Logic and science as a foundation of research
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Logic and science as a foundation of research

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Logic and science as a foundation of research Logic and science as a foundation of research Presentation Transcript

  • Logic and Science
    as
    foundations of research
  • Outline
    Model and understanding of phenomena
    Facts and reasoning from given facts
    Logical reasoning
    Nature of science
    Product of science
    Scientific process
  • logic as a basis of research
  • facts vs opinion
    Facts are characteristics of objects.
    Opinion is our ideas or attitudes towards objects.
    e.g. “ Mr. Beatle is a Loyalty person.”
  • facts
    Identification: name, ID number
    Observation: data
    Measurement: numerics
  • reasoning by given facts
    Giving data of a family, one kid names John 2 years
    older than other kid names Pam. The youngest kid
    is 4 years younger than his brother. Pam is in the
    first grade.
    1. How many children in this family?
    2. How many girl and boy ?
    3. What are their age?
  • Logical reasoning
    Inductive
    =
    specific to general
    Deductive
    =
    general to specific
    generalization
    statistics
    causal inference
    Strong ?
    Valid ?
  • logical reasoning: deductive
    Good doctor has high moral
    Good doctor is happy
    Good doctor is smart and clever
    Clever and smart doctor is rich
    Dr.Boy is clever and smart
    So which answer is incorrect
    Dr.Boy is happy
    Dr.Boy is good doctor
    Dr.Boy is rich
    Dr.Boy is a good doctor but may have low moral
    Dr.Boy is rich but may be unhappy
  • logical reasoning: inductive
    In annual examination during 5 years of medical students in 4 Faculties, from total 500, we found that Fac. A had mean grade of 320, Fac.B got 300, Fac.C got 300 and Fac.D got 260, shown in this table: Can you show which Faculty had highest performance and which one had low.
  • logical reasoning: inductive
    From the national telephone survey in Thailand, the total household of 10000 were asked about number of residence and employment status of the household member. It was concluded that ‘Unemployment rate in 2008 was 20%.
    How do you feel about this figure?
  • logical reasoning: inductive
    One researcher reported a statistical data that children under 5 from poor family had 2.5 incidence of infectious diseases than children from rich family. So he concluded that economic status had serious health impact than cancer.
    What do you think about his conclusion?
  • Science as a basis of research
  • The nature of science I
    People by nature are curious about the world around them
    Question
    Answer
  • Consider these
    Pam said Pepsi is the best.
    Boy said Coke is better and cheaper.
    Pam shouted that not real, Pepsi is 13 Bht,
    Coke is 14 Bht.
    Boy remarked that it’s not fare, Pepsi had
    325 cc. while Coke had 400 cc.
    Which one is better?
  • The nature of science I
    Scientific disciplines (e.g. physics, biology, sociology, …) differ in objects of study but
    share in characteristics.
    Scientific questions are questions that
    can be answered by identifying
    observable events.
  • Consider these
    a)Doing research is difficult ?
    b)Does Boy run faster than girl?
    Which one is more scientific (as a question) ?
    (a) or (b)
  • The nature of science I
    Scientific disciplines (e.g. physics, biology, sociology, …) differ in objects of study but
    share in characteristics.
    1. Scientific questions are questions that can be answered by identifying
    observable events.
    2. Answers to the questions take a form of description,
    explanation, prediction, or understanding.
  • The nature of science I
    Science
    product
    process
    knowledge
    method
    Description / explanation / prediction / causation
  • Knowledge as description
    We must describe objects and events before we can
    understand and explain the relationships among them.
    Observations must be carefully defined,organized and
    classified in meaningful way,precisely and reliably
    reported with clear references.
    Language usage in science: one word one meaning,
    precise and consistent,
    judged by its usefulness
  • Operational Definition
    A state of emotional stress or feelings that occur when faced with problems that make you feel uncomfortable or frustrate, high stress level cause mental suffering, feeling confused, angry or sad. Stress that there is not much is an incentive for people to overcome obstacles and fight for their living.
    Or ‘Stress is the level of emotional disturbance that causes physical alteration, e.g. difficult to sleep, less appetite, weight loss, etc. as we can measure it by the Stress test.’
  • Knowledge as explanation & prediction
    Explanation satisfies curiosity by citing a general rule –
    change in one general class of events relates to change
    in another class of events under certain conditions.
    We explain the pastand thepresent and predict the future.
    Prediction is carried out before the event occurs and
    explanation afterward.
    More general rule is a theory. Best theory involves the
    fewest assumptions, explains the broadest range of
    phenomena, provides the most accurate prediction.
  • Knowledge as understanding in science: causation
    A sense of understanding is provided by describing
    the causal process that connects events.
    Judgment of causation:
    • Strength of association
    • Known association
    • Temporal relationship
    • Dose response relationship
    • Consistency with other investigations
  • Scientific process
    Theory
    Prediction (hypotheses)
    Empirical generalization
    observation
  • Scientific process
    If we have a theory that
    Community with lacking of family bonding has higher potential of suicide
    Empirical
    generalization
    hypothesis
    Married people has lower suicide rate
    Analysis
    observation
    Collect data of marital status and suicidal rate
  • Scientific process
    Empiricism = observable, directly or indirectly,
    through some tangible manifestation
    Objectivity = intersubjective testability = repeatability
    Control = clean from preventable error
  • Research process: hypothetical-deductive method
    deduc
    t
    i
    ve
    formulate hypothesis
    inductive
    Deduce consequence
    from hypothesis
    Draw inference
    Check through observation
  • Step of Research
    Design
    Formulate R.Question
    Review your interest
    Data Management and analysis
    Collection Data
    Research dissemination
    Data Interpretation
  • Practice
  • Research Question
    • Asking the right question at the right time
    • Good research question
    1. Simple
    2. Understandable
    3. Feasible
    4. Cover all we need to know
  • How to formulate Research Question
    • ASK Yourself: “What do you want to know?”
    • Repeat asking: “What are specific that you want to know?”
    • Assess your Qs: Is your Qs had at least2 components?
    People (children, family with stress?)
    and problems (Depression, ARI, Cholera)
    • Repeat again : What are specific group of people?
    • and again : What are specific problems?
  • Design
    What variables of what units are to be studied ?
    1. Define variables and measure.
    2. Identify population and select samples.
  • Design
    Good Questions
    Variables
    Unit of analysis
    Association of variables
    Measurement
    Population
    Sample
    Tools (Ques’nair, Observa, exam?)
  • Practice
  • Questions ????????????????