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powerpoint chloramine


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  • 2. A highly toxic and unnecessarytreatment alternativeCH NIA LO MO RI AM NE
  • 3. ChlorineMost effective disinfectant for drinking waterEffectively kills e-coli, rotaviruses and polio 1 Successfully used nation-wide over 100 years Dissipates quickly – protecting environment and minimally affecting people So,
  • 4. Organic Material + Chlorine = Disinfection in Raw Water Byproducts (DBP) DBPs of Chlorine Trihalomethanes (TTHM) Haloacetic Acids (HAA)
  • 5. STAGE 1 Average across all testing locations must be in compliance40 50 60 180 130 50 60 3020 40 30 140 90 30 20 50 AVERAGE 75 ppb TTMs - compliance 52 ppb HAAs - compliance
  • 6. STAGE 1 Average across all testing locations40 50 60 180 130 50 60 3020 40 30 140 90 30 20 50This method allowed people in some testing locations to Be exposed to unacceptable levels of byproducts
  • 7. STAGE 2 Average in each location over 4 quarters Same levels – different calculation 30 401st 20 802nd 130 1503rd4th 50 90THMs 57.5 90 compliance non-compliance
  • 8. Need to reduce TTHMs and HAAs Options offered by EPA:Better filtration of organics before disinfection UV Light Chlorine Dioxide ChloramineCheapest alternative = chloramine
  • 9. CHLORAMINEADVANTAGES: Ammonia binds to chlorine – maintains residual in longer lines – no booster needed - reduces reactivity to organic material - thereby reducing formation of TTHMs and HAAs Chloramine is cheap - HOWEVER………
  • 10. CHLORAMINEDISADVANTAGES: Adverse SHORT TERM health effects Adverse LONG TERM health effects LEAST EFFECTIVE BIOCIDE Fatal to aquatic life and watersheds Corrodes pipes and fixtures/leaches lead Homeland Security risk Can’t be filtered out Does not dissipate
  • 12. SHORT TERM HEALTH EFFECTS Thousands of people in over 30 states reporting:Persistent skin rashes - burns In Westmoreland, PA Pennsylvania Exposed to chloraminated Not exposed to water for 3 minutes chloramine
  • 13.  In VermontIn Colorado
  • 14. Respiratory - Asthma like symptoms Mono-Chloramine speciates into di-, tri-Chloramine with change in temperature and pH Tri-chloramine – known respiratory irritant In study intended to measure dermal affect – 100% of test mice died from inhaling tri-chloramine vaporDigestive ailments – Reflux Colitis Painful stomach
  • 15. LONG TERM HEALTH EFFECTSOrganic Material + Chloramine = Nitrogen in Raw Water Disinfection Byproducts (NDBP) DBPs of Chloramine N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) Hydrazine (rocket fuel) DXAA Iodoacetic Acid
  • 16. LONG TERM HEALTH EFFECTS:Creates a new, more toxic family of byproducts NDMA HYDRAZINE DXAA IODOACETIC ACID * Up to 100,000 times MORE TOXIC than TTHM/HAA * More toxic at smaller doses * Genotoxic, Cytotoxic and Mutagenic * Cannot be filtered out * Absorbed through skin in shower, bath, pool * NDMA and Hydrazine = ‘probable’ human carcinogens * Formed in distribution system
  • 17. Chlorine ChloramineMammalian Cell Cytotoxicity if Genotoxicity of Disinfection By-ProductsDrs. Michael Plewa & Elizabeth D. Wagner (2009)Water Research Foundation
  • 18. Chloramine Byproducts Comparative Toxicity
  • 19. Iodo Acids – Byproduct of Chloramine
  • 20. Common household products can react with Chloramine to form NDMAs Commonly used shampoos, conditioners and soaps contain ingredients that can react with chloramine to form NDMAs Suave shampoo and Dawn dish detergent positively identified as forming NDMAs in chloraminated water
  • 21. INEFFECTIVE BIOCIDEChloramine is the LEAST effective biocide of all the available treatments * 2,000 times less effective in killing e-coli, rotaviruses and polio 1 than Chlorine. * World Health Organization warns not to sacrifice bio-cidal effect because of possible byproduct issues
  • 22. FISH KILLSDocumented Fish Kills in Virginia, California and British Columbia * Feb 2013-SanMateo- “the creek looks sterile” * McLean in NOVA ---9 miles of stream killed - “everything down to the earthworms” * Henrico Co Fish Kill in Feb 2012 * Protected Steel Head Trout * 1000 species of salmonids and invertebrates
  • 23. CORROSIVE –LEACHES LEAD AND PITS COPPERWashington D.C. – 4 years – EPA and CDC ignored evidence of high levels of lead in the water after chloramine started – law suits by parents are pending – 1000’s of children exposed for 4 years - no amount of lead is safe for children.In NY, high lead levels even with corrosion inhibitorCalifornia – Developer suing water authority for pitted copper pipes throughout new
  • 24. HIGH LEAD – WEST VIEW WATERJuly to September 2010 * 19 out of 98 homes elevated lead levels * levels of up to 130 ppb, more than 8 times the maximum allowed by EPA * problem began when authority began using chloramine
  • 25. Excessive lead found in tap water after chloramine was implementedWest View, PA- * 19 out of 98 homes elevated lead levels * levels of up to 130 ppb * > 8X the EPA maximumGreenville, NC  Duke studyChapel Hill, NC  Lead-free brass fittingsPoughkeepsie, NY  Could not control lead leaching despite pH changes and corrosion inhibitors  Reverted back to chlorine
  • 26. Chloramine pits copper pipeCalifornia – Developer suing water authority for pitted copper pipes throughout new development.Seeking more than $20 million in damages, citing product liability, negligence, private nuisance and breach of warranty
  • 27. Representative failures from buildings after a utility switched to chloramine – from Marc Edwards 2003Rubber and elastomer – life span in chlorine = 5-6 YEARS in chloramine = 5-6 MONTHS
  • 28. Chloraminated Tap Water
  • 29. HOMELAND SECURITYChloramine - chlorine + ammonia is more stable, less reactive - Intentional contamination of our water – Chlorine will attack – levels will drop – alarms will go off Chloramine will not readily react – levels will NOT drop and NO alarms will go off US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Lab, Champaign, Il. 61826
  • 30. FILTRATIONHome v. Water treatment facility Point of Use and Whole House Filters * only reduces the mono-chloramine * does not affect di- and tri- chloramine * does not reduce or eliminate toxic byproducts * does not protect you at school, work, vacation, family homes, hotels, restaurants, shopping centers, etc * expensive + continuing expense – paying for protection from water we are paying to receiveWater treatment facility filtration* Can reduce TTHMs and HAAs and not use chloramine if implement more effective pre-disinfection filtration
  • 31. GAC is an EPA BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY for the following contaminants• Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs)• Mercury and Cadmium• Natural Organic Matter• Synthetic Organic Chemicals (specifically:benzo(a)pyrene, di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, hexachlorobenzene, dioxin)• Radionuclides
  • 32. OTHER ISSUESCompelling anecdotal evidence - not scientifically confirmed:Chloramine may also effect – * rising autism *reduced bee population *birds *cats *plant growth *beer production *bread production
  • 33. ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES:1. maintains residual 1. Short term health effects2. reduces TTHMs and 2. Long term health effects HAAs 3. Ineffective biocide3. it’s cheap 4. Fish kills and watersheds 5. Lead leaching-pipe pitting 6. watershed contamination 7. Homeland Security risk 8. can’t be filtered out 9. doesn’t dissipate or boil out 10. may be obsolete in near future 11. wastes water 12. Long term – expensive consequences