stress mgnt project

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stress mgnt project

  1. 1. 1 Chapter-I Introduction
  2. 2. 2 INTRODUCTION The term job satisfaction was brought to lime light by Hoppock (1935). Job satisfaction is a combination of psychological, physiological and environment circumstances that causes a person to say, "I am satisfied with my job". The father of scientific management, Taylor's (1911) approach to job satisfaction was based on a most pragmatic and essentially pessimistic philosophy that man is motivated by money alone. That the workers are essentially ‘‘stupid and phlegmatic’’ and that they would be satisfied with work if they get higher economic return from it. Over the years; we have moved away from Taylor's solely monetary approach to a more humanistic orientation. Such a description indicates the variety of variables that influences the satisfactions of the individuals but tell us nothing about the nature of job satisfaction. The third important aspect of job satisfaction is perception. It is one's perception of one's present situation relative to one's values that matters. OBJECTIVES The study aims at finding the information regarding job satisfaction of Employees in general and specific in NTPC. The objectives are: 1. To ensure the availability of a competent and willing workforce to an organization. 2. To meet the needs, aspirations, values and dignity of individual employees. 3. The fullest contribution of HR for the achievement of the organizational goal of long and short term plans. 4. To duty the relationship between job satisfaction and various socio
  3. 3. 3 economic variables of employees. 5. Level of satisfaction of employees. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The present study is a micro level study confined to the study of motivation, job satisfaction and can be attempted from various dimensions of personal feelings, perception, desires, motives, attitudes, values etc. Therefore employee management in an organization does mean management of not only technical skills but also other factors of the human resources. It also makes a modest attempt to examine their issues in terms of selected dimensions. Further, the in depth analysis is confined to employees in NTPC. SOURCES OF DATA: Required data for analysis has been collected through 1 Primary data 2 Secondary data Primary data Information that is collected from employees or any person is known as primary data, it is otherwise called as first information. It is collected through questionnaires and interviews. Secondary data Information that is gathered from books, company’s previous records, magazines are known as secondary data. This study is based mainly of primary data. The main sources of primary data are employees of NTPC. The secondary data is gathered from the status reports, records and personnel manual of NTPC, RAMAGUNDAM.
  4. 4. 4 SAMPLE SIZE: 60 Employees (including executives and non-executives) from various departments like PERSONNEL & ADMINISTRATION, FINANCE, ACCOUNTS, MATERIALS MANAGEMENT, TECHNICAL SERVICE, PLANT OPERATONS etc. were chosen randomly for this study. PERIOD OF THE STUDY: The data gathered for analysis belongs to the period of 45 days. TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION: Tools used for data collection were as follows: 1 Unstructured discussion 2 Structured discussion UNSTRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE: Under this method of data collection the respondent personally comes in contact with the respondents from whom the information is to be gathered. Certain crucial elements were also discussed. The person who wants the information raises the concerned topic and should allow the other persons to freely express his views and opinions of the respondents are more clear and true. STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE: It is usually associated with the self-administered tools with items of the closed or fixed alternative type. The respondents feel great confidence in the anonymity of questionnaire than in that of any interview; it plays less pressure on the subject of immediate response. There were the reasons for choosing questionnaires one of the tools for data collection. The investigator framed questionnaire including 16 questionnaires other than respondent’s details.
  5. 5. 5 The questionnaire consists of three types of questions: 1 Multiple Choice 2 Dichotomy Questions 3 Open-ended Questions The multiple-choice questions offer the respondents with a choice of specific answers. While a dichotomous questions offer two choices “YES” or “NO”. An open-ended question is accurate with space provided for the responses. Different areas that were proposed with space provided for the responses. Different areas that were proposed with questionnaire were namely personal information, promotion policy, interpersonal relationship, job satisfaction and other related areas. LIMITATIONS The following limitations are considered:  The study brings the general opinion of the employees but it will not reflect the exact opinion of all.  As the study will be conducted in NTPC, in HR division it indicates the perception of the employees in that division only.  The study restricts up to 60 samples. It will not consider all the employees in the organization.  The study focuses on the attitudes and perceptions of employees only; it will not cover the financial conditions of the employees.
  6. 6. 6 Chapter-II ORGANIZATION PROFILE
  7. 7. 7 COMPANY PROFILE NTPC VISION “TO BE THE WORLD LARGEST AND BEST POWER PRODUCER POWERING INDIA'S GROWTH” CORE VALUES ( BE-COMMITTED )  BUSINESS ETHICS  ENVIRONMENTALLY & ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE  CUSTOMER FOCUS  ORGANIZATIONAL&PROFESSIONAL PRIDE  MUTUAL RESPECT&TRUST  MOTIVATING SELF & OTHERS  INNOVATION&SPEED  TOTAL QUALITY FOR EXCELLENCE  TRANSPERENT & RESPECTED ORGANIZATION  ENTERPRISING  DEVOTED MISSION “DEVELOP AND PROVIDE RELIABLE POWER, RELATED PRODUCTS AND SERVICES AT COMPETITIVE PRICES, INTEGRATING MULTIPLE ENERGY SOURCES WITH INNOVATIVE AND ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGIES AND CONTRIBUTE TO SOCIETY” HR VISION
  8. 8. 8 “TO ENABLE OUR PEOPLE TO BE A FAMILY OF COMMITTED WORLD CLASS PROFESSILNALS, MAKING NTPC A LEARNING ORGANISATION” National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) was incorporated on 7th November 1975 in the central sector as a Thermal Power Generating Company. The main Objective of the company is Planning, Promoting and Organizing an integrated development of thermal power in the country. NTPC is engaged in engineering, construction and operation of power generating plants. It also provides consultancy in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad. In 2004,NTPC became a listed company with majority Government Ownership of 89.5% and FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and others hold the balance 10.5%. And became third largest by Market Capitalization of listed companies. The Company was then renamed as NTPC Ltd. in line with the changes taking place in the business portfolio of the company transforming the company from a thermal power generator to an integrated power company. Within a span of 30 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country. In recognition of its excellent performance and tremendous potential, NTPC has been given the status of "Maharatna" by the Government of India. NTPC Limited or National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd is now the largest thermal power generating company of India. NTPC is the sixth largest thermal power generator in the world and the second most efficient utility in terms of capacity utilization. NTPC has established itself as the leader in the power sector with an installed capacity of 30,144 MW. Its fifteen coal based Super Thermal Power Plants and seven-gas/liquid
  9. 9. 9 fuel based combined cycle power plants are located at, Coal based power stations: 1 Singrauli (Uttar Pradesh) 2 Korba (Chattisgarh) 3 Ramagundam (Andhra Pradesh) 4 Farakka (West Bengal) 5 Vindhyachal (Madhya Pradesh) 6 Rihand (Uttar Pradesh) 7 Kahalgaon (Bihar) 8 NTCPP (Uttar Pradesh) 9 Taicher Kaniha (Orissa) 10 Taicher Thermal (Orissa) 11 Unchahar (Uttar Pradesh) 12 Simhadri (Andhra Pradesh) 13 Tanda (Uttar Pradesh) 14 Badarpur (Delhi) and Sipat (Chattisgarh Gas/Liquid based power stations: 1 Anta (Rajasthan) 2 Auraiya (Uttar Pradesh) 3 Kawas (Gujarat) 4 Dadri (Uttar Pradesh) 5 Jhanor-Gandhar (Gujarat)
  10. 10. 10 6 Kayamkulam (Kerala) 7 Faridabad (Haryana). NTPC's Power Plants with Joint Ventures are located at Durgapur (West Bengal), Rourkela (Orissa), Bhilai (Chhattisgarh), and RGPPL (Maharastra). Hydro Power Projects at various locations across the country are under implementation. HIGHLIGHTS 2008-2010 1 Installed capacity crosses 30,000 MW mark (30,144 MW). 2 Commercial Capacity addition of 2,000 MW, highest ever in last 14 years. 3 Contributed 31.85% generation increase in the country. 4 Contributed 28.60% of the total electricity generated in the country during 2008-2009 with 18.79% of the total share of total installed capacity of the nation. 5 Five stations of NTPC among the top five of the six thermal power stations which have been given National awards for meritorious performance for 2007-2008 by Ministry of Power, Government of India. Talcher- Kaniha 3000 MW Gold Shield Korba 2100 MW Silver Shield Ramagundam 2600 MW Silver Shield Dadri (coal) 840 MW Bronze Shield Rihand 2000 MW Bronze Shield 1 Highest Interim dividend @ 28% amounting to Rs.23, 087 million paid during the year 2 NTPC’s Research and Technology Development Wing, NETRA (NTPC Energy Technology And Research Alliance) to focus on research and technology development related to Green Power.
  11. 11. 11 3 Study for adopting ultra-super critical technology with efficiency levels of 41.1% in progress. OPERATIONAL EXCELLENCE Ten Coal based stations out of fifteen achieved more than 90% PLF including four stations registering above 95% PLF. STATION INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) PLF (%) DADRI COAL 840 99.4 SIMHADRI 1000 97.4 RIHAND 2000 97.2 KORBA 2100 96.2 SIPAT 1000 94.6 RAMAGUNDAM 2600 94.5 UNCHAHAR 1050 93.7 VINDHYACHAL 3260 93.2 TALCHER THERMAL 460 92.7 SINGRAULI 2000 90.7 NCTPP Dadri (Coal) achieved an all time high PLF of 99.36%.
  12. 12. 12 FINANCIAL EXCELLENCE Third largest Market capitalization of over Rs.1482 billion (US $ 28.77 billion approximately) as on 31-03-2009.The company was amongst the top three companies in terms of market capitalization. NTPC stocks continued to attract investors at the stock markets. The stocks closed at Rs.179.85 at the end of the year. The company is treated as a preferred stock by the investors. 1 9.32 lakh shareholders. 2 Second largest shareholding among PSU’s. 3 Attracts large number of FII’s amongst PSU’s. STRATEGIC INITIATIVES Broad basing fuel mix 1 Mou signed with Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) for setting up Nuclear Power projects. Diversification into Manufacturing 2 “NTPC- BHEL Power projects Pvt. Limited (NBPPL)”- A 50:50 Joint Venture Company between NTPC and BHEL incorporated on 29.04.2008 to take up manufacturing of equipments required for power plants and other infrastructure projects. 3 “BF- NTPC Energy Systems Limited”-A Joint Venture Company between NTPC and Bharat Forge Ltd. Incorporated on 19th June 2008 to take up manufacturing of castings,
  13. 13. 13 forgings and High Pressure piping required for power sector and other industries. Setting up Power Exchange 1 National Power Exchange Limited- A Joint Venture of NTPC, NHPC, PFC and TCS incorporated to facilitate trading of electrical power including ancillary services. Increasing Self Reliance 2 Mou signed among NTPC, NHPC, POWER GRID and DVC for incorporation of JVC for setting up an “Online High Power Test Laboratory for Short circuit testing” in the country. GLOBAL FOOT PRINT 3 Exploring Possibility of setting up new coal power project / R&M of old stations in Kazakhstan and sourcing of fuel. 4 Proposal being pursued with federal Government of Nigeria – for setting up coal based and gas based power plants in Nigeria and sourcing gas for NTPC plants in India. 5 Pursuing coal block acquisition in Indonesia and Mozambique. 6 2x250 MW coal based power plant in Trincomalee region in Srilanka-Site has been identified. JVA is under finalization HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 1 The attrition rate of the employees during the year was 1.77% as compared to 3.1% in 2007-2008. 2 735 fresh graduates joined NTPC during 2008-2009 including 460 through campus
  14. 14. 14 recruitment. Plan to hire 1000 fresh professionals during 2009-2010. CONNECTING WITH SOCIETY-TOWARDS INCLUSIVE GROWTH ITI Adoption 1 Taken steps to adopt 17 ITIs and to set up 6 new ITIs at various locations to meet the skill gap in the Power sector. Corporate Social Responsibility 2 About 750 Village youth in the vicinity of NTPC stations / projects were sponsored for ITI training. 3 Ten Distributed generation Projects commissioned till date. 4 Conservation of National Monuments-NTPC in association with Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has identified 3 sites to provide financial support. NTPC Foundation 1 ICT (Information and Communication Technology centre) set up jointly with University of Delhi to enable the disabled students to learn IT skills.1000 students to get benefits.4 more ICTs are being set up in different states. Rural electrification work progressing satisfactorily in 6 states and 1 Union Territory covering approximately 40,000 villages.
  15. 15. 15 WINNING ACCOLADES 2 Ranked number one in the category the ‘Best Workplaces for large organizations’ and number eight overall for the year 2008 by Great Places to work Institute’s India chapter in collaboration with Economic Times. 3 Institute of Chartered Accountants has awarded a Silver Shield Award for Excellence in Financial reporting for the year 2007-2008 in the category Infrastructure and construction. 4 “CII-EXIM Excellence Award 2008” to three NTPC stations namely Ramagundam, Vindhyachal and Badarpur.’Significant Achievement’ to Ramagundam and ‘Strong Commitment to Excel’ award to Vindhyachal and Badarpur. 5 Most valuable PSU by the premier Investment Journal Dalal Street at the first DSIJ Awards Ceremony held in New Delhi. 6 Star Company of the year in the category of Public sector Undertaking by Business standard. 7 Corporate Award 2008 for Sectoral Excellence by Dun & Bradstreet. NTPC HR Powering India's Growth: Through people NTPC believes in achieving organizational excellence through Human Resources and follows "People First" approach to leverage the potential of its 23,500 employees to
  16. 16. 16 fulfill its business plans. Human Resources Function has formulated an integrated HR strategy which rests on four building blocks of HR viz. Competence building, Commitment building, Culture building and Systems building. All HR initiatives are undertaken within this broad framework to actualize the HR Vision of "enabling the employees to be a family of committed world class professionals making NTPC a learning organization. To induct talent and groom them into a dedicated cadre of power professionals "Executive Trainee" Scheme was introduced in the year 1977 for recruitment in the disciplines of Mechanical, Electrical, Civil, Control & Instrumentation and now encompasses Computer Science, Chemistry, HR and Finance disciplines also. Besides a comprehensive one-year training comprising theoretical inputs as well as on-the-job training, the new recruits are also attached with senior executives under a systematic and formal 'Mentoring System' of the company to integrate them into the Culture of the company. As part of post employment training and development opportunities, a systematic Training plan has been formulated for ensuring minimum seven man days training per employee per year and includes level-wise planned intervention designed to groom people for assuming positions of higher responsibility, as well as specific need-based interventions based on scientific Training Needs Analysis. NTPC has set up 15 project training centres, 2 simulator training centres and an apex institute namely 'Power Management Institute' (PMI). While the project training centres (Employee Development Centres) have specialized in imparting technical skills and knowledge, PMI places emphasis on management development. Besides opportunities for long-term education are also provided through tie-ups with reputed Institutions like IIT, Delhi, (M.Tech in
  17. 17. 17 Power Generation Technology), MDI, Gorgon (Executive MBA programme), BITS, Pilani (B.Tech) etc. In order to realize the HR Vision of making NTPC a learning Organization by providing opportunities to continually learn new capabilities a number of initiatives have been taken. NTPC Open Competition for Executive Talent (NOCET) is organized every year in which teams of executives compete annually through oral and written presentation on a topical theme. Similarly “Professional Circles” have been formed department-wise where Executives of the department meet every fortnight to share their knowledge and experiences and discuss topical issues. In order to tap the latent talent among non- executives and make use of their potential for creativity and innovation, Quality Circles have been set up in various units/off ices in NTPC. Besides a management journal called “Horizon” is published quarterly to enable employees to share their ideas and experiences across the organization. Demonstrating its high concern for people, NTPC has developed strong employee welfare, health & well-being and social security systems leading to high level of commitment. NTPC offers best quality-of-life through beautiful townships with all amenities such as educational, medical and recreational opportunities for employees and their family members. The motivation to perform and excel is further enhanced through a comprehensive NTPC Rewards and Recognition system. In order to institutionalize a strong Culture based on Values a number of initiatives are taken to actualize the Vision and Core Values (BCOMIT) across the company. A culture of celebrating achievements and a strong focus on performance are a way of life in NTPC.
  18. 18. 18 NTPC has institutionalized "Development Centers" in the company to systematically diagnose the current and potential competency requirements of the employees with the objective of enhancing their development in a planned manner. Due to innovative people management practices there is a high level of pride and commitment amongst employees as reflected in the various external surveys including "Great Places to Work for in India" in which NTPC was rated third Great Place to work for in the country in 2005. NTPC-RAMAGUNDAM PROFILE Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Station Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Station, one of the biggest thermal power stations in India, is a coal-based power station situated at Jyothinagar in Karimnagar district. The station started power generation in 1983. The station generates about 2600 MW of power annually. The fuel for the power generation is taken from the South Godavari Coal Fields and water is taken from Pochampad dam. The power generated from the power plant is shared by the south Indian states of Andhrapradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Kerala and Pondicherry. And would be distributed among the states depending on their requirements. The Ramagundam power plant is the third in the series of the super thermal power
  19. 19. 19 stations set up by the NTPC. Since its inception, the station has achieved excellence in all operational spheres like project implementation, generation, environment management, ash utilization, etc. NTPC Ramagundam is considered to be one of the best in the nation. NTPC Ramagundam has exemplary vision for the environment which includes afforestation, monitoring environment impacts using NRSA satellite imaging services, Ash pond treatment, Ash brick plants, awareness of environment to the local community. Ramagundam Super Thermal Power station completes 25 years, the National Thermal Power Corporation,
  20. 20. 20 Chapter - III THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF JOB SATISFACTION
  21. 21. 21 JOB SATISFACTION - A CONCEPTUAL WORK DEFINITION Locke defines job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences. To the extent that a person’s job fulfils his dominant need and is consistent with his expectations and values, the job will be satisfying. One way to define job satisfaction has the end state of feeling. The word end emphasizes the fact that the feeling is experienced after a task is accomplished or an activity has taken place whether it is highly individualistic effort of writing a book or a collective endeavor of constructing a dam. These tasks/activities may be easily observable of could be experienced. But in all cases, they satisfy a certain need. The three important aspects of job satisfaction are: Firstly, job satisfaction is a function of values, defined as "what a person consciously or unconsciously desires to obtain". One person may value high pay above all else: another may value the opportunity to travel: another may value staying within a specific geographic region. The third important aspect of job satisfaction is perception. It is one's perception of one's present situation relative to one's values that matters. Aspects of work behavior and personal characteristic plays vital role in deciding the satisfaction of the employee in his/her job.
  22. 22. 22 JOB SATISFACTION AND WORK BEHAVIOR: Generally, the level of job satisfaction seems to have some relation with various aspects of work behavior like absenteeism, adjustment, accidents, productivity and union affiliation. Although several studies have shown varying degrees of relationship between them and some job satisfaction, it is not quite clear whether these relationships are correlative or casual. In other words, is job satisfaction a cause of these aspects of work behavior or whether work behavior causes satisfaction? Most studies have used a correlative design to examine the relationship depending upon the nature of relationship varying depending upon the nature of the aspect of job behavior. JOB SATISFACTION AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS: When a person comes to work, he brings with his total personality, his attitudes, likes and dislikes, his personal characteristics and these, in turn, influence the satisfaction he derives from his work. As work is one of the necessary aspects of the total life experience of an individual, it becomes important to examine how his personal characteristics influence his job satisfaction. Personal characteristics here refer to such bio-social variables as age, martial status, education, length of service, and income, etc. MEASUREMENT OF JOB SATISFACTION: Measurement of job satisfaction has come to acquire the same face as the measurement of intelligence. Since there is no agreement on a specific definition, generally questionnaires are developed to measure satisfaction with various aspects of work and the resultant behavior or score is called job satisfaction. Today, as intelligence is defined as what is measured by job satisfaction questionnaire. Perhaps, the earliest of all the known scales of measuring job satisfaction is that by Hoppock (1935), he developed essentially 4 items, each one with seven alternative responses. If a person chooses the "least satisfied" alternative for each item, other alternatives represent a 100 point addition to the previous alternatives. Thus, if a person chooses first alternative or all four items his total score is 400. The
  23. 23. 23 maximum total possible is 2800 provided all four seven alternatives are chosen. But Hoppock takes the average of the four items (range 100 - 700) for developing the satisfaction index by Hoppock is generally not used now but its variations can be spotted' in the literature. Hoppock's index is perhaps, the only direct measure of job satisfaction. Others (and there are quite a lot) have indexed job satisfaction in terms of the responses to a variety of questions, which deal with factors that are directly or indirectly connected with jobs. These responses are usually measured on a variety of scales ranging from yes - no to 7 - point or 5 points agree - disagree type of scales. Human Resource Management is primarily concerned with the people’s dimension in the organization. It is a crucial sub-system in the process of management. The success or failure of an organization not only depends on material, machine and equipment but also on the personnel who put in their best efforts for an efficient performance at the job. HRM refers to a set of programs, functions and activities designed and carried out in order to maximize both employee as well as organizational effectiveness. HRM at macro level spells the total sum of all the components like skills and creative ability possessed by all the employees. HRM is the management of employee’s skills, knowledge, talent, attitude, creative abilities etc. Here employees are treated as resource. Employee is treated as profit centers and therefore capital is invested for human resources development and future utility. HR is considered to be the most valuable asset in any organization. Job satisfaction refers to a person’s feeling of satisfaction on the job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self-satisfaction, happiness or self-contentment but the satisfaction on the job. The term relates to the total relationship between an individual and the employer for which he is paid. Satisfaction does mean the simple feeling state accompanying the
  24. 24. 24 attainment by an impulse of its objective. Life can be characterized as an activity. Work also is a form of social activity that has social approval. Man primarily works to satisfy his needs. Needs may vary from individual to individual and culture to culture. Satisfaction of needs is essential both for physical survival as well as providing man with pleasure and comforts. Thus every man works. Work as a social activity is essential part of man’s life. People seek satisfaction of needs and pleasure i.e. work. Ordinarily, it is enjoyable but when people do not get what they aspire for, work ceases to be a source of displeasure and dissatisfaction. Low job satisfaction is a sign of deterioration in the efficiency of work in the organization. On the other hand, high job satisfaction of employee is a positive sign for the employer for it is connected with those positive conditions which the management wants. Work has been the central activity and man since the very primitive days is directed towards satisfaction of primary needs. It brings those material rewards which provide to him subsistence and at the same time, it decides a man’s status in society. Hence it is natural that every man seeks satisfaction in major activity of work. The implicit assumption of course is that the satisfied worker produces more, works more. The best company is of course the company with the best satisfied work. FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION There a number of factors that influence job satisfaction. Among them the major ones observed in Indian context are: 1. Pay and stability of employment: Good pay still dominates most of the other factors in employee satisfaction. Various alternative means for providing wages should be developed in view of increase in cost of living index, increase in levels and rates of income tax and profession tax. Enhancing the facilities for human resources development can provide stability to a great extent. 2. Occupational stress:
  25. 25. 25 Stress is a condition of strain on one’s emotions, thought process and physical condition. It is determined by the nature of work, working conditions, working hours, and pause in the work schedule. Workers’ abilities and nature and match with the job requirements. Stress is caused due to instability, hypes excitation or depression, unstable behavior, fatigue stuttering, trembling psychosomatic pains, heavy smoking and drug abuse stress adversely effects employee’s productivity. The HR manager, in order to minimize the stress, has to identify, prevent and tackle the problem. He may arrange for the treatment of the problem with the healthy unit of the company. 3. Organizational health programs: Effective implementation of health programs result in reduction of absenteeism, hospitalization disability, excessive job turnover and premature death. They should also cover relaxation, physical exercise, diet control etc…. 4. Alternative work schedule: Alternative work schedules including work at home, flexible working hours, staggered hours, reduced worksheet, part time employment that may be introduced for the convenience and comfort of the workers. 5. Participate management and control: Workers feel that they have control over their work, use their skills and make a real contribution to the job if they are allowed to participate in creative and decision making process. 6. Recognition: Recognizing employee as a human being rather than as a labour increases the job
  26. 26. 26 satisfaction. Participate management award and reward system, congratulating the employee for their achievement, job enrichment, offering prestigious designation to the jobs, providing well furnished and decent work place offering membership in clubs or associations, providing vehicles are some of the means to recognize the employees. 7. Congenial superior sub-ordinate relationships: Harmonious supervisor worker relations give the workers sense of social association and sense of belonging. We should not ignore the impact of social relations at the work place as the productivity is resulting from this. 8. Grievance procedure: Proper grievance procedure that is quick and justified gives employees an opportunity to vent their feelings and represent their case. 9. Adequacy of resources: Resources should not match with the stated objectives; otherwise, employees will not be satisfied which results in employee dissatisfaction. 10.Senior merit in promotions: Companies either take seniority or merits as basics for promoting the employees, each of these methods have their relative disadvantages and hence it is advisable to take both of them together in promotion policy there by resulting in higher job satisfaction. 11.Employment on permanent basis: Job security adds a lot of job satisfaction for employees working on temporary basic or on probation all constantly worried about this employing them on permanent basic reduces their sense of insecurity and enhances job satisfaction. THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION There are three theories / approaches of job satisfaction.
  27. 27. 27 1. Fulfillment Theory: The properties of this theory measure satisfaction in terms of rewards a person receives or the extent to which his needs are satisfied. There is a direct positive relationship between job satisfaction and the actual satisfaction of the expected needs. 2. Discrepancy Theory: The proponents of this theory argue that satisfaction of a person receives from his job situation and what he thinks he should receive or what he expects to receive. When the actual satisfaction derived is less than expected satisfaction, it results in dissatisfaction. 3. Equity Theory: The proponents of this theory are of the view that a person’s satisfaction is determined by his perceived equity, which in turn is determined by his input-output balance compared to his comparison of others, input-output balance. Input-output balance is the perceived ratio of what a person receives from his job relative to what he contributes to the job. NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY Public enterprises occupy a key place in the Indian economy in terms of employment and investment. Public enterprises are expected to fulfill social as well as economic obligation to ensure all-round development of the economy. But unfortunately, due to many reasons most of the public enterprises are not able to fulfill the promises for which they have been established. In many cases of decline in their performance in terms of productivity indiscipline and lack of commitment are some of the poor performance of public enterprises. Understanding the employee is essential for an organization in assisting management with the “people” component of the organization and assist in gaining and maintaining competitive advantages.
  28. 28. 28 Study on employees’ opinion towards job satisfaction in various aspects in NTPC help the company to know how employee feels and contributes maximum benefits to the organization. There is a need and importance for the study, as it will help the company to known about the employees’ opinion and can modify the changes in the organization for human resource development and future utility.
  29. 29. 29 Chapter-IV DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 1. I am proud to be a member of NTPC family
  30. 30. 30 Options No.of responses Strongly agree 32 Agree 18 Disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1st Qtr strongly disagree agree disagree strongly disagree Interpretation: 1 32 respondents strongly agree 2 18 members agree. The survey reveals that most of the employees are proud of being the members of NTPC. 2. My job is challenging and it enables me to fulfill the self- esteem need.
  31. 31. 31 Options No.of Responses Strongly agree 21 Agree 29 Disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1st Qtr strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree Interpretation: 1 21 members strongly agree. 2 29 respondents agree. The survey reveals that employees find their job challenging and it enables them to fulfill the self esteem need. 3. Promotion policy & career development plans are highly effective in my organization. Options No.of responses
  32. 32. 32 Strongly agree 16 Agree 26 Disagree 08 Strongly disagree 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1st Qtr Strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree Interpretation: 1 16 Respondents strongly agree. 2 26 Members agree 3 08 Members disagree The survey reveals that promotion policy and career development plans are highly effective in the organization. 4. Pay and compensation package is adequate and fair in comparison to any other company. Options No.of responses
  33. 33. 33 Strongly agree 11 Agree 33 Disagree 05 Strongly disagree 01 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 No.of responses Strongly agree agree disagree srongly disagree Interpretation:  11 Respondents strongly agree.  33 Members agree  05 Members disagree  01 Member disagree The survey reveals that pay and compensation package is adequate and fair in comparison to any other company. 5.Training programs improve skills, talents & personality? Options No.of responses Strongly agree 18 Agree 30 Disagree 01 Strongly disagree 01
  34. 34. 34 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 strongly agree strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree Interpretation: 1 18 Respondents Strongly agree 2 30 Members agree 3 01 Member disagree 4 01 Member strongly disagree The survey reveals that employees agree that training programs improve their skills, talents and personality. 6. My work is recognized and appreciated by my superiors. Options No.of responses Strongly agree 15 Agree 28 Disagree 07 Strongly disagree 0
  35. 35. 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 strongly agree strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree Interpretation: 1 15 Members strongly agree 2 28 Members agree 3 07 Members disagree The survey reveals that employees work is occasionally recognized by their superiors. . 7. The relations with my superiors are harmonious and cordial. Options No.of responses Strongly agree 21 Agree 29 Disagree 0 Strongly disagree 0
  36. 36. 36 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 strongly agree strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree Interpretation: 1 21 Respondents Strongly agree 2 29 Members agree The survey reveals that the employees’ relationships with their superiors are harmonious and cordial 8. Do u enjoy freedom in your work? Options No.of responses Occasionally 16 Often 31 Rarely 03 Never 0
  37. 37. 37 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1st Qtr occasionally often rarely never Interpretation:  16 Members Occasionally  31 Members often  03 Members rarely The survey reveals that employees often enjoy freedom in their work. 9. The working conditions in my company are Options N.of responses Favorable 16 Unfavorable 31 Can’t say 03
  38. 38. 38 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1st Qtr favourable unfavourable can't say Interpretation: 1 16 Respondents rarely 2 31 Members Unfavorable 3 03 Members Can’t say The survey reveals that the working conditions in the company are favorable. 10.Does your personal work affect your official commitments? Options No.of responses Always 01 Often 22 Rarely 18 Never 09
  39. 39. 39 0 5 10 15 20 25 1st Qtr always often rarely never Interpretation: 1 01 Member Respond always 2 22 Members often 3 18 Members rarely 4 09 Members Never The survey reveals that employees’ official commitments are often affected by their personal work. 11. Does your official commitments affect your personal and family work? Options No.of responses Always 01 Often 21 Rarely 20 Never 08
  40. 40. 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 strongly agree always often rarely never Interpretation: 1 01 Member always 2 21 Members Often 3 20 Members rarely 4 08 Members never The survey reveals that employees’ official commitments often affect their personal and family work. 12. I Maintain balance in my personal and professional life. Options No.of responses To great extent 05 To some extent 21 Satisfactory 24 Not satisfactory 0
  41. 41. 41 0 5 10 15 20 25 to great extent to great extent to some extent satisfactory not satisfactory Interpretation: 1 05 Members great extent 2 21 Members to some extent 3 24 Members satisfactory. The survey reveals that the balance between the personal and professional life is satisfactory. 13. The grievance procedure scheme in your organization is... Options No.of responses Very effective 12 Good 38
  42. 42. 42 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 very effective good Interpretation: 1 12 Members very effective 2 38 Members good. The survey reveals that the grievance procedure in the organization is good. 14. How often do you feel monotonous & tedious in your work? Options No.of responses Often 03 Sometimes 26 Rarely 19 Never 02
  43. 43. 43 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 often often sometimes rarely never Interpretation: 1 03 Members Often 2 26 Members some times 3 19 Members rarely 4 02 Members never. The survey reveals that only sometimes employees feel that their work is monotonous and tedious. 15. Does your job pressure and occupational stress ever forced you towards smoking & alcoholism? Options No.of responses Occasionally 07 Often 05 Rarely 09 Never 29
  44. 44. 44 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 occasionally occasionally often rarely never Interpretation: 1 07 Members Occasionally 2 05 Often 3 09 Members rarely 4 29 Members never. The survey reveals that most of the employees are never forced towards the alcoholism and smoking due to the job pressure and occupational stress. 16. The participative forum, professional circles & quality circles promote teamwork and enable employees to express their views? Options No.of responses Strongly agree 15 Agree 33 Disagree 02 Strongly disagree 0
  45. 45. 45 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 disagree 3rd Qtr strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree Interpretation: 1 15 Members strongly agree 2 33 Members agree 3 02 Members disagree The survey reveals that most of the employees agree that the participative forums, professional circles and quality circles promote teamwork and enable them to express their views. 17. Do you feel that your job is safe and secured? Options No.of responses Yes 48 No 02
  46. 46. 46 0 10 20 30 40 50 No.of responses Yes No Interpretation: 1 48 Members yes 2 02 Members no The survey reveals that employees often feel that their job is safe and secure. 18. The medical facilities provided are satisfactory. Options No.of responses Strongly agree 17 Agree 31 Disagree 02 Strongly disagree 0
  47. 47. 47 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 disagree strongly agree agree disagree strongly agree Interpretation: 1 17 Members strongly agree 2 31 Members agree 3 02 Members disagree. The survey reveals that the medical facilities provided are satisfactory. 19. The recreation facilities provided are satisfactory. Options No.of responses Strongly agree 20 Agree 35 Disagree 05 Strongly disagree 0
  48. 48. 48 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 No.of responses Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Interpretation: 1 20 Members strongly agree 2 35 Members agree 3 05 Members disagree The survey reveals that the recreation facilities provided are satisfactory. 20. Quarter facility is satisfactory. Options No.of responses Strongly agree 15 Agree 33 Disagree 02 Strongly disagree 0
  49. 49. 49 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 No.of responses Strongly agree Agree Disagree strongly disagree Interpretation: 1 15 Members strongly agree 2 33 Members agree 3 02 Members disagree The survey reveals that most of the employees agree that the quarter facility provided is satisfactory. 21. Employees in this organization enjoy better quality of work life due to its policies procedures & practices. Options No.of responses Strongly agree 13 Agree 33 Disagree 04 Strongly disagree 0
  50. 50. 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 No.of responses Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Interpretation: 1 13 Members strongly agree 2 33 Members agree 3 04 Members disagree The survey reveals that most of the employees agree that they enjoy better quality of work life in NTPC due to its policies, procedures & practices.
  51. 51. 51 Chapter-V CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS CONCLUSIONS According to the survey done by me through distribution of questionnaires to the employees, finally, it is concluded that job according to the employee meant more authority, recognition and status. 1) The working environment was very much adopted by the employees and it is one of the key factors of job satisfaction. 2) The Standard working hours enforced in the organization is statutory and hence the employees are satisfied with it. 3) There was a high satisfaction among the employees in case of salary provided to them.
  52. 52. 52 4) The key human resources functions like recruitment, selection, induction, training policies are quite satisfactory. 5) The encouragement given by the superiors is good. 6) As the worker satisfaction is very important to the organizational success, the superiors of managers should play an important role in identifying the performance of employees which ultimately helps in designing pay scales according to their work. 7) The employees are good in maintaining harmonious interpersonal relations. 8) The employees feel that their work being recognized by strictly following promotion policies. 9) The facilities provided by the organization are satisfactory. 10) The employees are quite contended with their job, which makes them capable to grow along with company, in their future endeavour. 11) Motivation of employee performance at work place is good. 12) The employee participation in the management activities is quite positive. 13) The employees are happy and comfortable not only with their work but also with their superiors and with the organization. 14) It is good to see that employees are proud to be the members of NTPC. They are satisfied with the company’s policies, procedures and practices. Employees as well as their families are satisfied by the medical, recreation and quarter facilities provided by the organization to them. The employees of the organization are loyal to their work and official commitments as they find favorable working conditions. 15) The noticeable observation was that employees were not forced to the social hazards like smoking and alcoholism ever when they are in stress due to heavy work. 16) But an observation even alarms me that some of the employees are unable to
  53. 53. 53 maintain the balance between the official commitments and personal life. I personally feel that this problem can be eradicated by conducting awareness programs, through counseling and also by training sessions. SUGGESTIONS 1) Some employees expressed that they are feeling bore to perform routine job skills.
  54. 54. 54 2) Mobility of employees from one area to another area will give much encouragement and morale boosting to the employees. 3) The performance appraisal of the employees should be more scientific than the existing. 4) For higher productivity individual / team incentive schemes may be encouraged in place of the existing group / corporate incentive schemes.
  55. 55. 55 QUESTIONNAIRE TOPIC: EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION Respected Sir / Madam, I, R. SOWJANYA , MBA from AUROBINDO INSTITUTE OF COMPUTERSCINCES(OSMANIAUNIVERSITY)CHINTAPALLYGUDA,IBRAHIMPA TNAM am undertaking a project work in H.R. under the guidance of Mr. K.RAJESHAM, Sr. Officer (HR), NTPC, Ramagundam and I request your valuable response to the questionnaire below: PERSONAL DATA Name: __________________________________________ Designation: ______________________________________ Department: ______________________________________
  56. 56. 56 Experience: ______________________________________ 1. I am proud to be a member of NTPC family ( ) a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 2. My Job is challenging and it enables me to fulfill the self esteem need ( ) a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 3. Promotion policy & career development plans are highly effective in my organization. ( ) a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 4. Pay and compensation package is adequate and fair in comparison to any other company ( ) a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 5. Training programs improve skills, talents & personality? ( ) a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 6. My work is recognized and appreciated by my superiors. ( ) a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 7. The relations with my superiors are harmonious and cordial. ( ) a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 8. Do you enjoy freedom in your work? ( ) a) Occasionally b)Often c) Rarely d) Never 9. How is working conditions in your company? ( ) a) Favourable b)Unfavourable c) Can't say 10). Does your personal work effect your official commitments? ( ) a)Always b) Often c) Rarely d) Never 11. Does your official commitment affect your personal and family work? ( )
  57. 57. 57 a) Always b) Often c)Rarely d) Never 12. I maintain balance in my personal and professional life. ( ) a)To great extent b)To some extent c)Satisfactory d) not satisfactory 13. The grievance procedure scheme in your organization is…? ( ) a) Very effective b)Good 14. How often do you feel monotonous & tedious in your work? ( ) a) Often b)Sometimes c)Rarely d)Never 15. Does your job pressure and occupational stress ever forced you towards smoking&alcoholism? ( ) a) Occasionally b) Often c)Rarely d)Never 16. The participative forum, professional circles & quality circles promote teamwork and enable employees to express their views? ( ) a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 17. Do you feel that your job is safe and secured? ( ) a) Yes b) No 18. The medical facilities provided are satisfactory. ( ) a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 19. The recreation facilities provided are satisfactory. ( ) a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 20. Quarter facility is satisfactory. ( ) a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 21. Employees in this organization enjoy better quality of work life due to its policies procedures & practices. ( ) a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree
  58. 58. 58 BIBILIOGRAPHY 1. Organizational Behavior -M. PRASAD 2. Essentials of Human Resources Management and Industrial Relations -P. SUBBARAO 3. Personnel Management -C.B MAMORIA 4. Personnel Annual of NTPC 5. Company profile www.ntpc.co.in

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