO THEM. 13
  20. 20. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY EVERY SINGLE PERSON HAS CAPABILITIES, ABILITIES AND GIFTS. LIVING A GOOD LIFE DEPENDS ON WHETHER THOSE CAPABILITIES CAN BE USED, ABILITIES EXPRESSED AND GIFTS ARE GIVEN. IF THEY ARE, THE PERSON WILL BE VALUED, FEEL POWERFUL AND WELL CONNECTED TO THE PEOPLE AROUND THEM. AND THE COMMUNITY AROUND THE PERSON WILL BE MORE POWERFUL BECAUSE OF THE CONTRIBUTION THE PERSON IS MAKING. J. MCKNIGHT, 1990 14 A STRENGTHS’ PERSPECTIVE LOOKS AT PEOPLE – PEOPLE WHO HAVE THE CAPACITY AND ABILITY TO EITHER MAKE OR PARTICIPATE IN MAKING DECISIONS WHICH AFFECT THEIR OWN LIVES OR THE LIVES OF THEIR FAMILIES. AN EFFECTIVE ADVOCATE HELPS PEOPLE SEEKING ADVOCACY FIND STRENGTHS WHICH LIE WITHIN THEMSELVES IN ORDER TO SPEAK OR ACT ON THEIR OWN BEHALF. AD ADVOCATE WHO INSISTS ON ‘DOING IT FOR’ SOMEONE ELSE IS DOING THEM A GRAVE DISSERVICE AND POSSIBLY REINFORCING THAT PERSON’S SELF IMAGE AS A WEAK AND INCOMPETENT INDIVIDUAL. AN EFFECTIVE ADVOCATE WILL: • • • • • LOOK PAST THE LABELS. THE STEREOTYPES AND THEIR OWN BIASES TO FIND THE STRENGTHS IN PEOPLE SEEKING ADVOCACY LOOK FOR THE TIMES THE PERSON HAS STOOD UP FOR THEMSELVES AND HELP THEM USE THOSE OCCASIONS TO BUILD SELF-RESPECT TRUST THAT MOST OF THE TIME THE PERSON IS CAPABLE OF KNOWING WHAT THEY WANT, WHEN THEY HAVE SUFFICIENT INFORMATION TO MAKE INFORMED CHOICES NOTICE AND APPLAUD EVERY SUCCESS OF THE PERSON, WHETHER THE SUCCESS IS SMALL OR LARGE RECOGNIZE EACH INDIVIDUAL AS A UNIQUE HUMAN BEING
  21. 21. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY EMPATHY REQUIRES THE ABILITY TO SEE THE WORLD THROUGH ANOTHER PERSON’S EYES. IT IS A WAY TO UNDERSTAND THE CONTENT OF ANOTHER PERSON’S EXPERIENCE ALONG WITH THE ACCOMPANYING FEELINGS. G. Egan, 1986 15
  22. 22. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY DEVELOPING EMPATHY EMPATHY, GENUINENESS, HONESTY AND EMPATHY REQUIRES THE ABILITY TO SEE THE WORLD THROUGH ANOTHER PERSON’S EYES. IT IS A WAY TO UNDERSTAND THE CONTENT OF ANOTHER PERSON’S EXPERIENCE ALONG WITH THE ACCOMPANYING FEELINGS. SELF HELP RESOURCE ASSOCIATION, 1995 RESPECT ON THE PART OF AN ADVOCATE ALL HELP A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY TO TELL THEIR STORY, THE FIRST STEP IN THE ADVOCACY PROCESS. THE SAME CHARACTERISTICS ARE ALSO NECESSARY TO ESTABLISH A RELATIONSHIP WITH THE FOCAL SYSTEM IN TRYING TO FIND COMMON GROUND TO RESOLVE THE ADVOCACY SITUATION. TO HELP THE PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY GET FOCUSSED. AN ADVOCATE’S SUCCESS IN ESTABLISHING TRUST, MAKING THE PERSON COMFORTABLE AND FINDING OUT AS MUCH DETAIL AS NECESSARY OFTEN DEPEND ON THEIR ABILITY TO BE EMPATHETIC. HOWEVER, WHILE IT IS ESSENTIAL TO BE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND THE PERSON’S SITUATION FROM THEIR POINT OF VIEW AND HOW IT HAS AFFECTED THEM, THE FOCUS IN THE ADVOCACY WORK IS NOT ON CHANGING FEELINGS, BUT ON CHANGING THE SITUATION; KEEPING THE TWO ISSUES SEPARATE IS OFTEN A CHALLENGE FOR ADVOCATES. 16
  23. 23. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY BUILDING TRUST AND RAPPORT – NON-VERBALLY EYE CONTACT: LISTEN BEFORE YOU LEAP. A.E. IVEY, 1994 • • • • WHEN WE UNDERSTAND THAT WHAT IS SAID IS BEING SAID BY AN INDIVIDUAL, WHO IS PLACING INTERPRETATION ON EVERY WORD, TO ANOTHER WHO IS RECEIVING THOSE WORDS THROUGH THEIR OWN SET OF INTERPRETIVE FILTERS; WE BECOME AMAZED THAT ANYTHING IS UNDERSTOOD BETWEEN SENDERS AND RECEIVERS. S. VINEYARD, 1990 WHEN AN ISSUE IS INTERESTING, PUPILS DILATE WHEN A PERSON IS UNCOMFORTABLE, PUPILS MAY CONTRACT BE AWARE OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN MAKING EYE CONTACT BE AWARE OF COMFORT LEVELS IN MAKING EYE CONTACT ATTENTIVE BODY LANGUAGE: • • • • • • TAKE CUES FROM THE OTHER PERSON BE AWARE OF YOUR OWN BODY IN RELATION TO THE OTHER PERSON LEAN TOWARDS THE PERSON FACE PERSON SQUARELY ADOPT ON OPEN POSTURE, AVOID CROSSED ARMS AND LEGS ASSUME A RELAXED POSITION VOCAL QUALITIES: • • • • BE AWARE OF HOW THE OTHER PERSON IS REACTING TO YOUR VOICE TAKE CUES FROM THE OTHER PERSON BE AWARE OF VERBAL UNDERLINING USE PROMPTS SUCH AS “UH-HUH, HMM, MMM” VERBAL TRACKING • • • STAYING ON TOPIC GIVE THE OTHER PERSON YOUR UNDIVIDED ATTENTION BE AWARE OF PAYING SELECTIVE ATTENTION 17
  24. 24. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY ROADBLOCKS TO EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY SELF-ADVOCATES ARE OFTEN PEOPLE WITH HIGH FINANCIAL, EMOTIONAL, OR SELF-ESTEEM STAKED IN THE OUTCOME OF THE ADVOCACY WORK. THE PASSION AND COMMITMENT THEY BRING TO THEIR OWN CAUSE MAY CAUSE THEM TO LOSE SIGHT OF THE IDEA THAT HOW THE BATTLE IS FOUGHT IS OFTEN AS IMPORTANT AS THE END RESULT. VOLUNTEER ADVOCATES ARE USUALLY HIGHLY MOTIVATED, CARING PEOPLE WHO DO ADVOCACY WORK BECAUSE THEY WANT TO HELP. THEIR ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS INFLUENCE BOTH THE PEOPLE THEY ARE TRYING TO HELP AND PEOPLE IN THE TARGET SYSTEM. AT THIS TIME WE’LL LOOK AT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A VOLUNTEER ADVOCATE AND A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY; LATER IN THE TRAINING, WE WILL TALK ABOUT OTHER STRATEGIES TO INFLUENCE TARGET SYSTEMS. ADVOCATES MAY NOT BE CONSCIOUSLY AWARE THAT SIMPLY CALLING THEMSELVES AN ADVOCATE PUTS THEM IN AN AUTHORITY OR ‘EXPERT’ POSITION IN THE MINDS OF SOME OF THOSE THEY TRY TO HELP. IF A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY PERCEIVES AN ADVOCATE TO BE ‘POWERFUL’, OR IF THE PERSON INSISTS THAT AN ADVOCATE TAKE CONTROL AND ‘FIX’ THE SITUATION, AN UNAWARE ADVOCATE MIGHT SLIP INTO A POSITION OF HAVING POWER OVER RATHER THAN POWER WITH. THEY MAY INADVERTENTLY TAKE AWAY THE POWER OF AN ADVOCACY PARTNER; THEIR BEHAVIOUR MIGHT BECOME DISEMPOWERING RATHER THAN EMPOWERING. THEY DENY A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY THE OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN TO ADVOCATE ON THEIR OWN BEHALF. 18
  25. 25. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY AN INEFFECTIVE ADVOCATE MAY: • UNCONSCIOUSLY PERPETUATE THE IDEA OF THEMSELVES BEING THE ONLY PEOPLE WHO HAVE THE POWER AND ABILITY TO MAKE CHANGE, WHILE THE PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY HAS NONE. “ACTIONS SPEAK LOUDER THAN WORDS”, TO USE AN OLD CLICHÉ. • BE UNAWARE OF THEIR OWN NEED FOR POWER; TO CONTROL BOTH THE ADVOCACY PROCESS AND THE OUTCOME. • BE UNAWARE OF DIFFERENCES IN STATUS AND CULTURAL CONTEXT; FOR EXAMPLE, INFERRING THAT WHITE, MIDDLE CLASS VALUES ARE “NORMAL”. • BE UNAWARE OF THEIR OWN STEREOTYPES AND BIASES, AND TREAT A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY IN A PATRONIZING OR INFERIOR MANNER. STEREOTYPES CAN EXIST BECAUSE OF RACE, GENDER, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, AGE, ETHNIC GROUP, MARITAL STATUS OR SOCIAL/ECONOMIC CLASS. 19
  26. 26. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY ADVOCATES NEED TO FEEL EMPOWERED, BUT SHOULD BE CAREFUL NOT TO FEEL EMPOWERED AT THE EXPENSE OF THOSE THEY WOULD HELP. SOURCE UNKNOWN ROAD BLOCKS TO EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY SPECIFIC ROADBLOCKS THAT CAN GET IN THE WAY OF BUILDING EFFECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS ARE: • ADVICE-GIVERS WHO ASSUME THE KNOW ALL THE FACTS ABOUT THE SITUATION ARE PROBABLY DOING MORE HARM THAN GOOD. M. CASE, 1992 • • • • • • • • CONTROL OVER OTHERS, OVER SITUATIONS AND OVER SELF ARE SIMILAR BUT DIFFERENT. T. WELLS, 1980 20 USING ‘JARGON’ OR OTHER WORDS THE OTHER PERSON DOESN’T UNDERSTAND CALLING ONESELF AN ‘EXPERT’ TALKING TOO MUCH ABOUT ONESELF TALKING ABOUT OTHER PEOPLE OR THEIR SITUATION BEING CRITICAL OR PEOPLE, NOT THE SITUATION TRYING TO IMPOSE THEIR OWN SOLUTIONS ON THE SITUATION TALKING CONSTANTLY ABOUT BEING VERY BUSY OR ABOUT ‘IMPORTANT’ THINGS THAT HAVE TO BE DONE TRYING TO CONTROL THE OTHER PERSON NOT TAKING THE TIME TO ESTABLISH THE FACTS OF THE SITUATION
  27. 27. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY LEARNED HELPLESSNESS IN ORDER TO SURVIVE THE LARGER SOCIETY, MEMBERS OF OPPRESSED GROUPS ARE FORCED TO COME TO TERMS WITH A POTENT FORCE THAT CONSTANTLY, AND IN MANY WAYS, SAYS THEY ARE NO GOOD. THIS IS TRULY AN IMPOSSIBLE DILEMMA, AND IT IS NOT SUPRISING THAT PEOPLE REACT WITH RAGE AND FEAR, TURNING INWARD AGAINST THEMSELVES OR OUTWARD AGAINST OTHERS. ONE OF THE LESS CONSTRUCTIVE WAYS PEOPLE MAY USE TO COPE WITH THEIR SITUATION IS LEARNED HELPLESSNESS, WHICH MAY CONSCIOUSLY OR UNCONSCIOUSLY BE ADOPTED AS A MECHANISM OF DEFENCE. N. I. BRILL, 1990 THE NEXT STEP IN UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION IS TO UNDERSTAND HOW FEELING CAN AFFECT BEHAVIOUR. THERE IS A CONCEPT IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCE WHICH IS CALLED ‘LEARNED HELPLESSNESS’. A PERSON WHO HAS EXPERIENCED LEARNED HELPLESSNESS MAY FEEL THAT: • THEY LACK CONTROL OVER THEIR LIFE • IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO CHANGE THEIR SITUATION • NOTHING THEY DO AS AN INDIVIDUAL WILL MAKE A DIFFERENCE • THE ‘SYSTEM’ IS TOO BIG AND TOO POWERFUL • NO ONE CARES; THE TURN OVER IN HELPERS IS TOO HIGH • THEY ARE CAUGHT IN A SITUATION NOT OF THEIR OWN MAKING • THEY ARE DISCRIMINATED AGAINST BECAUSE OF CULTURAL/RACIAL/RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONS, FOR EXAMPLE, WOMEN, NATIVES, PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES, PEOPLE ON INCOME ASSISTANCE OR UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 21
  28. 28. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 1: TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY PEOPLE WHO HAVE EXPERIENCED LEARNED HELPLESSNESS MAY REACT WITH BEHAVIOURS THAT ARE DESTRUCTIVE TO THEMSELVES OR TO OTHERS. THEY MAY: • • LASH OUT • WITHDRAW; DO NOTHING; GIVE UP • PUT THEMSELVES DOWN • DENY THEY ARE EXPERIENCING DIFFICULTIES • UNCRITICALLY ACCEPT GOALS AND SOLUTIONS SUGGESTED BY OTHERS • MANIPULATE THE SITUATION IN INDIRECT WAYS • BE SELECTIVE ABOUT THE INFORMATION TO GIVE TO AN ADVOCATE • STRUGGLE AGAINST THEIR POWERLESSNESS BY TRYING TO ‘PROVE’ THEMSELVES • BLAME OTHERS IF THEY ARE DISAPPOINTED • 22 EXAGGERATE THE NEGATIVE – ACT DUMB OR BE OVERLY DEPENDENT HAVE UNREASONABLE EXPECTATIONS OF THE ADVOCACY PROCESS
  29. 29. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK GOALS: 1. TO DISCUSS HOW CONFIDENTIALITY AFFECTS ADVOCACY WORK 2. TO UNDERSTAND THE NEED FOR ETHICS IN ADVOCACY 3. TO LOOK AT BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY OUTLINE: 1. ETHICS 2. CONFIDENTIALITY 3. ADVOCACY STYLES (CLIENT/ADVOCACY) 23
  30. 30. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK ETHICS IN MODULE 1, WE LOOKED AT VALUES FROM THE POINTS OF VIEW OF A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY, AND ADVOCATE, AND A FOCAL SYSTEM. WE WILL LOOK AT HOW BEHAVIOURS AND ATTITUDES CAN HAVE A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON ADVOCACY SITUATIONS. A DISCUSSION OF ETHICS CAN HELP TO GIVE A STRONG SENSE OF HOW PEOPLE SHOULD BE TREATED, BOTH YOU AND THE PEOPLE YOU DEAL WITH. VALUES ARE STRONG BELIEFS THAT ARE IMPORTANT TO PEOPLE OR TO GROUPS. ETHICS COME FROM VALUES. ETHICS DEAL WITH MORAL PRINCIPLES OR WITH HOW THINGS OUGHT TO BE. ETHICS INFLUENCE ACTIONS. FOR EXAMPLE: TWO ADVOCATES MAY SHARE A SIMILAR VALUE; THEY BELIEVE THAT IT IS IMPORTANT TO WORK FOR THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY. ONE OF THE ADVOCATES PLACES HIGH VALUE ON HONESTY IN ALL SITUATIONS. IF THIS ADVOCATE MEETS A PERSON WHO STATE S THAT SHE INTENDS TO COMMIT FRAUD IN ORDER TO GET SOMETHING SHE NEEDS FROM A PARTICULAR SYSTEM, THIS ADVOCATE WILL ADVISE THAT PERSON TO BE HONEST IN HER DEALINGS, EVEN IF SHE DOES NOT GET WHAT SHE WANTS. SHE WILL PROBABLE REFUSE TO TAKE THIS ADVOCACY SITUATION IF THE PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY CHOOSES TO BE DISHONEST. ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR HAS IMPLICATION BEYOND THE ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP. AS STATED EARLIER, ETHICS DEALS WITH WHAT IS MORALLY RIGHT AND HOW THINGS OUGHT TO BE. WHILE IT IS TRUE THAT AN ADVOCATE CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE BEHAVIOUR OF SOMEONE SHE IS ADVOCATING FOR, SHE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR HER ACTIONS AND ATTITUDES. IF AN ADVOCATE SUGGESTS, AS IN THE EXAMPLE USED, THAT FRAUD IS ACCEPTABLE, SHE MAY BE SETTING THE PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY UP FOR, AT LEAST, BEING CUT OFF FROM ANY BENEFITS SHE CURRENTLY RECEIVES, AND AT WORST, FACING CRIMINAL CHARGES. IT IS IMPORTANT TO REALIZE AS WELL THAT IF AN ADVOCATE IS BELIEVED NOT TO BE HONEST, THEN SHE IS JEOPARDIZING HER OWN STANDING IN THE COMMUNITY AND UNDERMINING HER POTENTIAL TO EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY WORK IN THE FUTURE. 24
  31. 31. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK SAMPLE CODE OF ETHICS PREAMBLE ADVOCACY IS BASED ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT THERE ARE FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS WHICH MUST BE PROTECTED AND WHICH ARE OR SHOULD BE ENFORCEABLE FY LAWS AND POLICIES. ADVOCACY CAN BE DEFINED AS: THE ACT OF SPEAKING FOR, REPRESENTING ON BEHALF OF ONESELF ANOTHER PERSON A GROUP OF PEOPLE AN IDEA IN ORDER TO CHANGE A ‘SYSTEM’ THAT THE ADVOCACY PROCESS IS FOCUSSING ON. THE SYSTEM MAY HAVE VIOLATED THE RIGHTS OF, OR DISCRIMINATED AGAINST, ANY INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP. ETHICS DEALS WITH THE QUESTION OF WHAT IS MORALLY RIGHT AND WITH HOW THINGS OUGHT TO BE. ETHICAL PRINCIPLES COME FROM VALUES AND ARE USED TO HELP MAKE DIFFICULT DECISIONS ABOUT THE ‘RIGHT THING TO DO’. ETHICAL PRINCIPLES THEMSELVES HAVE LITTLE MEANING UNTIL THEY ARE TRANSLATED INTO HOW AN ADVOCATE ACTUALLY BEHAVES – HOW THEY ‘DO’ ADVOCACY. ADVOCATES ARE ETHICALLY RESPONSIBLE TO PEOPLE SEEKING ADVOCACY, TO THEIR AGENCIES OR ORGANIZATIONS, AND TO THEMSELVES IN ANY GIVEN ADVOCACY SITUATION. ADVOCATES ARE ALSO RESPONSIBLE TO BEHAVE ETHICALLY IN THEIR RELATIONS WITH THE TARGET SYSTEM AND IN THE COMMUNITY. HOWEVER, WHENEVER POSSIBLE, PRIORITY WILL BE GIVE TO THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE INDIVIDUALS OR GROUPS THAT ARE SEEKING ADVOCACY. (TAKEN FROM: PENTICTON ADVOCACY NETWORK, 1997) 25
  32. 32. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK PRINCIPLES: A. AN ADVOCATE IS RESPONSIBLE TO PEOPLE SEEKING ADVOCACY BY: 1. RESPECTING THEIR DIGNITY AND WORTH AND BY SETTING AND KEEPING AN APPROPRIATE EMOTIONAL DISTANCE IN THE ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP 2. RESPECTING THEIR RIGHT TO FIND THEIR OWN SOLUTIONS BY WORKING WITH THEM TO DEFINE THEIR PROBLEM, GOAL AND ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN 3. PROVIDING THEM WITH ADVOCACY TOOLS AND HELPING THEM TO LEARN SELF ADVOCACY SKILLS 4. BEING REASONABLE AND HONEST ABOUT THEIR OVERALL CHANCES FOR SUCCESS IN AN ADVOCACY SITUATION 5. PROTECTING AND MAINTAINING THEIR CONFIDENTIALITY UNLESS VERBAL OR WRITTEN CONSENT IS GIVEN OR UNLESS BREAKING CONFIDENTIALITY IS REQUIRED BY LAW, SUCH AS IN THE CASE OF CHILD ABUSE OR NEGLECT 6. ADVISING THEM TO APPROACH THE ADVOCACY PROCESS HONESTLY, AND INFORMING THEM ABOUT CONSEQUENCES AND RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH THEIR PLANNED ACTIONS 7. ADVISING FOR FAIR TREATMENT ON THE BASIS OF LAWS OR POLICIES; WHEN LAWS OR POLICIES ARE NOT IN THE BEST INTEREST OF A PERSON OR GROUP, THEN ADVOCATING FOR CHANGE AT THAT LEVEL 8. ACTING PROMPTLY AND DILIGENTLY TO REPRESENT THEM UNTIL THE SITUATION IS RESOLVED OR THE ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP HAS ENDED 9. AVOIDING ANY FALSE, MISLEADING OR UNFAIR STATEMENTS OR CLAIMS ABOUT THE ADVOCACY PROCESS, THE ROLE, SKILLS OR QUALIFICATIONS OF AN ADVOCATE 10. IDENTIFYING ANY CONFLICTS OR POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST 11. KEEPING UP WITH CURRENT INFORMATION ABOUT ADVOCACY ISSUES, AND USING (AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE) INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED BY A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY 26
  33. 33. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK B. AN ADVOCATE IS RESPONSIBLE TO THEIR AGENCY OR ORGANIZATION BY: 1. ADHERING TO THAT ORGANIZATION’S CODE OF ETHICS OR POLICIES ABOUT ADVOCACY 2. SEEKING ADVICE FROM THEIR ORGANIZATION ABOUT THEIR ADVOCACY WORK 3. RELYING ON THEIR AGENCY FOR ADEQUATE SUPPORT WHILE DOING ADVOCACY WORK FOR THAT AGENCY 4. GIVING INPUT INTO THE ORGANIZATION’S POLICIES AND CODE OF ETHICS ABOUT ADVOCACY C. AN ADVOCATE IS RESPONSIBLE TO THE SYSTEM TARGETED FOR ADVOCACY BY: 1. AVOIDING ANY FALSE, MISLEADING OR UNFAIR STATEMENTS OR CLAIMS ABOUT THE ADVOCACY PROCESS, THE ROLE, SKILLS OR QUALIFICATIONS OF AN ADVOCATE 2. ACTING WITH INTEGRITY AND REASONABLENESS TOWARDS TARGET SYSTEM EMPLOYEES 3. PREFERRING A NON ADVERSARIAL APPROACH TO ADVOCACY 4. RECOGNIZING ABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS IMPOSED ON AGENCY EMPLOYEES BY PRACTICES, LAWS AND POLICIES 5. EXPECTING TO BE TREATED ETHICALLY IN RETURN, WITH AGENCY HELP IN ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS AND FINDING INFORMATION D. AN ADVOCATE IS RESPONSIBLE TO THE COMMUNITY BY: 1. RESPECTING AND UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL, SOCIAL AND INDIVIDUAL DIVERSITY 2. PROMPTING PUBLIC AWARENESS OF ADVOCACY AND ADVOCACY SERVICES AVAILABLE 3. IN ACTIVITIES THAT SEEK TO IMPROVE SOCIAL CONDITIONS OR THAT PROMOTE SOCIAL JUSTICE; FOR EXAMPLE, FORMING COALITIONS 27
  34. 34. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK E. ADVOCATE IS RESPONSIBLE TO HER OR HIMSELF: 1. ACTING WITH FAIRNESS, OBJECTIVITY AND INTEGRITY 2. HAVING A HIGH LEVEL OF AWARENESS OF HER OR HIS OWN VALUES, SKILL, KNOWLEDGE, LIMITATIONS AND NEEDS, AND BY STRIVING TO ENSURE THAT THESE DO NOT INTERFERE OR IMPAIR HIS OR HER JUDGEMENT 3. TAKING RESPONSIBILITY FOR EMPOWERING A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY, NOT ATTEMPTING TO ‘FIX’ THE SITUATION 4. RECOGNIZING CONFLICTS OF INTEREST WHICH MAY AFFECT HIS OR HER JUDGEMENT AND ACTIONS AS AN ADVOCATE 5. MAKING REFERRALS WHEN APPROPRIATE AND OBTAINING PROFESSIONAL ADVICE WHEN NECESSARY 6. GETTING EMOTIONAL SUPPORT FOR THEIR ADVOCACY WORK (KEEPING IN MIND THE NEED TO MAINTAIN CONFIDENTIALITY) 28
  35. 35. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK CONFIDENTIALITY CONFIDENTIALITY IS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF ANY HELPING RELATIONSHIP. THE ASSURANCE OF CONFIDENTIALITY IS USUALLY CRUCIAL IN BUILDING TRUST BETWEEN AN ADVOCATE AND A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY. THERE ARE A NUMBER OF SITUATIONS WHERE AN ADVOCATE WILL BE CALLED UPON TO BE AWARE OF THE ISSUE OF CONFIDENTIALITY AND THE RIGHTS OF THE PEOPLE THEY ARE DEALING WITH: • • • • IN DISCUSSIONS WITH AN ADVOCATE’S AGENCY OR ORGANIZATION IN DISCUSSIONS WITH PEOPLE IN THE FOCAL SYSTEM IN CASUAL DISCUSSIONS WITH FRIENDS, FAMILY AND OTHER ADVOCATES IN CASUAL MEETINGS WITH THE PERSON OUTSIDE OF THE ADVOCACY SITUATION ADVOCATES SHOULD BE AWARE THAT THEY ARE OBLIGED TO MAINTAIN CONFIDENTIALITY EVEN AFTER THEY ARE NO LONGER INVOLVED IN AN ADVOCACY SITUATION. AT ALL TIMES, PEOPLE SEEKING ADVOCACY HAVE A RIGHT TO: DETERMINE WHEN, HOW AND TO WHAT EXTENT INFORMATION ABOUT THEMSELVES WILL BE SHARED WITH PEOPLE INCLUDING: • • • • THE FACT THAT THEY ARE USING THE SERVICES OF AN ADVOCATE THE NATURE OF THEIR SITUATION GIVE INFORMATION CONSENT (PREFERABLY IN WRITING) BEFORE INFORMATION ABOUT THEM IS SHARED WITH OTHER PEOPLE. A SAMPLE RELEASE OF INFORMATION FORM IS SHOWN ON PAGE 31 THAT THERE ARE LIMITS TO CONFIDENTIALITY; FOR EXAMPLE: ALL CITIZENS OF ALBERTA ARE REQUIRED BY LAW TO REPORT ANY CASES OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT AND SUSPECTED CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT TO CHILD WELFARE 29
  36. 36. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK • SOMETIMES THE INFORMATION WE RECEIVE IS SO OVERWHELMING WE WANT TO RUN AND SHARE IF WITH SOMEONE. THE ABILITY TO MAINTAIN CONFIDENTIALITY IS A TEST OF MATURITY. J. DIAMOND, PARTICIPANT, 1996 • CONFIDENTIALITY IN VOLUNTEER ADVOCACY WORK IS AN ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUE. THE ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP IS NOT PRIVILEGED UNDER THE LAW, WHICH MEANS THAT ADVOCATES (AND THEIR RECORDS) COULD BE SUBPOENAED IN A COURT OF LAW AN ADVOCATE FEELS THAT THEIR ADVOCACY PARTNER IS GOING TO HURT THEM OR ANOTHER PERSON OR COMMIT A CRIME, THERE MAY BE AN ETHICAL AND MORAL OBLIGATION TO INFORM SOMEONE IN AUTHORITY YOUR OWN AGENCY OR ORGANIZATION MAY HAVE GUIDELINES AROUND CONFIDENTIALITY AND, AS AN ADVOCATE, YOU ARE ACCOUNTABLE TO THEM. IF YOU ARE NOT ALREADY BOUND BY A CODE OF CONFIDENTIALITY, IT IS A GOOD IDEA TO THINK CAREFULLY WHAT IT MEANS IN TERMS OF DOING ADVOCACY WORK; IF YOU ARE NOT TRUSTED, YOU WILL NOT BE AN EFFECTIVE ADVOCATE. Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act 30
  37. 37. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK WOMANSPACE RESOURCE CENTRE #215 740 – 4TH AVENUE SOUTH LETHBRIDGE, ALBERTA T1J 0N7 (403) 329-8338 VOLUNTEER ADVOCATE RELEASE OF INFORMATION To Whom It May Concern: PLEASE BE ADVISED THAT I _______________________________ HEREBY GIVE MY CONSENT TO RELEASE INFORMATION, EITHER VERBAL OR WRITTEN TO THE FOLLOWING INDIVIDUALS, AGENCIES OR GROUPS: CLIENT SIGNATURE ADVOCATE DATE DATE GUARDIAN ALL INFORMATION FILES WILL BE DESTROYED TWO (2) YEARS AFTER THE PROGRAMS LAST CONTACT WITH THE CLIENT. RELEASE OF INFORMATION IS VALID FOR NINETY (90) DAYS. DATE 31
  38. 38. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK OATH OF CONFIDENTIALITY IN RECOGNITION OF THE ROLE OF THE WOMANSPACE RESOURCE CENTRE SOCIETY IN THE DELIVERY OF ADVOCACY, I UNDERSTAND THAT FROM TIME TO TIME I MAY HAVE ACCESS TO CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION ABOUT WOMANSPACE RESOURCE CENTRE CLIENTELE OR OPERATING MATTERS. IN RESPECT OF MY POSITION WITH THE WOMANSPACE RESOURCE CENTRE, WHETHER AS STAFF OR VOLUNTEER, I PLEDGE TO KEEP ANY SUCH PRIVILEGED INFORMATION COMPLETELY CONFIDENTIAL. I UNDERSTAND TO BREECH THIS TRUST IS GR0UNDS FOR IMMEDIATE SEVERANCE OF ANY AND ALL OF MY RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE SOCIETY WITHOUT APPEAL. DATE: _____________________________ SIGNED: ______________________________ NAME: ________________________________ RETURN TO: VOLUNTEER COORDINATOR CENTRE COORDINATOR 32
  39. 39. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK ADVOCACY STYLES A GOOD RULE OF THUMB IS TO START WITH THE MILDEST APPROPRIATE FORM OF ADVOCACY AND MOVE UP TO MORE CONFRONTATIONAL FORMS. THERE ARE SEVERAL ADVANTAGES TO THIS. STRONGER ADVOCACY REPRESENTS A HEAVIER ENERGY AND EMOTIONAL DRAIN ON THE [ADVOCATE] THAN MILDER ADVOCACY. THEREFORE, IF A MILDER FORM WILL ACHIEVE THIS GOAL, THAT IS PREFERRED. J. ROTHMAN, 1994 PROVIDING INFORMATION AND SUPPORT • EXPLAINING POLICY AND REGULATIONS • HELPING THE PERSON WITH THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS • COACHING PERSON TO ACT ON THEIR OWN BEHALF • PUTTING THE COMPLAINT IN WRITING ADVOCATING ON BEHALF OF A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY • MAKING RECOMMENDATIONS ABOUT ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS • URGING THE TARGET SYSTEM TO LOOK AT THE SITUATION FROM ANOTHER PERSPECTIVE • MAKING REASONED ARGUMENTS • CHALLENGE ASSUMPTIONS • USING SPECIAL KNOWLEDGE OF AN AGENCY’S POLICIES AND PROCEDURES PUSHING THE TARGET SYSTEM • GOING TO THE SUPERVISOR • DISCUSSING THE NEXT STEPS; FOR EXAMPLE, GOING PUBLIC, TAKING LEGAL ACTION, TALKING TO THE MLA, ETC. GOING BEYOND THE TARGET SYSTEM • INVOKING A LICENSING, REGULATORY OR FUNDING BODY • TAKING LEGAL ACTION • SEEKING COMMUNITY MEDIA EXPOSURE • HAVING AN ORGANIZED CONSUMER GROUP MOUNT A CAMPAIGN • USING AN OUTSIDE AUTHORITY (GOVERNMENT, ETC) 33
  40. 40. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK ONE ELEMENT OF CONSTANCY IN THE UNCERTAIN, CHANGING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT ON THE ON HAND AND NONPROFIT HUMAN SERVICE ORGANIZATION ON THE OTHER IS PEOPLE. NEW LAWS AND REGULATIONS ARE BEING CREATED AND ADMINISTERED WITH VARYING EFFECT; INSTITUTIONAL POWERS ARE BEING SHIFTED TO NEW LOCATIONS; POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES CHALLENGE VALUES THAT FORMERLY WERE SUPPORTED. BUT THE AGENT OF CHANGE IN ALL OF THESE TRANSACTIONS IS THE HUMAN BEING. AND FOR THAT REASON, THE MOST SUCCESSFUL ADVOCATES WILL BE THOSE WHO ARE EFFECTIVE IN WORKING WITH PEOPLE. THE TRUTH SEEMS SELFEVIDENT, BUT IT DESERVES ELABORATION. R. SUNLEY, 1983 34 CHARACTERISTICS OF DECISION MAKERS WHEN PLANNING HOW TO MAKE CHANGE HAPPEN, A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO ADVOCACY CONSIDERS HOW ALL THE PARTS OF THE SYSTEM WORK TOGETHER. WE HAVE DISCUSSED THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ADVOCATES AND PEOPLE SEEKING ADVOCACY AND HAVE LOOKED AT BOTH STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES IN THOSE PARTS OF THE ADVOCACY SYSTEM. W HILE THERE ARE A NUMBER OF WAYS TO APPROACH A TARGET SYSTEM, STRONG ARGUMENTS CAN BE MADE THAT AN ADVOCATE SHOULD MAKE A SINCERE EFFORT TO UNDERSTAND THE ISSUE FROM THAT SYSTEM’S POINT OF VIEW AND TO UNDERSTAND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PEOPLE WORKING IN IT. UNDERSTANDING A TARGET SYSTEM’S POINT OF VIEW DOES NOT IMPLY AGREEING WITH IT, LIKING IT OR JOINING IT. THE FOLLOWING LIST OF CHARACTERISTICS OF DECISION MAKERS IS TAKEN WITH SOME MINOR MODIFICATIONS FROM “HOW TO BE AN EFFECTIVE ADVOCATE” BY SHARON J. ALEXANDER: • DECISION-MAKERS ARE PEOPLE FIRST AND FOREMOST. THE GOLDEN RULE – TREAT THEM LIKE YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE TREATED – SHOULD BE THE FOUNDATION FOR ALL INTERACTIONS • DECISION-MAKERS VALUE THEIR TIME; MOST ARE BUSY. KEEP THEIR TIME CONSTRAINTS IN MIND WHEN YOU MEET WITH THEM
  41. 41. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK • DECISION-MAKERS ARE GENERALLY WELL MEANING PEOPLE WHO WANT TO HELP OTHERS. THEY MUST CONSIDER ALL THE PEOPLE THEY DEAL WITH, NOT JUST YOUR CASE. LET THEM KNOW YOU UNDERSTAND THIS NEED • DECISION-MAKERS ARE MORE RESPONSIVE TO HONEY THAN VINEGAR. DO NOT ATTACK OR ALIENATE THEM, EVEN WHEN YOU ARE ADAMANTLY OPPOSED TO THE POSITION THEY TAKE. YOU MAY WANT OR NEED THEIR SUPPORT LATER ON A DIFFERENT ISSUE, BUT IT IS UNLIKELY THAT YOU WILL GET IT IF YOU HAVE MADE AN ENEMY • DECISION MAKERS LIKE AND WANT POSITIVE ATTENTION, PARTICULARLY THOSE IN ELECTED POSITIONS • DECISION-MAKERS HAVE PERSONAL VALUES AND BELIEFS WHICH MAY CONFLICT WITH YOURS. RESPECT THEIR RIGHT TO THEIR BELIEFS, JUST AS YOU DO YOUR OWN. WHILE IT MAY BE BETTER TO ACKNOWLEDGE THESE DIFFERENCES AT THE OUTSET, IN OTHER CASES IT MAY BE BETTER TO IGNORE THEM COMPLETELY, FOCUSSING ON ISSUES WHERE AGREEMENT IS POSSIBLE. 35
  42. 42. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK PUSHING BUTTONS • • • THREE WAYS OF UNDERSTANDING THROUGH THE EYES OF OTHERS THROUGH OUR OWN EYES THE OTHER PERSON A. BENJAMI, 1981 __________________________ PEOPLE ARE PEOPLE NO MATTER WHAT THEIR ROLE IN AN ADVOCACY SITUATION IS, WHEN OTHER PEOPLE ARE FACED WITH SITUATIONS THAT ARE STRESSFUL OR UNPLEASANT, THEY • HAVE FELT …LIKE WE DO • CAN BE HURT …LIKE WE CAN • REACT SPONTANEOUSLY …LIKE WE DO 36 SOMETIMES WORKERS IN TARGET SYSTEMS REACT WELL TO ADVOCACY EFFORTS, AND SOMETIMES THEY REACT VERY BADLY. THEY MAY REACT WITH ANGER AND MISTRUST, PARTICULARLY IF THEY FEEL UNDER ATTACK PERSONALLY OR THEY FEEL BLAMED FOR SITUATIONS WHICH MAY BE OUT OF THEIR IMMEDIATE CONTROL. W HEN AS AN ADVOCATE, YOU ARE FACED WITH RUDE AND UNACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOUR, END THE CONVERSATION BY INDICATING THAT COMMUNICATION HAS BROKEN DOWN. ALWAYS THANK THE INDIVIDUAL FOR THEIR TIME. W HEN DEALING WITH GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, DEPENDING ON THE POSITION OF THE PERSON YOU HAVE EXPERIENCED A BREAKDOWN IN COMMUNICATION WITH, ALWAYS CONTACT THE PERSON IN CHARGE OF THE DEPARTMENT. CONTACTING EMPLOYEES OF THE GOVERNMENT CAN BE A LENGTHY PROCESS. SHOULD IT BE NECESSARY TO LEAVE A MESSAGE, BE BRIEF. LEAVE YOUR NAME AND PHONE NUMBER; DO NOT TRY TO EXPLAIN ANY SITUATION OVER THE PHONE. IF THE TIME LINE IS URGENT, AND DEPENDING ON THE NATURE OF THE SITUATION, YOU MAY BE REQUIRED TO CONTACT THE MANAGER OF THE DEPARTMENT. 1. DO NOT ASSUME THAT THE DEPARTMENT IS AVOIDING YOU. THE SUPERVISOR MAY NOT BE AWARE OF YOUR PARTICULAR SITUATION. 2. ONCE YOU HAVE MADE CONTACT, STATE YOUR SITUATION CLEARLY AND CONCISELY; DEFINE YOUR PROBLEM.
  43. 43. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK TELEPHONING THE GOVERNMENT 1. ALWAYS GET THE NAME OF THE PERSON YOU ARE SPEAKING TO AND THEIR JOB TITLE. THIS HELP CREATES ACCOUNTABILITY, AND PROVIDES A REFERENCE CONTACT. RECORD THE TELEPHONE NUMBER AS WELL. 2. ALWAYS BE POLITE NO MATTER HOW FRUSTRATED YOU ARE, OR HOW URGENT OR UNFAIR THE SITUATION IS; DO NOT LOSE YOUR COOL. 3. ALWAYS BE PATIENT. YOU MAY BE TOLD NO MESSAGES CAN BE TAKEN. THIS IS WHERE YOU MOVE UP THE LINE AND ASK TO SPEAK WITH A SUPERVISOR OR LAUNCH A SEPARATE CAMPAIGN REGARDING TELEPHONE ANSWERING IN THE GOVERNMENT. 4. ALWAYS EXPRESS YOURSELF AS CLEARLY AND CONCISELY AS POSSIBLE. DEFINE YOUR PROBLEM OR QUESTIONS AS SUCCINCTLY AS POSSIBLE. CONTACTING SUPERVISORS (SPECIFICALLY ALBERTA FAMILY AND SOCIAL SERVICES) 1. WHEN YOU WISH TO CONTACT A SUPERVISOR, YOU WILL MOST OFTEN BE REQUIRED TO LEAVE A MESSAGE ON VOICE MAIL. BE BRIEF. STATE YOUR NAME, PHONE NUMBER, DATE AND TIME OF CALL. (IF APPLICABLE, GIVE THE NAME OF THE PERSON ON WHOSE BEHALF YOU ARE ADVOCATING FOR.) 2. A SUPERVISOR WILL MOST LIKELY RETURN YOUR CALL WITHIN TWO DAYS OR LESS. BY PROVIDING THE NAME OF THE PERSON ON WHOSE BEHALF YOU ARE ADVOCATING FOR, THE SUPERVISOR CAN BE MORE PREPARED TO WORK TOWARDS SOLUTIONS. 37
  44. 44. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK BEING ON THE DEFENSIVE (ADAPTED FORM T.WELLS 1980 “KEEPING YOUR COOL UNDER FIRE: COMMUNICATING NONDEFENSIVELY” NEW YORK: MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY.) I FEEL I DO (INWARD) I DO (OUTWARDS) CHALLENGED NERVOUS RESENTFUL UNCOMFORTABLE RATIONALIZE CLOSE MY MIND GET HOSTILE WITHDRAW PUT DOWN ANGRY SQUIRM LOSE MY COOL FRUSTRATED INEFFECTIVE GUILTY GIVE PEOPLE LABELS BLAME OTHERS SAY SILLY THINGS INADEQUATE UNPREPARED LIKE LEAVING INSIGNIFICANT COME UP WITH EXCUSES TALK TO MUCH GET APOLOGETIC POSTPONE THE SITUATION GET ANXIOUS SAY NOTHING BLUSH GET DELIBERATE SCHEME ARGUE FIND FAULT, SHOOT DOWN GET HOSTILE STOP TAKING PHONE CALLS PROVE MY POINT STALL TO BUY TIME REMEMBER URGENT APPOINTMENT RETREAT & REGROUP TRAPPED PUT FOOT IN MOUTH SELF-PROTECTIVE LOOK FOR SCAPEGOATS CUT FEELINGS OFF BECOME TENSE IN THE STOMACH BECOME ILLOGICAL STOP LISTENING HASSLED CONFUSED THREATENED LIKE CRYING A NEED TO JUSTIFY EVALUATED, JUDGED MISUNDERSTOOD 38 GET CONDOLENCES SCREAM, YELL FIRE BACK WISECRACKS BECOME SARCASTIC NEEDLE SOMEBODY MAKE RUDE GESTURE TRY TO GET OFF THE SPOT ASK QUESTIONS TAKE THE OFFENSIVE DO BATTLE GET EVASIVE BAFFLE THEM WITH DATA
  45. 45. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR INCLUDING EXPRESSING YOUR FEELINGS, NEEDS AND IDEAS AND STANDING UP FOR YOUR LEGITIMATE RIGHTS IN WAYS THAT DON’T VIOLATE THE RIGHTS OF OTHERS. THIS BEHAVIOUR IS USUALLY EMOTIONALLY HONEST, DIRECT, EXPRESSIVE AND SELF-ENHANCING. L.Z. BLOOM, ET AL 1975 MISCONCEPTIONS THAT INHIBIT ASSERTIVENESS: 1. OF ASSERTING ONESELF WITH OTHERS. DISTORTED BELIEFS THAT ONE’S OBLIGATION TO OTHERS FAR OUTWEIGH ONE’S OWN WANTS OR RIGHTS 2. CONCERN WITH PLEASING OR IMPRESSING OTHERS FAVORABLY, AND 3. DISTORTED FEARS ABOUT THE CONSEQUENCES WHAT IS ASSERTIVENESS? ASSERTIVENESS, UNASSERTIVENESS AND AGGRESSION ALL REFER TO BEHAVIOUR. EACH PERSON HAS A “SPACE” WHICH REPRESENTS THE INDIVIDUAL’S PERSONAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS. A PERSON’S LIFE SPACE CAN BE DESCRIBED AS FOLLOWS: PEOPLE BEHAVING ASSERTIVELY ARE SIMPLY EXERCISING THEIR FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO PROTECT THEIR PERSONAL SPACE FROM INFRINGEMENT BY OTHER PERSONS. INFRINGEMENT CAN TAKE THE FORM OF ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL MAKING HURTFUL, FALSE OR INSULTING STATEMENTS, REQUESTING SOMETHING UNREASONABLE OR PREVENTING INDIVIDUALS FROM OBTAINING WHAT THEY HAVE EVERY RIGHT TO EXPECT. AGGRESSIVE PEOPLE GO TOO FAR. INSTEAD OF JUST PROTECTING THEIR OWN TERRITORY, THEY INFRINGE ON THE TERRITORY OF ANOTHER PERSON. THEY EXTEND THEIR PERSONAL LIFE SPACE TOO FAR TO THE POINT WHERE THEY ARE DENYING THE RIGHTS OF OTHERS. PEOPLE BEHAVING UNASSERTIVELY ALLOW OTHERS TO INFRINGE ON WHAT SHOULD BE THEIR PERSONAL TERRITORY. INDIVIDUALS BEHAVING IN THIS MANNER DO NOT DECIDE FOR THEMSELVES. INSTEAD, BY CONTINUALLY RESTRICTING WHAT THEY ALLOW THEMSELVES TO SAY, FEEL OR DO, WHILE ON THE OTHER HAND PLACING FEW SUCH RESTRICTIONS ON OTHERS, THEY ARE ABDICATING CONTROL OF THEIR LIVES TO THOSE AROUND THEM. D.H. HEPWORTH & J. LARSEN, 1993 39
  46. 46. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK AN ASSERTIVE PHILOSOPHY 1. I RECOGNIZE THAT EVERYONE HAS WELL-PRACTICED COMMUNICATION HABITS AND LONG-STANDING ATTITUDES THAT SUPPORT AND DEFEND THOSE HABITS. 2. I ACCEPT THE COMMUNICATION HABITS OF OTHERS AS FACT. 3. I WILL OFFER ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION AND A ‘WIN-WIN’ ATTITUDE EVEN WHEN OTHERS ARE OFFERING NON ASSERTIVE OR AGGRESSIVE STYLES. 4. I UNDERSTAND THAT PEOPLE CHANGE ONLY WHEN THEY CHOOSE TO CHANGE. 5. I SELECT MY PERSONAL STANDARD OF COMMUNICATION RATHER THAT REACT TO THOSE OF OTHERS. 6. I KNOW OTHERS ARE DIFFERENT FROM ME AND ALL KINDS OF PEOPLE ARE OKAY. 7. I ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR MY FEELINGS, THOUGHTS, OPINIONS AND BEHAVIOURS. I REALIZE I CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FEELINGS, THOUGHTS, OPINIONS AND BEHAVIOURS OF OTHERS. 8. I ACCEPT THAT EVERY RELATIONSHIP INVOLVES EACH PERSON HAVING 50% OF THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE SUCCESS OR FAILURE OF THAT RELATIONSHIP. 9. I KNOW THAT BEING NON ASSERTIVE AND AGGRESSIVE IS PART OF BEING HUMAN. 10. I KNOW THAT EVERY ASSERTIVE CHOICE PRECLUDES AN NON ASSERTIVE OR AGGRESSIVE CHOICE AND IMPROVES CHANCES FOR SUCCESS. 40
  47. 47. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK KEEPING YOUR “COOL” IN A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO ADVOCACY EVERY PART OF THE SYSTEM IS INFLUENCED BY THE SAME CONSIDERATIONS: • ANGER IS AN EXPRESSION OF POWERLESSNESS. PEOPLE FEAR THEY WILL LOSE THEIR IDENTITY IF THEY GIVE UP THEIR ANGER AND HATE. THEY NEED TO CREATE AND ENEMY SO THEY KNOW THEY EXIST. S.M. ABDULLAH, 1995 PERSONAL BELIEFS, VALUES AND ETHICS • THE BELIEFS, VALUES AND ETHICS OF THE AGENCY OR ORGANIZATION THEY DEAL WITH • THE BELIEFS, VALUES AND ETHICS OF OTHERS IN THE SYSTEM • THEIR OWN STRENGTHS • THE STRENGTHS OF OTHERS • THE NATURE OF THE ADVOCACY SITUATION IN THE PREVIOUS SECTIONS WE IDENTIFIED THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ADVOCATE. THIS SECTION LOOKS AT HOW AN ADVOCATE’S BEHAVIOUR (OR CONDUCT) CAN AFFECT THEIR POTENTIAL INFLUENCE TO HELP MAKE CHANGES IN THE SITUATION OF A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY. A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY USUALLY SEEKS HELP BECAUSE THEY ARE EXPERIENCING CONFLICT WITH A MORE POWERFUL SYSTEM. 41
  48. 48. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 2: IMPORTANT CONCEPTS FOR ADVOCACY WORK EVERY SYSTEM COMPRISES INDIVIDUALS. ANGER AT INDIVIDUALS OFTEN GETS IN THE WAY OF MAKING CHANGE. AN ADVOCATE MUST TAKE SPECIAL CARE IN ALL DEALINGS WITH THE COMMUNITY OR RELEVANT BUREAUCRACIES. REPUTATIONS ARE BASED ON CONDUCT AND, WHILE IT IS ACCEPTABLE FOR YOU TO BE DYNAMIC, ASSERTIVE AND EVEN FORCEFUL, YOU MUST NOT ACT IN A THREATENING OR INSULTING MANNER. BC COALITION OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES, 1995 IT IS POSSIBLE TO DISAGREE WITHOUT BEING DISAGREEABLE. S. ALEXANDER, 1981 42 PEOPLE GENERALLY BEHAVE ACCORDINGLY TO WHAT THEY BELIEVE IS THE ‘RIGHT’ THING TO DO; THE ‘RIGHT’ THING DEPENDS ON THEIR POINT OF VIEW. WHILE IT IS INEVITABLE THAT CONFLICTS WILL ARISE IN ADVOCACY WORK AS EACH INDIVIDUAL AND EACH ADVOCACY SITUATION IS UNIQUE, BOTH OPEN AND UNACKNOWLEDGED CONFLICT CAN BE A BARRIER TO GETTING THE ADVOCACY SITUATION RESOLVED. RUDE, HOSTILE OR THREATENING CONDUCT CAN MAKE THE SITUATION WORSE; THOUGHTFUL, REASONED ACTIONS CAN HELP CUT THROUGH INFLAMED EMOTIONS TO FIND A SOLUTION MORE QUICKLY. IT MIGHT BE APPROPRIATE TO REITERATE THAT THERE ARE MANY OTHER KINDS OF ADVOCACY. THERE IS ADVOCACY WHICH WORKS TOTALLY OUTSIDE A SYSTEM AND IS HIGHLY CONFRONTATIONAL. INTERNAL ADVOCACY TAKES PLACE WITHIN SYSTEMS. THERE ARE ADVOCACY GROUPS THAT LOBBY ACROSS SYSTEMS. THE KINDS OF ADVOCACY WE ARE DISCUSSING IN THIS TRAINING PROJECT WORKS ‘WITH’ A SYSTEM TO FIND POINTS OF CHANGE. THERE IS NO ONE WAY TO ADVOCACY WORK, JUST AS THERE IS NO ONE WAY TO VIRTUALLY ANYTHING.
  49. 49. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE GOALS: 1. TO UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF EMPOWERMENT IN THE ADVOCACY PROCESS 2. TO DEVELOP TECHNIQUES FOR ASSESSING ADVOCACY SITUATIONS OUTLINE: 1. EMPOWERMENT 2. ASSESSING IF AND HOW YOU CAN HELP 3. START THE PROCESS OF ADVOCACY 4. ENDING AN ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP NOTE: CHECK YOUR LEVEL OF SENSITIVITY AND KNOWLEDGE OF ISSUES SPECIFIC TO DIVERSE CULTURES AND FIRST NATIONS PEOPLE: IS YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF OTHER CULTURES BASED ON PERCEPTIONS OF FACTS. DON’T PROMISE MORE THAN YOU CAN DELIVER AND DON’T OFFER SUGGESTIONS OR INFORMATION WHICH IS “SHAKY” OR FOR WHICH YOU HAVE NO EVIDENCE OR REASON TO BELIEVE YOURSELF. R.V. PEAVY, 1984 43
  50. 50. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE EMPOWERMENT ADVOCACY IS OFTEN REQUIRED BECAUSE OF THE UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF POWER BETWEEN A SYSTEM YOUR OWN SELF-RESPECT FOR HAVING THE GUTS TO TRY…WILL INCREASE REGARDLESS OF THE CONSEQUENCES. EVEN MORE, YOU WILL BE AMAZED HOW OFTEN LIFE REWARDS COURAGEOUSNESS, HOW OTHER PEOPLE’S RESPECT WILL MATCH THE INCREASED SELF-RESPECT THAT COMES FROM YOUR BRAVERY. RUSK & READ, 1978 BEING TARGETED FOR ADVOCACY AND AN INDIVIDUAL. USING AN ADVOCATE CAN HELP TO BALANCE THIS OUT; HOWEVER, NO ONE CAN GIVE POWER TO ANOTHER. WHAT AN ADVOCATE CAN DO IS TO HELP A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY TO DEVELOP THEIR OWN PERSONAL POWER OR, PERHAPS, TO EXPERIENCE THE POWER OF A GROUP OF PEOPLE WORKING TOGETHER FOR A COMMON CAUSE. A SUPPORTIVE, EMPOWERING ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP ALLOWS A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY TO DEVELOP CONFIDENCE IN THEIR OWN SKILLS AND ABILITIES TO EXERCISE CONTROL IN THEIR OWN LIVES. FEELINGS OF CONFIDENCE AND CONTROL LEAD TO INCREASED SELF-ESTEEM, SELF-RESPECT, AND SELFRELIANCE THAT CAN SPILL OVER INTO EVERY AREA OF THE PERSON’S LIFE. IF AN ADVOCATE IS NOT CONSCIOUS OF THE NEED TO HELP ADVOCACY PARTNERS TO BECOME EMPOWERED, THE RESULT CAN BE DISEMPOWERMENT, HOWEVER UNINTENTIONAL. 44
  51. 51. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE AN ADVOCATE ALSO NEEDS TO FEEL EMPOWERMENT TO DO HIS OR HER WORK. THE PURPOSE THERE IS A TIME TO LEAD, A TIME TO FOLLOW, AND A TIME TO WALK BESIDE SOMEONE ELSE. OF TRAINING IS TO OFFER ADVOCATES THE SKILLS THEY NEED TO DEVELOP CONFIDENCE IN THEIR ABILITY TO INFLUENCE CHANGE. THE SAME EMPOWERING TOOLS WORK FOR ADVOCATES AS WELL AS PEOPLE SEEKING C.R. BERRY, 1988 ADVOCACY. 1. SEE THEMSELVES AS CAPABLE OF ACHIEVING SOLUTIONS TO THEIR OWN DIFFICULTIES 2. SEE THE ADVOCATE AS HAVING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS THEY CAN USE 3. SEE THE ADVOCATE AS A PARTNER, A PERSON WITH WHOM HE OR SHE CAN COMBINE FORCES IN A PROBLEM-SOLVING SITUATION 4. SEE THE EXISTING POWER STRUCTURE AS ONE PART OF AN ADVOCACY SYSTEM WHICH IS OPEN TO INFLUENCE 45
  52. 52. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE HOW DOES THE ADVOCACY PROCESS LEAD TO EMPOWERMENT? INDIVIDUAL EMPOWERMENT IS NOT NOW, AND NEVER WILL BE, THE SALVATION OF POWERLESS GROUPS TO ATTAIN SOCIAL EQUALITY, POWER RELATIONS BETWEEN “HAVES”, “HAVEA-LITTLES”, AND “HAVENOTS”MUST BE TRANSFORMED. THIS REQUIRES A CHANGE IN THE STRUCTURE OF POWER. SOCIAL CHANGE REQUIRES SOCIAL ACTION. L.H. STAPLES, 1990 46 • DECIDING TO SEEK HELP FROM AN ADVOCATE IS A VERY POSITIVE STEP. • AN ADVOCATE’S IMMEDIATE, SERIOUS INTEREST INDICATES A SOLUTION WILL AT LEAST BE SOUGHT • AN ADVOCATE’S WILLINGNESS TO TAKE ON THE ADVOCACY SITUATION RAISES HOPES FOR AN IMPROVED FUTURE • AN ACCEPTING ATTITUDE BY AN ADVOCATE OF THE PERSON AND THEIR SITUATION SUPPORTS THE PERSON’S BELIEF IN THEMSELVES • A FRANK ASSESSMENT OF THE SITUATION AND A LAYING OUT OF WHAT THE ADVOCATE CAN ACTUALLY DO SETS THE TONE FOR WHAT THE NEXT STEPS ARE
  53. 53. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE PLANNING FOR INTERVIEWS INFORMATION REQUIRED IF YOU ARE GOING TO MEET IN PERSON… PERSON’S NAME NUMBER WHERE YOU CAN CONTACT THEM IS CASE PLANS CHANGE A MUTUALLY CONVENIENT TIME TO MEET A MUTUALLY CONVENIENT PLACE TO MEET DO THEY NEED A PHONE CALL CONFIRMING THE APPOINTMENT? DO THEY NEED ASSURANCE OF CONFIDENTIALITY? WILL THERE BE CHILDCARE CONSIDERATIONS? THE PHYSICAL SETTING WHERE YOU MEET. WILL IT BE…? SAFE COMFORTABLE ACCESSIBLE REASONABLY FREE FROM INTERRUPTIONS & DISTRACTIONS DO YOU NEED TO TAKE…? PAPER AND PENS KLEENEX REFERRALS FOR OTHER AGENCIES CONTACT NAMES AND PHONE NUMBERS 47
  54. 54. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE ASSESSING THE SITUATION ASSESSING HOW AND IF YOU CAN HELP CHANCES ARE THAT YOU WON’T BE ABLE TO HELP EVERYONE WHO COMES TO YOU TO DISCUSS AN ADVOCACY SITUATION. YOUR OWN STYLE, THE MANDATE OF YOUR GROUP OR ORGANIZATION, YOUR EXPERTISE, THE TIME YOU HAVE AVAILABLE, AND THE NATURE OF THE ADVOCACY SITUATION WILL INFLUENCE WHETHER YOU WILL BE ABLE TO HELP OR NOT. THE QUESTIONS ON THE FOLLOWING PAGE ARE MEANT TO HELP YOU ASSESS WHETHER YOU ARE ABLE TO GET INVOLVED IN A PARTICULAR ADVOCACY SITUATION AT A PARTICULAR TIME. QUESTIONS TO ASK YOURSELF: Do I have all the facts? DO I HAVE ENOUGH INFORMATION TO START THE PROCESS? IN SOME CASES PEOPLE SEEKING ADVOCACY WILL NOT ALWAYS DISCLOSE ALL ASPECTS OF THEIR SITUATION. THEY MAY FEEL THAT THEY WILL BE JUDGED, SHOULD THEY SHARE THEIR SHORTCOMINGS. IT’S BEST NOT TO START THE PROCESS UNTIL YOU BELIEVE THAT THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IS SUFFICIENT. 48
  55. 55. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE QUESTIONS TO ASK YOURSELF BEFORE YOU GET INVOLVED IN AN ADVOCACY SITUATION: WHAT ADVOCACY ROLE MAY BE REQUIRED IN THIS SITUATION? SOUNDING BOARD EMOTIONAL SUPPORT INFORMATION GIVING RESEARCH BEING PHYSICALLY PRESENT IN A SUPPORT ROLE SPEAKING ON BEHALF OF THE PERSON DO YOU HAVE TIME? IS THIS A LONG TERM OR SHORT TERM SITUATION? HOW MUCH TIME MIGHT BE REQUIRED? DO YOU HAVE THAT AMOUNT OF TIME? HOW MUCH IS THE PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY ABLE TO PARTICIPATE IN THE PROCESS? NEEDS SOMEONE TO DO IT FOR THEM MAYBE ABLE TO PARTICIPATE A LITTLE BIT MAYBE ABLE TO DO A LOT ON THEIR OWN, ONCE THEY KNOW HOW MAY NEED VERY LITTLE HELP WILL YOUR AGENCY/ORGANIZATION SUPPORT YOU IF YOU CHOOSE TO ADVOCATE IN THIS SITUATION? YES NO ARE THERE ANY RISK FACTORS THAT YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE YOU GET INVOLVED? (YOU MAY STILL WISH TO GET INVOLVED, BUT BEING FOREWARNED WILL HELP YOU AVOID SURPRISES) PHYSICAL RISKS (E.G. DOES THIS SITUATION INVOLVE POTENTIAL VIOLENCE?) EMOTIONAL RISKS (E.G. ARE YOU TOO CLOSE TO THE SITUATION TO BE OBJECTIVE?) 49
  56. 56. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE MORE QUESTIONS TO HELP ASSESS AN ADVOCACY SITUATION (ADAPTED FROM G. EGAN, EXERCISES IN HELPING SKILLS: A TRAINING MANUAL TO ACCOMPANY “THE SKILLED HELPER,” 1985) SEVERITY OF URGENCY: ARE THERE ISSUES OF SAFETY, PHYSICAL, DANGER, NEED FOR FOOD, SHELTER, WARM CLOTHING? IMPORTANCE: HOW DOES THIS FIT WITH YOUR VALUE SYSTEMS? IS IT IMPORTANT TO YOU? TIMING: DO YOU HAVE THE AVAILABLE RESOURCES TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT THIS NOW? COMPLEXITY: IS THIS CONCERN A MANAGEABLE PART OF A LARGER OF MORE COMPLEX SITUATION? CAN IT BE DIVIDED INTO MORE MANAGEABLE PARTS? PROMISE OF SUCCESS: IS THERE SOME PROBABILITY OF SUCCESS? IF NOT, IS THIS THE RIGHT PLACE TO START? SPREAD EFFECT: IS THIS THE KIND OF PROBLEM THAT IF HANDLED, MIGHT LEAD TO IMPROVEMENT IN OTHER AREAS OF AN ADVOCACY PARTNER’S LIFE? CONTROL: IS THIS PROBLEM UNDER YOUR CONTROL? DO YOU HAVE TO ACT TO INFLUENCE OTHERS? COST EFFECTIVENESS: DO THE BENEFITS OF TRYING TO DEAL WITH THIS CONCERN OUTWEIGH THE COST IS TERMS OF TIME AND EFFORT? SUBSTANCE: IS THE ISSUE WORTH DISCUSSING? WILLINGNESS: IS THE PERSON WILLING TO PARTICIPATE IN THE ADVOCACY PROCESS? 50
  57. 57. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE EXERPTS FROM “TRAINING FAMILIES IN THE STEP APPROACH MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY,” J.D. MUNROE, 1991 EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY IS DEFINED AS A NONVIOLENT EMPOWERMENT AND SUPPORT PROCESS, THROUGH WHICH PEOPLE CAN CONSTRUCTIVELY EXPRESS DISSATISFACTION AND CONTRIBUTE TO CREATIVE SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS EXISTING IN HUMAN SERVICE SYSTEMS. WHY DO SOME PEOPLE GET WHAT THEY WANT WHEN THEY ADVOCATE, WHILE OTHERS DO NOT? TRY THESE COMMONSENSE RULES FOR SUCCESSFUL ADVOCACY: 1) NEVER USE A CANNON WHERE A PEASHOOTER WILL DO. WHEN PEOPLE ARE OVERLY NEGATIVE OR OBNOXIOUS, THEY RISK BEING AVOIDED AND LABELED ‘SICK’ AND OFTEN ALIENATE POTENTIAL SUPPORTERS AND PROBLEM SOLVERS. 2) GET THE BIG PICTURE. IN ORDER FOR THE SYSTEM TO RESPOND TO THEIR PARTICULAR NEEDS, IT IS FIRST HELPFUL FOR PEOPLE TO BE ABLE TO VISUALIZE THE WIDER CONTEXT IN WHICH THE PROBLEMS EXIST AND THE VARIOUS FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DECISIONMAKING PROCESS. 3) TIME YOUR ADVOCACY STRATEGIES CAREFULLY. PEOPLE SOMETIMES FAIL TO RECOGNIZE THAT PROPER TIMING IS ESSENTIAL IN ORDER TO HAVE THEIR CONCERNS HEARD AND ADDRESSED PROMPTLY. 4) USE THE “CARDS YOU HAVE BEEN DEALT”. TOO OFTEN, PEOPLE FAIL TO USE THE “CARDS THEY HAVE BEEN DEALT’ TO TURN THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATION TO THEIR ADVANTAGE. FOR INSTANCE, FAMILIES OF THE PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES MAY POSSESS INHERENT COHESION, SKILLS AND RESOURCES THAT CAN GREATLY FACILITATE THE ADVOCACY PROCESS. LOOK FOR THE POSITIVE AND BUILD ON THOSE RESOURCES. 5) DON’T GO IT ALONE. IN TERMS OF EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY, GOING IT ALONE IS USUALLY UNPRODUCTIVE OR EVEN DESTRUCTIVE. THERE ARE STRENGTH, POWER AND SUPPORT IN NUMBERS: WHENEVER NECESSARY PEOPLE SHOULD WORK CLOSELY WITH ESTABLISHED GROUPS (E.G. PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, AGENCIES AND CONSUMER GROUPS) AND INFLUENCE INDIVIDUALS IN TRYING TO SECURE WHAT THEY NEED. 51
  58. 58. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE 6) BE WILLING TO COMPROMISE. POLITICS IS THE ART OF COMPROMISE, AND PEOPLE TODAY MUST ADVOCATE IN A VERY POLITICAL WORLD. IN THE END, RESULTS – NOT REVENGE OR EGOTISTICAL SELF-INTEREST – SHOULD BE THE PERSON’S OVER-RIDING GOAL. 7) HUMANIZE THE CONCERN. IN ORDER FOR PEOPLE TO BE SUCCESSFUL ADVOCATES, THEY SHOULD TRY TO HUMANIZE THE PRESENTATION OF THEIR CONCERNS IN SUCH A WAY THAT DECISION MAKERS FEEL THE UNIQUENESS, THE VALIDITY AND THE URGENCY OF THE REQUEST. 8) EXPRESS APPRECIATION AND SHOW SUPPORT TO HELPFUL PROBLEM SOLVERS SOMETIMES FAMILY MEMBERS WHO HAVE HAD THEIR CONCERNS SUCCESSFULLY ADDRESS FAIL TO EVEN THANK OR OTHERWISE SUPPORT HELPFUL PROFESSIONALS, MANAGERS, AND DECISION-MAKERS. 52
  59. 59. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE THE PROCESS: START THE PROCESS OF ADVOCACY FROM THE TIME AN ADVOCATE IS FIRST IN TOUCH WITH A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY TO THE MOMENT THEY CLOSE THE ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP, ADVOCACY WORK IS A PROCESS. THE FOLLOWING CHECKLIST ATTEMPTS TO SET OUT THE PROCESS IN A LINEAR FASHION ALTHOUGH, OF COURSE, ADVOCACY WORK DOES NOT HAPPEN IN A STRAIGHT LINE. HOWEVER, MOST ADVOCACY SITUATIONS WILL REQUIRE THINKING ABOUT THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS OF ADVOCACY WORK: CONSCIOUS PREPARATION; AWARE OF • OWN VALUES AND BELIEFS • ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS • NEED FOR CONFIDENTIALITY • OWN STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS • THE EMPOWERMENT ROLE OF AN ADVOCATE INITIAL CONTACT • USING EMPATHY AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS TO HELP THE OTHER PERSON TELL THEIR STORY • FIND OUT ENOUGH INFORMATION TO ASSESS WHETHER TO GET INVOLVED • ASSESSING OWN STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS IN TERMS OF TIME COMMITMENT, MANDATE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE • REFERRING TO THE APPROPRIATE COMMUNITY AGENCY OR MLA’S INVESTIGATING WHAT RESOURCES ARE AVAILABLE TO THIS PERSON • WHO HAVE THEY ALREADY TALKED TO • WHAT DID THAT AGENCY SAY • WHAT OTHER GROUPS/INDIVIDUALS ARE INVOLVED IN THIS PARTICULAR ISSUE PROBLEM-SOLVING • EXPLORING ALTERNATIVES • FINDING OUT WHAT THE ADVOCACY PARTNER WANTS TO DO • DISCUSSING CONSEQUENCES 53
  60. 60. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE DECIDING ON THE MOST APPROPRIATE ADVOCACY STYLE TO START WITH • DISCUSSING; PROVIDING INFORMATION • PERSUADING ON BEHALF OF PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY • PRODDING THE TARGET SYSTEM; LOCALLY, PROVINCIALLY AND NATIONALLY • COERCING THE TARGET SYSTEM; LOCALLY, PROVINCIALLY AND NATIONALLY DOING IT • USING ADVOCACY SKILLS TO EMPOWER THE OTHER PERSON THROUGH MODELING NEW WAYS, NEW PERSPECTIVES • ADVOCATING ON BEHALF OF PERSON WHERE APPROPRIATE; ENCOURAGING THEM TO ADVOCATE FOR THEMSELVES WHENEVER POSSIBLE • DECIDING ON THE BEST ADVOCACY METHOD; PHONE, IN PERSON, BY LETTER DECIDING WHAT TO DO IF ADVOCACY EFFORTS DON’T ACHIEVE RESULTS • APPEALING WHERE POSSIBLE • ENCOURAGING OTHER PERSON TO JOIN AN ADVOCACY OR SUPPORT GROUP IF APPROPRIATE CLOSING AN ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP • SETTING BOUNDARIES AROUND HOW FAR YOU CAN GO • ENCOURAGING THE PERSON TO USE OTHER RESOURCES • LETTING IT GO [THE] SITUATION PROBABLY ISN’T SIMPLE; IT RARELY IS. IT COULD BE THAT THERE ARE A LOT OF SMALLER ISSUES THAT CAN BE RESOLVED OVER TIME, OR THERE MIGHT BE ONE BIGGER ISSUE THAT NEEDS TO BE LOOKED AT RIGHT NOW. SOMETIMES TWO OR THREE ISSUES CAN BE RESOLVED AT THE SAME TIME. ‘THE ADVOKIT’, 1996 54
  61. 61. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE PROBLEM SOLVING ONE WAY OF THINKING ABOUT ADVOCACY IS A PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS. NOT ALL PROBLEMS CAN BE SOLVED BY PERSONAL INTERVENTION, [BUT] EVEN IF YOU CANNOT DO SOMETHING ABOUT A PROBLEM, YOU CAN DO SOMETHING ABOUT HOW YOU WILL DEAL WITH THE PROBLEM. HOUNOUR FRANCE, 1989 ROLE OF AN ADVOCATE IN WORKING THROUGH ‘THE PROCESS’: HELPING THE PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY TO FOCUS ON THE ISSUE IDENTIFYING BLIND SPOTS IDENTIFYING BARRIERS TO FIND SOLUTIONS KEEPING AN EYE ON THE BIGGER PICTURE OFFERING OTHER PERSPECTIVES EXPLORING ALTERNATIVES PICKING THE CAUSE BRAINSTORM CHOOSE STRATEGIES THE PERSON WANTS LOOK AT PROS AND CONS LOOK AT WHAT IS POSSIBLE AND NOT POSSIBLE ASKING QUESTIONS WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF THEY DON’T GET WHAT THEY WANT? WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF THEY DO GET WHAT THEY WANT? WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES? 55
  62. 62. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 3: THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE ENDING AN ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP [ ENDINGS BRING ABOUT A CESSATION OF RELATIONSHIPS. IF RELATIONSHIPS HAVE BEEN MEANINGFUL, FEELINGS ARE AROUSED AND SHOULD BE DEALT WITH. AN UNPLANNED TERMINATION LEAVES THE [ADVOCACY PARTNER] TO DEAL WITH THESE FEELINGS ON [THEIR] OWN, WHICH OFTEN RESULTS IN A SENSE OF UNFINISHED BUSINESS. L.C. JOHNSON, 1989 IN WORK THAT HAS GONE WELL, [A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY] MAY HAVE FOUND OUT NEW THINGS ABOUT THEMSELVES, THEIR STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES, THEIR PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOUR UNDER PRESSURE, AND THEIR ABILITY TO HANDLE PROBLEMS. THEY MAY ALSO HAVE GAINED NEW WAYS TO VIEW SOME OF THE IMPORTANT PEOPLE AND SYSTEMS THEY MUST DEAL WITH. ENDING SHOULD BE A TIME FOR ADDING UP WHAT HAS BEEN LEARNED. L. SHULMAN, 1984 56 SOMETIMES ENDING AN ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP IS VERY STRAIGHT FORWARD; A PERSON CAME TO YOU FOR HELP; YOU HELPED; END OF RELATIONSHIP. SOMETIMES YOU DEVELOP A WARM, CARING RELATIONSHIP WITH SOMEONE WHO IS IN A COMPLEX SITUATION WHERE IT SEEMS THAT ADVOCACY COULD BE AN ON-GOING NEED INTO THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE. YOUR ADVOCACY PARTNER MAY WITH THE RELATIONSHIP TO CONTINUE. YOU MAY DECIDE TO HANG IN THERE WITH THAT PERSON, OR YOU MAY DECIDE THAT FOR ANY NUMBER OF REASONS YOU WANT TO END THE ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP. THE FOLLOWING ARE SOME IDEAS ABOUT ENDING AN ADVOCACY RELATIONSHIP IN A RESPECTFUL, CARING WAY, KEEPING IN MIND THE NEEDS OF THE PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY, YOUR AGENCY/ORGANIZATION AND YOURSELF. LET THE PERSON KNOW FROM THE BEGINNING THAT THE RELATIONSHIP TIME IS LIMITED USE THE ENDING AS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR BOTH YOU AND THE OTHER PERSON TO PROVIDE FEEDBACK ABOUT HOW THE PROCESS HAS BEEN FOR THEM GIVE THE OTHER PERSON POSITIVE FEEDBACK AND ENCOURAGEMENT THROUGHOUT THE PROCESS IF POSSIBLE, AND IT IF SUITS YOUR SITUATION, KEEP THE DOOR OPEN ENCOURAGE THE OTHER PERSON TO SET UP AN INFORMAL SUPPORT NETWORK AND HELP THEM DO THAT, WHERE POSSIBLE ENCOURAGE THE OTHER PERSON TO CONNECT WITH AN ADVOCACY GROUP WHICH DEALS WITH THEIR ISSUE SO THAT THEIR EXPERIENCE CAN HELP OTHERS OR THEY CAN GET SUPPORT WHILE THEY CONTINUE TO WORK ON THEIR OWN BEHALF
  63. 63. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER GOALS: 1. TO SHARE INFORMATION ABOUT THE ADVOCACY RESOURCES IN THE GROUP (NETWORKING) 2. TO PRACTICE THE ADVOCACY PROCESS FROM START TO FINISH OUTLINE: 1. DO’S AND DON’TS FOR ADVOCACY 2. THIRTEEN THINGS EVERY ADVOCATE SHOULD KNOW… 3. ADVOCACY TECHNIQUES 4. NETWORKING 5. COMMUNITY RESOURCES 57
  64. 64. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER DO’S AND DON’TS FOR ADVOCATES LISTEN TO PEOPLE’S STORIES …DON’T TELL THEM WHAT THEIR PROBLEMS ARE STAY COOL EVEN WHEN THE ISSUE IS EMOTIONALLY CHARGED …DON’T TAKE ON OTHER PEOPLE’S FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS CARE ABOUT PEOPLE’S RIGHTS BEING VIOLATED OR DENIED …DON’T WASTE TIME BLAMING OTHER PEOPLE LEARN HOW SYSTEMS WORK AND ABOUT RESPONSIBILITIES AND PROCEDURES …DON’T EXPECT YOURSELF TO KNOW EVERYTHING HELP PEOPLE FOCUS ON THEIR MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE …DON’T TRY TO SOLVE ALL THEIR PROBLEMS FOR THEM HELP PEOPLE DECIDE WHAT THEY CAN DO ABOUT THEIR SITUATION …DON’T MAKE THEIR DECISIONS FOR THEM HELP PEOPLE FIND OUT WHERE TO GET MORE INFORMATION …DON’T DO THE WORK FOR THEM HELP PEOPLE DISCOVER THEIR OWN STRENGTHS …DON’T RESCUE THEM AND LEAVE THEM STILL VULNERABLE HELP PEOPLE HELP THEMSELVES …DON’T TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEM HELP PEOPLE LEARN TO CHOOSE …DON’T MAKE IN NECESSARY FOR THEM TO MAKE DIFFICULT CHOICES ADAPTED FROM: VANCOUVER CRISIS CENTRE: VOLUNTEER TRAINING MANUAL, MAY 1995 58
  65. 65. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER ADVOCACY TECHNIQUES BY DIANE BRENNAN LEGAL INFORMATION COUNSELOR, DOUG TRAIL LAW CENTRE, NANAIMO, BC WHAT IS ADVOCACY? ADVOCACY IS THE CRAFT OF PERSUASION. THEREFORE AN ADVOCATE IS SOMEONE WITH THE ABILITY TO PERSUADE. WHAT ARE THE TOOLS OF A GOOD ADVOCATE? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. AN OPEN AND FLEXIBLE MIND CREATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING TECHNIQUES LISTENING SKILLS (TO THE CLIENT AND TO THE “OTHER SIDE”) GOOD WORKING KNOWLEDGE OF THE AREA IN QUESTION KNOWLEDGE OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANIZATION, I.E. THE LADDER TO CLIMB 6. A SENSE TO CLIMB THE LADDER 7. AN ABILITY TO CLIMB THE LADDER WITHOUT ANTAGONIZING THE ‘RUNG’ YOU ARE AT 8. AN ABILITY TO DISAGREE WITHOUT CLOSING THE LINES OF COMMUNICATION 9. AN ABILITY TO PERSUADE 10. AN ABILITY TO BE PERSUADED THE INITIAL INTERVIEW 1. LISTEN CAREFULLY TO EACH NEW STORY; GIVE YOUR CLIENT PLENTY OF TIME TO TELL HIS/HER STORY. DON’T ASSUME YOU’VE HEARD THIS ONE BEFORE. THERE ARE ALWAYS DETAILS AND NUANCES THAT DIFFER FROM STORY TO STORY, FROM SIDE TO SIDE, AND FROM DAY TO DAY. 2. ALLOW THE PERSON TO TELL HIS/HER STORY WITHOUT INTERRUPTION. AFTER THE FIRST TELLING, THEN FOCUS ON THE DETAILS. GO BACK AND REVIEW/MAKE NOTES. GUIDANCE IS NEEDED SOMETIMES. 3. WHILE IT IS A GOOD RULE OF THUMB NOT TO INTERRUPT THE CLIENT, SOMETIMES IT IS CLEARLY IMPOSSIBLE NOT TO. THE CLIENT MAY WANDER FAR FROM THE TOPIC, OR BRING IN EXTRANEOUS ISSUES. YOU MUST BE ABLE TO INTERRUPT AND BRING HIM/HER BACK ON TRACK WITHOUT OUTSELLING THEM FURTHER. 59
  66. 66. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER YOU CAN DO THIS USING SOME OF THE FOLLOWING PHRASES. THEY GIVE THE SENSE OF BEING LISTENED TO ON THE REAL CONCERNS WITHOUT ENCOURAGING EXTRANEOUS ISSUES. • • • • • • THAT’S IMPORTANT, LET’S TALK ABOUT THAT TELL ME MORE ABOUT THAT PART CAN WE COME BACK TO THAT POINT? THAT’S NOT RELEVANT AT THIS POINT, ALTHOUGH WE MAY WISH TO COME BACK TO IT LET’S GET SOME OF THE DETAILS ON THAT I KNOW THIS IS FRUSTRATING, BUT BEAR WITH ME 4. AFTER HEARING THE STORY AND GETTING IT STRAIGHT, DEFINE THE PROBLEM SO THAT YOU BOTH AGREE WHAT IT IS. MAKE SURE EVERYONE AGREES ON WHAT THE CLIENT WANTS. IF THE PROBLEM IS COMPLEX, TRY BREAKING IT INTO MANAGEABLE SEGMENTS AND PUTTING THEM IN ORDER OF PRIORITY. 5. WHAT ARE THE OPTIONS FOR SETTLEMENT? WHAT TIME LINES ARE THERE; IS THERE A LIMITATION PERIOD? WHAT OPTION WOULD GIVE THE BEST ALL-ROUND RESULTS, KEEPING IN MIND THAT OFTEN PLAYERS HAVE AN ONGOING RELATIONSHIP? E.G. HUSBAND AND WIFE (IF THERE ARE CHILDREN), LANDLORD/TENANT, SOCIAL SERVICE (SFI) RECIPIENTS, ETC. 6. NOW THAT YOU ARE CLEAR ON THE PROBLEM (S) AND HAVE REVIEWED THE OPTIONS AND THEIR EFFECTS, GET CLEAR INSTRUCTION FROM THE CLIENT IF YOU ARE TO ACT ON HER/HIS BEHALF. EVEN IF YOU ARE NOT GOING TO ACT, GET CLEAR INSTRUCTIONS NOT TO TAKE ACTIONS. 7. AT SOME POINT IN THIS PROCESS ASSESS WHAT THE CLIENT CAN DO FOR HIS/HERSELF AND WHAT WILL REQUIRE ASSISTANCE. REMEMBER, YOU ARE NOT THERE TO RESCUE ANYONE AND THE BEST SOLUTION IS THE ONE AN INDIVIDUAL HANDLES HIS/HERSELF. IF HE/SHE CAN SETTLE A MATTER ON THEIR OWN, HE/SHE WILL BE ENCOURAGED TO TRY AGAIN THE NEXT TIME HE/SHE HAS A PROBLEM. 8. ONCE THE PROBLEM HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED, POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS CANVASSED, TASKS DELEGATED AND INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN AND TAKEN, SIGN OFF THE INTERVIEW TASK LIST. THE LIST MAY ONLY HAVE A SOLITARY ITEM SAYING THAT THE CLIENT WILL DO SUCH AND SUCH, AND WILL LET YOU KNOW HOW IT WORKS OUT. OR IT MAY BE A RESTATEMENT OF THE INSTRUCTIONS TO THE ADVOCATE; A REVIEW OF ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN, TIMES AND DATES OF NEXT MEETING, PHONE CALLS, ETC. SOMETIMES YOU MAY WISH TO GIVE THE CLIENT A WRITTEN TASK LIST TO TAKE WITH HIM/HER. DIARISE YOU OWN TO DO’S. 60
  67. 67. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER OFTEN TIMES, HOWEVER THE PROBLEM REQUIRES BOTH THE CLIENT’S AND ADVOCATE’S ATTENTION. IN THESE CASES, YOU MAY FIND IT HELPFUL TO DO A TASK LIST TOGETHER WITH THE CLIENT. 9. HELPFUL HINTS: • TAKE PHOTOCOPIES. DO NOT KEEP ORIGINALS. • NEVER GUARANTEE SOLUTIONS. • DON’T PUT DOWN THE OTHER SIDE; THIS MAY BE AN ONGOING RELATIONSHIP AND ONLY A TEMPORARY BREAKDOWN. • DON’T BE A RESCUER. HOW TO GET WHAT YOU WANT FROM BUREAUCRATS: HINTS ON PERSUASION BY DIANE BRENAN 1. IDENTIFY YOURSELF AND SAY ON WHOSE BEHALF YOU ARE CALLING. YOU SHOULD ALREADY HAVE WRITTEN AUTHORITY ON THE BUREAUCRATS DESK IF YOU ARE DEALING WITH A GOVERNMENT AGENCY. 2. TRY TO BE AS FRIENDLY AS POSSIBLE, SOME SMALL TALK IS GOOD IF IT FITS. TRY TO FRAME YOU COMMENTS AS THOUGH YOU UNDERSTAND THERE IS ANOTHER SIDE TO THE STORY – THEIR SIDE. NEVER ASSUME THERE IS NO OTHER SIDE. EVEN THE SWEETEST, MOST SINCERE-LOOKING INDIVIDUAL CAN PORTRAY A STORY IN A ONE-SIDED MANNER. 3. USE NON-THREATENING STATEMENTS: • MS. SO AND SO TELLS ME SUCH AND SUCH AND HAS ASKED ME TO CHECK THIS OUT WITH YOU. • MS. SO AND SO IS UNDER THE IMPRESSION THAT SHE HAS BEEN TOLD SUCH AND SUCH. IS THIS HOW YOU SEE IT? • LET ME TELL YOU WHAT SHE HAS TOLD ME. THEN YOU CAN FILL IN THE GAPS OR WHATEVER IF I HAVEN’T GOT IT RIGHT. 4. DON’T MAKE ARRANGEMENTS ON BEHALF OF YOUR CLIENT. SAY YOU WILL TALK TO THE CLIENT OR EVEN RECOMMEND IT, BUT NEVER AGREE FOR THEM. 61
  68. 68. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER 5. SOMETIMES GETTING MORE INFORMATION CAN SOLVE THE PROBLEM. MAYBE THE CLIENT DIDN’T HEAR EVERYTHING SAID BECAUSE SHE WAS UNDER STRESS; MAYBE THE BUREAUCRAT MISUNDERSTOOD AS A RESULT OF HEAVY AND DEMANDING CASELOAD. LET THE BUREAUCRAT KNOW YOU UNDERSTAND THE PRESSURES AND FRUSTRATIONS OF THE JOB. 6. FIND OUT THE LIMITATIONS OF THE BUREAUCRATS AUTHORITY. ARE THEY PERMITTED TO MAKE THE DECISION YOU ARE ASKING FOR? IF NOT, WHO IS? TRY TO GET THEM TO TAKE IT UPSTAIRS FOR YOU. THEY MAY AGREE WITH YOUR CAUSE BUT BE POWERLESS. FIND ALL THESE THINGS OUT. 7. IN A FRIENDLY WAY, SAY, “WELL I KNOW MY CLIENT CAN’T AGREE TO THAT BECAUSE SHE HAS TOLD ME. HOW ABOUT IT I CONTACT THE (SUPERVISOR) AND RUN THIS PAST HIM OR HER?” 8. TRY THE APPROACH OF EXPLORING A MUTUAL PROBLEM. 9. BE FIRM BUT REASONABLE. THE OTHER SIDE NEEDS TO KNOW YOU ARE OPEN TO PERSUASION TOO. DON’T ALWAYS WAIT FOR THEM TO MAKE ALL THE MOVEMENT. 10. YOU MAY HAVE TO CALL THIS SAME BUREAUCRAT NEXT WEEK AND ASK THEM FOR SOMETHING ELSE, SO DON’T RISK YOUR RELATIONSHIP. EVALUATE THE ISSUE. SOME PROBLEMS ARE NOT CRITICAL. 11. REMEMBER, YOU REPRESENT AN AGENCY OR GROUP THAT PROBABLY HAS LIMITED RESOURCES AND STILL HAS TO MAINTAIN CREDIBILITY. PICK YOU FIGHTS CAREFULLY AND MAKE THEM WORTHWHILE. 62
  69. 69. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER THIRTEEN THINGS… THIRTEEN THINGS EVERY ADVOCATE SHOULD KNOW (ADAPTED FROM: “FIFTEEN THINGS EVERY STEWARD SHOULD KNOW” BY TIM ISRAEL, USC STEWARD UPDATE/CALM). 1. YOU DON’T HAVE TO BE AN EXPERT. ADVOCATES ARE ALWAYS ASKING QUESTIONS. DON’T ACT LIKE YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT WHEN YOU DON’T – OTHERS WILL SEE RIGHT THROUGH IT. SAY YOU’LL FIND OUT, AND GET BACK TO THEM. 2. FIGURE OUT WHERE TO TURN FOR ANSWERS. OTHER ADVOCATES CAN BE IMPORTANT PEOPLE TO RELY ON 3. DON’T TRY TO DO IT ALL YOURSELF. DON’T TRY TO DO IT ALL OR YOU’LL GET FRUSTRATED AND BURNED OUT. LEARN TO DELEGATE. 4. YOUR JOB IS TO EMPOWER PEOPLE. HELP PEOPLE LEARN HOW TO HELP THEMSELVES. ONLY DO FOR THEM WHAT THEY CAN’T DO FOR THEMSELVES. 5. ASK A LOT OF QUESTIONS. GOOD IDEAS CAN COME FROM PICKING A LOT OF PEOPLE’S MINDS AND GETTING THEM TO THINK ABOUT OLD PROBLEMS IN NEW WAYS. 6. LEARN HOW TO LISTEN. WHEN YOU’RE ADVOCATING, YOU NEED TO KNOW HOW YOUR CLIENTS FEEL AND HOW THEY VIEW THE SITUATION IN ORDER TO HELP THEM. ASK AND LISTEN. 7. MAKE SURE THE ‘SYSTEM’ TREATS YOU WELL. WHEN YOU’RE REPRESENTING A PERSON SEEKING ADVOCACY, YOU ARE EQUAL WITH STAFF IN SYSTEMS. YOU’RE BOTH INTELLIGENT ADULTS. 8. NEVER ASSUME THAT A ‘SYSTEM’ KNOWS BETTER THAN YOU DO. ANYTHING YOU LEARN ABOUT THE RIGHTS OF PEOPLE SEEKING ADVOCACY MAKES YOU MORE OF AN EXPERT IN THAT AREA THAN OTHERWISE. 9. PICK YOUR FIGHT. DON’T LET THE ‘SYSTEM’ CONTROL THE AGENDA. PICK THE ISSUES YOU CAN MAKE HEADWAY ON. 63
  70. 70. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER 10. ALWAYS GET BACK TO PEOPLE. IF YOU WANT PEOPLE TO HAVE TRUST IN YOU, YOU’VE GOT TO BE RESPONSIBLE AND RELIABLE. DON’T PROMISE THINGS YOU CAN’T DELIVER AND BE SURE TO FOLLOW THROUGH ON YOUR COMMITMENTS. 11. BE ORGANIZED IN YOUR OWN LIFE. PICK A SYSTEM AND STICK TO IT. HOW ARE YOU GOING TO KEEP TRACK OF YOUR APPOINTMENTS AND MEETINGS? WHERE ARE YOU GOING TO KEEP NOTES AND REMINDERS TO YOURSELF? THROW OUT PAPERS YOU DON’T NEED, AND HAVE A GOOD SYSTEM FOR FINDING WHAT YOU KEEP. 12. MAINTAIN YOUR SENSE OF HUMOUR! 13. KEEP AN EYE ON THE PRIZE. THERE WILL BE SET BACKS AND LOSSES. SOMETIME PEOPLE GET ANGRY WITH YOU AND SOMETIME YOU’LL START TO WONDER IF IT IS WORTH IT. KEEP YOUR EYE ON THE PRIZE. THINK OF PEOPLE YOU’VE ALREADY HELPED. THINK OF THE PEOPLE WHO, WITH YOUR HELP, CAN MANAGE TO EXERCISE THEIR RIGHTS AND FEEL SOME HOPE AND JUSTICE. IT’S DEFINITELY WORTH IT. 64
  71. 71. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER COMMUNITY RESOURCES MAKE YOURSELF AWARE OF COMMUNITY RESOURCES: EXPLORE THE SPECIFIC SERVICES OF VARIOUS AGENCIES NAME MAIN CONTACT PERSON FOR THE AGENCY POPULATION SERVED MANDATE COMMUNITIES, BOTH URBAN AND RURAL, WILL HAVE A DIRECTORY OF SERVICES AND COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS. (YOUR LOCAL PUBLIC LIBRARY WILL HAVE A COPY FOR VIEWING.) SOME ISSUES MAY REQUIRE THAT YOU CONTACT YOU LOCAL MLA’S. FOR ISSUES SPECIFIC TO WOMEN, YOU MAY WANT TO CONTACT MLA’S IN EDMONTON OR CALGARY AS THEY TEND TO BE MORE INFORMED AND HAVE A GREATER AWARENESS OF WOMEN’S ISSUES. ISSUES SPECIFIC TO WOMEN’S SHELTERS CAN BE ADDRESSED BY CONTACTING ALBERTA COUNCIL OF WOMEN’S SHELTERS; A.C.W.S. LOCATED IN EDMONTON – PHONE (780) 456-7000, FAX (780) 456-7001 65
  72. 72. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER LETHBRIDGE: ISSUES SPECIFIC TO WOMEN THAT MAY REQUIRE ADVOCACY WOMANSPACE RESOURCE CENTRE PHONE: 329-8338 FAX: 329-8886 HARBOUR HOUSE OUTREACH WORKER PHONE: 320-1881 NATIVE WOMEN’S TRANSITION HOME PHONE: 329-6506 JUSTICE FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME CONTACT CAVEAT ALBERTA, GUIDING VICTIMS TOWARDS APPROPRIATE SUPPORT AGENCIES. PHONE/FAX: (780) 464-9935 ABORIGINAL PEOPLES WISHING TO APPLY FOR STATUS CAN CONTACT MANAGER, INDIAN REGISTRATION AND BAND LISTS INDIAN AND NORTHERN AFFAIRS CANADA (INAC) 630 CANADA PLACE 9700 JASPER AVENUE EDMONTON, AB, T5J 4G2 PHONE (780) 495-2773 LEGAL INFORMATION FOR WOMEN: ACCESS ON THE INTERNET WWW.VIOLENTNET.ORG LEGAL AID (ALBERTA) 381-5194 ALBERTA FAMILY AND SOCIAL SERVICES LETHBRIDGE SUPPORTS FOR INDEPENDENCE (SFI) PHONE: 381-5346 FAX: 327-6985 ALBERTA HEALTH CARE RITE # 310-0000, 427-1432 66
  73. 73. THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MODULE 4: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER LOCAL COMMUNITY RESOURCES 67

×