Gerald Ford Powerpoint


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  • did u get an a+ or an a because im doing a power point on him too but all i need is introduction,early life, presidentcy, and after presidentcy to probly gat an a but u have a lot of stuff.
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  • Gerald Ford Powerpoint

    1. 1. Gerald Rudolph Ford By Christine Chang, Dennis Yee, Teressa Ju, and Laura Plouse
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION :   Background Info <ul><ul><li>Born July 14, 1913 to Dorothy Ayer Gardner and Leslie Lynch King in Omaha Nebraska </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named Leslie Lynch King Jr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother left husband when he threatened her with a knife and later married Ford's &quot;real&quot; dad: Gerold Rudolph Ford. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ford Sr. was honest, charitable, and had deep seeted work ethics , values that Ford himself would keep throughout his life  </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION :   Background Info <ul><ul><li>Avid eagle scout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Football star; received offers from the Detroit Lions and the green Bay Packers, but turned down offers to go to law school in YALE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  From football, learned  discipline, teamwork  and adherence to the game plan , values that he brought to the POLITICAL FIELD. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><ul><li>1940, Ford befriended  Republican Wendell Wilkie and helped him campaign for senator of Michigan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was rudely brushed off by local political boss Frank P. Mckay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Day of the election, Mckay finally offered help to a losing Willkie, but for control of Michigan's economy. FORD HAD A GRUDGE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>INTRODUCTION :   Background Info <ul><ul><li>April 1942 Ford joined the U.S. Naval Reserve  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Returned from war, set up a law partnership in Grand Rapids with frat brother Phillip A. Buchen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active in a group of reform-minded Republicans in Grand Rapids, called the Home Front, who were interested in challenging the hold of Frank McKay    </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>  For House of Representatives against Mckay - backed Bartel Jonkman. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike his opponent, Ford listened to his voters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He won 23632- 14341 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Throughout his entire career he only suffered 1 defeat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Served in the House of Representatives from </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>             January 3, 1949 to December 6, 1973, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Reelected twelve times, each time with more than 60% of the vote.    </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 15 1948, he married Elizabeth Ann Bloomer Warren, a divorcee, and had 4 children </li></ul></ul>INTRODUCTION :   Background Info
    6. 6. INTRODUCTION :   Background Info <ul><ul><li>Ambition was to become Speaker of the House </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became a member of the House Appropriations Committee in 1951, and became minority leader in Defense Appropriations Subcommittee in 1961.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Never became Speaker of the House, but in 1965, became minority leader of the House, which he held for 8 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans didn't have   a majority in the house for all those years </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. INTRODUCTION : &quot;Election&quot; <ul><li>...the road to Vice Presidency ... </li></ul><ul><li>-Spiro Agnew VP of Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>-Baltimore construction contractors paid him cut of fees from contracts. </li></ul><ul><li>-He took tens of thousands of dollars of bribes even in the White House </li></ul><ul><li>-Announced Vice President October 12, 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Speech: &quot;I am a Ford, not a Lincoln&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>-reasons chosen: </li></ul><ul><li>     *would be approved by Congress </li></ul><ul><li>     *same ideas as Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>     *risky </li></ul><ul><li>     *character </li></ul><ul><li>     *good friends with Nixon </li></ul>
    8. 8. ...the road to Presidency ... <ul><li>-&quot;He's a good and decent man, the country needs that now .&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>-June 23 tape &quot;Smoking Gun&quot; proved that Nixon lied about not using CIA to block Watergate investigation </li></ul><ul><li>-Nixon made his 3 options after Supreme Court ruling </li></ul><ul><li>     *resign now </li></ul><ul><li>     *wait for House to vote to impeach & then resign </li></ul><ul><li>     *fight through Senate trial </li></ul><ul><li>-Hiag,Chief of Staff, made 5 points of what Nixon should do </li></ul><ul><li>and #6 was mysteriously added: &quot;Nixon could resign and hope that his successor would pardon him.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>-Nixon suggests Nelson Rockefeller as Ford's VP </li></ul><ul><li>-August 7, 1974 9:01 radio and television from Oval Office </li></ul><ul><li>resignation speech </li></ul>INTRODUCTION : &quot;Election&quot;
    9. 10. INTRODUCTION : Party Affiliation <ul><ul><li>Republican </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Described himself as &quot;a moderate in domestic affairs, an internationalist in foreign affairs, and a conservative in fiscal policy.&quot;    </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A major goals:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To help business operate more freely by reducing taxes upon it and easing the controls exercised by regulatory agencies.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign affairs Ford acted vigorously to maintain U. S. power and prestige after the collapse of Cambodia and South Viet Nam. Preventing a new war in the Middle East remained a major objective </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 11. OVERVIEW : Timeline <ul><li>Gerald Ford: 38th President of the United States, 1974-1976 </li></ul><ul><li>  1972 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>June 17 -Watergate Scandal begins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  1973 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October 1 0 -Vice President Agnew resigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 12 -Ford appointed vice president without election (first vice president nominated under terms of 25th amendment)      </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1974 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May through July - Ford travels tirelessly around the country defending Nixon.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  August 8 -Nixon resigns over national T.V. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>August 9 -Gerald R. Ford becomes 38th president of a nation suffering 12.2% inflation and 5.3% unemployment rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>September 8 - Ford pardons Nixon for Watergate crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 25 -Ford pledges to enforce all black civil rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>November 12 -Press Secretary Ron Nessen announces the U.S. is entering a recession </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. OVERVIEW : Timeline <ul><li>1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>January 1 3 -Ford delivers a &quot;fireside chat&quot; to the nation and promises to fight inflation and energy dependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>January 15 -Ford proposes tax cuts for American families and businesses. He also proposes to reduce the amount of government spending. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>February 24 -U.S. lifts 10-year embargo on arms shipments to Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>April 10 - Ford asks Congress for to assist South Vietnam and Cambodia financially, but most Congressmen, especially Democrats, disapprove of it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May 12 - Newly Communist Cambodia seizes the U.S. merchant ship,  Mayaguez . Ford orders Marines to rescue the ship's crew </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. OVERVIEW : Timeline <ul><li>1975 cont'd  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>August 1 -Helsinki Accords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>September 5 -Lynette Fromme tries to assassinate Ford in Sacramento, California. Ford is the first president who has had a woman attempt to kill him. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>September 22 -Sara Jane Moore attempts to assasinate President Ford in San Francisco, California. She is the second woman to attempt the assassination of Ford. </li></ul></ul>Lynette Fromme
    13. 14. OVERVIEW : Timeline <ul><li>1976 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>November 3 -Republican Ford loses to Democrat Jimmy Carter in his re-election campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  1979 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>June 6 - Ford's memoir, A Time to Heal , is published </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>April 27 - Ford dedicates his Presidential Library in Ann Arbor, Michigan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>September 18 -Ford dedicates his Presidential Museum in Grand Rapids, Michigan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1999 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>August 11 -President Clinton awards Ford the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian award </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>December 26 -Ford dies in his California home at age 93 </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. OVERVIEW : Specific Roles <ul><li>Chief Executive (ensures that laws are faithfully executed.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enforced the American spirit of democracy and opposition to Communism by fully supporting and continuing the Vietnam War. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens when Justice William Douglas stepped down in Nov. 1975 due to stroke. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ford acted on Attorney General Edward Levi advise to appoint Stevens to Supreme Court, and the Senate confirmed Stevens' appointment without controversy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stevens is also still alive and serving in the Supreme Court today </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 16. OVERVIEW : Specific Roles <ul><li>Chief of State   (official &quot;leader&quot; of a nation) </li></ul><ul><li>-Sept. 8, 1974: completely pardons Nixon's wrongdoings. This disturbs many people and raises  suspicions  that... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REASONS: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon's health and relieving his agony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>end Watergate and move on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;It is my duty, not merely to proclaim domestic tranquility but to use every means that I have to insure it.&quot; </li></ul></ul>Ford was in  bed  with Nixon
    16. 17. OVERVIEW : Specific Roles <ul><ul><li>Public wanted to see trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approval rate 71% to 49% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Throwing away his presidency to do a favor&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought that trade pardon for resignation and presidency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The 6th point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ford never regretted it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Shift from fallen president to rising nation&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul>Chief of State   (cont)
    17. 18. OVERVIEW : Specific Roles <ul><li>-Ford decides to evacuate troops from South Vietnam as Saigon is captured by North Vietnam (Communist) and war ends.   </li></ul>Commander in Chief  (commander of a nation's military forces)
    18. 19. Commander in Chief  ~   Bungled Vietnam <ul><ul><li>Operation Frequent Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>April 29 and the morning of April 30, 1975, soldiers evacuated the American embassy in Saigon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  US promised about 90,000 who had worked for or had ties to the US evacuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many were not fetched and they stormed the embassy.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only about1,373 U.S. citizens and 5,595 Vietnamese and third country nationals were evacuated  </li></ul></ul>OVERVIEW : Specific Roles
    19. 20. Commander in Chief     ~  Mayagüez <ul><li>What happened: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US merchant ship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May 12 1975 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf of Siam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodian government  took crew as prisoners  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ford's plan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue plan became a way to punish Cambodians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to bomb warships and military significance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US saw it was an opportunity to regain respect they lost with the fall of Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Said it was an act of piracy   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Let's look ferocious&quot; with planes, ships, and military force </li></ul></ul>OVERVIEW : Specific Roles
    20. 21. Commander in Chief     ~  Mayagüez (cont) <ul><li>Afterwards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodians released crew </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All people in the ship survive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;Victory&quot; for country and showed its strength </li></ul><ul><li>However, critics say: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost more lives than on boat itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>41 killed total and 39 on ship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ford's decision making without congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crew not even on island (Koh Tang) where fought </li></ul></ul>OVERVIEW : Specific Roles
    21. 22.   - Joining of the U.S. and Soviet space       > Apollo-Soyuz Test project launched   Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft     > This was symbolic because it represented the two nation's efforts to reconcile ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -Helsinki Accords: Signed in Helsinki, Finland, on August 1, 1975      > Designed to increase cooperation among the Communist and non-Communist countries of Europe (Eastern and Western Europe)      > Acknowledged that Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were under Soviet control. OVERVIEW : Specific Roles Chief Diplomat  (manage foreign relations/policies)                                                             
    22. 23. Chief Diplomat  ~  OPEC <ul><ul><li>Arab oil power was predominant at the time  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OPEC (Organization of Oil Exporting Countries) implemented an Oil Embargo from 1973-1974, which was difficult for America's economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of his major goals was to prevent a war between the Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented &quot;Shuttle Diplomacy&quot; in the Middle East, which seemed to work well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided more aid to both Egypt and Israel, so was able to get them to accept a truce agreement, but it didn't last </li></ul></ul>OVERVIEW : Specific Roles
    23. 24. OVERVIEW : Specific Roles (not) <ul><li>Inflation in double digits and to fix the problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whip Inflation Now (WIN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No effect on the economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows that Ford can't deal with it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wear WIN Buttons to spread awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pledge to spend less and clean their plates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing is caring (pain, sorrow, & joy) </li></ul></ul></ul>Chief Legislator  (sign/veto bills drafted by Congress and suggest new laws for Congress to consider)
    24. 25. OVERVIEW : Specific Roles <ul><ul><li>Wanted a 5% tax surcharge but the idea died away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to reduce spending budget to under $300 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vetoes on whatever he thought was too high and would sign until changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Decontrol&quot; energy prices to stimulate production </li></ul></ul>Chief of Legislator  (cont)
    25. 26. Bad Reputation with Farmers: <ul><ul><li>Embargo with Russia on grain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Try to help keep food prices down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But no help with inflation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russia just traded with other countries that traded with US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vetoes bills for boosting prices for dairy, grain and cotton </li></ul></ul>OVERVIEW : Specific Roles Chief of Legislator  (cont)
    26. 27. <ul><ul><li>9.2% peak of unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted spending cuts again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax flip-flop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now wanted to cut taxes before wanted to raise taxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has energy tax and rebate too </li></ul></ul></ul>OVERVIEW : Specific Roles Chief of Legislator  ~ Recession, public enemy #1
    27. 28. <ul><li>  Campaign Finance Law: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits donation spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to Nixon/Watergate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rid politics of corrupting influences of big money and big special interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Federal Election Commission to have strict disclosure of sources and uses of campaign money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates strict limits on individual and organizational contributions to campaigns and on spending ceilings for races </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First public financing presidential election campaign from fund through voluntary federal income tax check off </li></ul></ul>Chief Legislator  (cont) OVERVIEW : Specific Roles
    28. 29. REASONS LOST ELECTION 1976 VS CARTER <ul><ul><li>Pardon of Nixon barely a month in office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto attempts to increase expenditures for social programs and resist development of new layers of government bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressed virtues of free enterprise and dangers of over regulating economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed tax increase to combat inflation but changed his idea when unemployment increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embargo on grain </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. <ul><ul><ul><li>The two attempts occured less than three weeks apart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First attempt by Lynette 'Squeaky' Fromme at the beginning of September 1975 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fromme wanted to kill him because she didn't think his policies protected the California Redwoods enough, so she tried to shoot him with a pistol when he shook her hand, but the bullets weren't in the firing chamber, so he wasn't harmed </li></ul></ul></ul>Assassination Attempts
    30. 31. Assassination Attempts <ul><ul><li>Second attempt by Sara Jane Moore in the middle of September 1975 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moore became desperate and violent due to personal issues and she was a political radical, a follower of Marxism, so she tried to kill Ford with a pistol, but the shot was deflected by a marine and Ford was unharmed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both women were arrested and sentenced to life in prison, but Moore was later released on parole </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Supportive Political Cartoon
    32. 33. Critical Political Cartoon 1
    33. 34. Critical Political Cartoon 2
    34. 35. CONCLUSION : ranking <ul><ul><li>Moral integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic and foreign policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship with Americans </li></ul></ul>(beginning from #1 as best)
    35. 36. THE END