How to teach grammar

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  • 1. How to Teach Grammar Maria Kristina Pingkan 1021150015
  • 2. 1. What is Grammar?• Texts, sentences, words, sounds• Grammar and meaning• Two kinds of meaning• Grammar and function• Spoken grammar and written grammar• Grammar syllabuses• Grammar rules
  • 3. Texts, sentences, words, sounds
  • 4. Texts, sentences, words, sounds• The example:• The ability both to recognize and to produce well-formed sentences is an essential part of learning a second language. 1 2 3 4 5 We are not at home. They are at work. Dad is In hospital. I am In bed.
  • 5. • What was he misunderstood?*The function of the question.• What we do when we process the language?*Make sense the words and the grammar.*infer the speaker’s intention (the function of what they are saying or writing)
  • 6. Spoken grammar and written grammar
  • 7. Grammar syllabuses*Meaning *Two sets of decisiona. pre-planned a. selectionb. itemized usefulnessc. account of the route frequency b. grading*Purpose complexity to tell the teacher learnability what is to be covered teachability and in what order.
  • 8. Grammar syllabuses• Grammar Rules:1. Prescriptive rule A principle or order which guides behavior, says how things are to be done etc2. Descriptive rule The usual way that something happens.3. Pedagogic rule.*Rules of form*Rules of use
  • 9. 4.How to Teach Grammar from Examples• TWO BASIC WAYS TO ACHIEVE UNDERSTANDING OF A RULE:*Deductive learning*Inductive learning (rule-discovery path) Without having met the rule. Learner studies examples. Derives on understanding of the rule.
  • 10. Inductive learningThe advantages• Fitting students’ existing mental structures.• Involving a greater degree of cognitive depth.• The activity of students.• Favoring pattern recognition and problem solving.• Getting the opportunity for extra language practice.• Preparing students for greater self-reliance.
  • 11. Inductive learningThe disadvantages• Misleading students• The effectiveness of time• Wrong conclusion• Heavy demanding in planning lesson• Resisting easy rule-formulation• Frustates students.
  • 12. 5.How to teach Grammar through texts.Texts and contexts.• Language is context-sensitive.Kind of context.• Co-text• Context of situation• Context of culture The term text will be used from now on to refer to both written and spoken English.
  • 13. 5.How to teach Grammar through texts.The forms of texts:• Postcards• Novels• Sermons• Football commentaries• Street signs• Jokes• Air safety instructionsSo, it is easier to use examples taken out of context.
  • 14. 5.How to teach Grammar through texts.Sources of textsAt least 4 possible sources of texts• Course books• Authentic sources ( Newspapers, songs, literary texts, the internet)• Teacher• The students