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    Chlumsky e Chlumsky e Presentation Transcript

    • Chlumsky E. GarfinEntrep II-BSubject: NatScieFebruary 26,2011Time: 9am
    • Asbestosis
      sbestosis is a chronic inflammatory and fibrotic medical condition affecting the parenchymaltissue of the lungs caused by the inhalation and retention of asbestos fibers. It usually occurs after high intensity and/or long-term exposure to asbestos (particularly in those individuals working on the production or end-use of products containing asbestos) and is therefore regarded as an occupational lung disease. People with extensive occupational exposure to the mining, manufacturing, handling or removal of asbestos are at risk of developing asbestosis.[1] Sufferers may experience severe dyspnea (shortness of breath) and are at an increased risk for certain malignancies, including lung cancer but especially mesothelioma.[2] Asbestosis specifically refers to interstitial (parenchymal) fibrosis from asbestos, and not pleural fibrosis or plaquing.
      Contents
      1 Signs and symptoms
      2 Pathogenesis
      3 Diagnosis
      4 Treatment
      5 Legal issues
      6 See also
      7 References
      8 External links
    • Asbestosis Classification and external resourcesMicrograph of asbestosis showing the characteristic ferruginous bodies and marked interstitial fibrosis (or scarring). H&E stain
    • Signs and symptoms
      The signs and symptoms of asbestosis do not manifest until after an appreciable latency (time since first exposure), often several decades under current conditions in the US.[3] The primary symptom of asbestosis is generally the slow onset of dyspnea, especially on exertion.[4] Clinically advanced cases of asbestosis may lead to respiratory failure. On auscultation of the lungs, the physician may hear inspiratoryrales.
      The characteristic pulmonary function finding in asbestosis is a restrictive ventilatory defect. [5] This manifests as a reduction in lung volumes, particularly the Vital Capacity (VC) and Total Lung Capacity (TLC). The TLC may be reduced through alveolar wall thickening; however this is not always the case.[6] Large airway function, as reflected by FEV1/FVC, is generally well preserved.[3] In the more severe cases, the drastic reduction in lung function due to the stiffening of the lungs and reduced TLC may induce right-sided heart failure (corpulmonale).[7][8] In addition to a restrictive defect, asbestosis may produce reduction in Diffusion Capacity and arterial hypoxemia.
    • Pathogenesis
      Asbestosis is the scarring of lung tissue (around terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts) resulting from the inhalation of asbestos fibers.[9] There are two types of fibers: amphibole (thin and straight) and serpentine (curved). The former are primarily responsible for human disease as they are able to penetrate deeply into the lungs. When such fibers reach the alveoli (air sacs) in the lung, where oxygen is transferred into the blood, the foreign bodies (asbestos fibers) cause the activation of the lung's local immune system and provoke an inflammatory reaction. This inflammatory reaction can be described as chronic rather than acute, with a slow ongoing progression of the immune system in an attempt to eliminate the foreign fibers. Macrophagesphagocytose (ingest) the fibers and stimulate fibroblasts to deposit connective tissue. Due to the asbestos fibers' natural resistance to digestion, the macrophage dies off, releasing cytokines and attracting further lung macrophages and fibrolastic cells to lay down fibrous tissue, which eventually forms a fibrous mass. The result is interstitial fibrosis. The fibrotic scar tissue causes alveolar walls to thicken, which reduces elasticity and gas diffusion, reducing oxygen transfer to the blood as well as the removal of carbon dioxide.
    • Diagnosis
      According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)[3], the general diagnostic criteria for asbestosis are:
      Evidence of structural pathology consistent with asbestosis, as documented by imaging or histology
      Evidence of causation by asbestos as documented by the occupational and environmental history, markers of exposure (usually pleural plaques), recovery of asbestos bodies, or other means
      Exclusion of alternative plausible causes for the findings
      The abnormal chest x-ray and its interpretation remain the most important factors in establishing the presence of pulmonary fibrosis.[3] The findings usually appear as small, irregular parenchymal opacities, primarily in the lung bases. Using the ILO Classification system, "s", "t", and/or "u" opacities predominate. CT or high-resolution CT (HRCT) are more sensitive than plain radiography at detecting pulmonary fibrosis (as well as any underlying pleural changes). More than 50% of people affected with asbestosis develop plaques in the parietal ple{ura, the space between the chest wall and lungs. Once apparent, the radiographic findings in asbestosis may slowly progress or remain static, even in the absence of further asbestos exposure.[10] Rapid progression suggests an alternative diagnosis.
      Asbestosis resembles many other diffuse interstitial lung diseases, including other pneumoconioses. The differential diagnosis includes Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, sarcoidosis, and others. The presence of pleural plaquing may provide supportive evidence of causation by asbestos. Although lung biopsy is usually not necessary, the presence of asbestos bodies in association with pulmonary fibrosis establishes the diagnosis.[11] Conversely, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in the absence of asbestos bodies is most likely not asbestosis.[3] Asbestos bodies in the absence of fibrosis indicate exposure, not
    • Close-up asbestosis right lower zone ILO 2/2 S/S
      Lateral Chest X-ray in asbestosis shows plaquing of the diaphragm.
    • Treatment
      There is no curative treatment for asbestosis.[12]Oxygen therapy at home is often necessary to relieve the shortness of breath and correct underlying hypoxia. Supportive treatment of symptoms includes respiratory physiotherapy to remove secretions from the lungs by postural drainage, chest percussion, and vibration. Nebulized medications may be prescribed in order to loosen secretions or treat underlying Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Immunization against pneumococcal pneumonia and annual influenza vaccination is administered due to increased sensitivity to the diseases. Patients are at increased risk for certain malignancies. If the patient smokes, cessation reduces further damage. Periodic PFTs, chest x-rays, and clinical evaluations, including cancer screening/evaluations, are given to detect additional hazards.
    • Asbestos Exposure
      Asbestos is a naturally occurring, fibrous mineral which is easily separated into thin, microscopic threads. These fibers can also break off into microscopic pieces that, when inhaled, can cause serious problems. Asbestos has thousands of different uses, including: fire retardant coatings, concrete, bricks, pipes and fireplace cement, heat, fire, and acid resistant gaskets, pipe insulation, ceiling insulation, fireproof drywall, flooring, roofing, lawn furniture, drywall joint compound and on and on. Its widespread use caused an avalanche of mesothelioma cases that continues to this day due to the thousands upon thousands of people who were exposed to asbestos unknowingly.