Participatory action research A systematic approach to personal and social transformation, aims to develop critical consciousness, to improve the lives of those involved in the research process, and to transform fundamental societal structures and relationships
Participatory action research A democratic process whereby through self-directed education, research and action, utilize knowledge to transform their social realities.
Participatory action research An alternative form of social research in which the people themselves are the main actors, in the entire research process, from decision to investigate to research tools formulation, to data collection and analysis, and finally to data dissemination and utilization.
Conventional to CONFORM Progressive to REFORM Liberating to TRANSFORM Function Resist change. Keep social order stable. Change people to meet society’s needs. Change society to meet people’s needs. Aim Teach people to accept and ‘fit in’ to the social situation without changing its unjust aspects. Work for certain improvements without changing the unjust aspects of society. Actively oppose social injustice, inequality, and corruption. Work for basic change. Intention toward people CONTROL them- especially poor working people-farm and city. PACIFY of CALM them-especially those whose hardships drive them to protest or revolt. FREE them from oppression. Exploitation. And corruption. Strategy
General approach AUTHORITARIAN (rigid top-down control) PATERNALISTIC (kindly top-down control) HUMANITARIAN and DEMOCRATIC (control by the people) Effect on people and the community OPPRESSIVE-rigid central authority allows little or no participation by students and community DECEPTIVE-pretends to be supportive, but resists real change. SUPPORTIVE-helps people find ways to gain more control over their health and their lives. How students (and people generally) are viewed Basically passive. Empty containers to be filled with standard knowledge. Basically irresponsible. Must be cared for. Need to be watched closely. Basically active. Able to take charge and become self- reliant. Can and must be tamed. Able to participate in specific activities when spoon fed. Responsible when treated with respect and as equals.
What the students feel about the teacher FEAR-teacher is an absolute, all-knowing boss who stands apart from and above the students. GRATITUDE-Teacher is a friendly, parent-like authority who knows what is best for the students. TRUST-Teacher is a ‘facilitator’ who helps everyone look for answers together. Who decides what should be learned The Ministry of Education for Health in the capital. The Ministry, but with some local decisions. The students and instructors together with the community. Main way of learning PASSIVE-students receive knowledge. Memorization of facts. More or less active. Memorization still basic. ACTIVE-everyone contributes. Learning through doing and discussing.
Characteristics of participatory action researcher 1. Empathy 2. Credible 3. Friendly/pleasant 4. Positiveness 5. Cooperative/helpful 6. Careful with the use of gestures
7. Smiling 8. Good listener 9. Open mind 10. Openness 11. Respectful 12. Equality
สนใจสถานการณ์การเมือง สังคม เศรษฐกิจ
ยินดี พร้อมประเมินตนเอง วิจารณ์ตนเองและ
ก่อนของตนเอง - หน่วยงาน - นักวิชาการ - ผู้ให้ทุน
1. Ideological stance Pro-disadvantaged groups Elitist Participatory Conventional Research Distinguishing Characteristics of Participatory Research 2. Objectivity Involved beyond advocacy Detached 3. View of target group Subject Object 4. Method Simple, indigenous, who holistic Rigid, highly- Quantitative, Uni-dimensional
5. Utilization of findings Feedback, orally or as simple/understand able materials to the people Communicated through publications Impact factor Participatory Conventional Research 6. Language Language of the people Researcher’/ Scientific jargon
7. Purpose Transformation and self-actualization of the people Extract information from the people to researchers’/ agencys’ 8. Research Framework People Researcher/ agency Participatory Conventional Research 9. Relationship Complements/ supportive corrective
Participatory Conventional Research 9. Relationship Complements/ supportive corrective 10. Choice of the problem What Immediate, local problem Interest of researcher/ agency Who Both researcher and the people researcher/ agency
Participatory Conventional Research 11. Choice of methodology What Combination of simple and indigenous tools or instruments Experimental, quasi-experimental Validity is consensual Highly statistical analysis Practical analysis data Who Researcher and the people researcher/ agency
Participatory Conventional Research 12. Choice of outcome What Transformation of the situation of the people Reports, policy Recommendation, administrative decisions Critical awareness of problems and issues affecting the people Who Researcher and the people researcher/ agency
Model Ideology Blueprint Elite Process Poor - Disadvantage - Marginal Conventional research PAR Aim Answer R. Quest Uncommited - Committed - Transform Frame Researcher Outsider - Local people Begin c Materials - Man
Goal Predetermined - Universal criteria - Flexible - Context Conventional research PAR Strategy - Planning - Participatory Method - Strict, sophisticate - Technical/techno - Quantitative - Ready made - Package - Ala. carte - Simple - Indigenous - Holistic - Appr. Tech. - Varieties - Menus
Dev. Model - Control - Motivate - Planned - Dependence - Release/relieved - Enabling support - Empower - dependence View consumer as - Beneficiary - Actors - Contributors Outcome - Material - Products - Non-material - Competence - Learning - Satisfaction - Happiness
Lessons 1. Context bound K. 2. Socio technical system based 3. Conventional social support 4. Client centered 5. Political structure 6. Basic concept Reality is socially constructed
7. R. Problem 8. Transfer Management 9. Power structure 10. Change process 11. Social facts vs natural facts 12. Involvement commitment
กรอบ ทบ . วิชาการ
- Reality - Local wisdom
กรอบ ทบ .
- Local theory - Experience - Tacit, implicit - unreflected - context bounded
Problems encountered in participatory research : Understanding people’s passivity time constraints of participants and researchers demands on researcher (educator, facilitator, researcher) researcher needs to be clear on own values or willing to reflect upon them transfer of skills needed often project are initiated by outsiders: difficulty of project control from researcher to participants Resources: constraints set by initiating body communities are not homogeneous.