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Murals
Chloe Steerman
Rieger/ Period 9
Overview

Keynote Presentation
 Video Component
   Class Activity
Thesis Statement
 The various styles, symbols, and techniques used to
   create mural art have been practiced throughout
 ...
Why murals?
What is a
          mural?
  One of the world’s
  oldest forms of art
 Applied directly onto
wa$s, ceiling, and other
    ...
Where are murals found?


 Schools

 Government
 Buildings

 Urban Areas
Smith, S.E. "What is the history of mural paintin...
Who paints murals?
 Artists that are:
 determined,
 commissioned,and posses a
 wide range of skills

 From all different
 ...
Why do we use murals?


    A form of story telling

    To learn from the past

    A form of therapy
Murals Through the Ages
Caves at Lascaux
"Lascaux Caves." Sacred-Destination.com. N.p., 2010. Web. 3 Mar. 2010.
     <http://www.sacred-destinations.com/france/las...
Egyptian Murals
Hyroglyphic
  Murals
                             Gods
                             Kings
                          Pharoh...
Sistine Chapel
Web linkEsaak, Shelly. "Michelangelo-The Sitine Chapel." About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3
     Mar. 2010. <http://arthistory.a...
Hand of god giving life to Adam
Last Judgement



 Painted between 1535-1541

 Apocalypse

 To instill respect for gods
 power.
Diego Rivera
First
commissioned in
 America in the   Reintroduced fresco style
    1930’s              "Diego Rivera." PBS.org. PBS, 20...
Northern Ireland
    Murals         "Political Wall Murals in Northern Ireland."
                   Cain Web Service. N.p....
Historical Styles/Techniques


 Fresco

 Buon Fresco

 Secco

 Mezo Fresco

 Tempra
Fresco
*Afrescco, italian for “&esh”


*Paint is applied onto plaster
which is applied onto surface



"Fresco Terms." MyS...
Buon Fresco




*Painting in pigment mixed                                    *Painted onto a thin layer of wet lime
with ...
Secco
*Painted on dry plaster

Secco is Italian for “dry”




    "Fresco Terms." MyStudios.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 20...
Mezzo
                     Fresco
*Painted on nearly dry plaster


*Used by Michaleangelo


*Defined by Ignazio Pozzo
 "Fre...
Tempra
Pigments are completely binded to
      medium or solvent.




      "Fresco Terms." MyStudios.com. N.p., n.d. Web....
Modern Styles/
 Techniques
*Digital Manufacturing
*Cam
*Tile
*Graffiti
CAM
 (Computer Aided-
     Mural)
Invented in 1998 by Rainer Maria
             Latzke


 Useful for reproducing the same
...
CAM
http://www.flickr.com/photos/thewarhol/4016226137/
Han, Hongfan, and Donming Lu. "Computer Aided Protection and Restoration of
     Dunhuang Mural ." Computer Aided Protecti...
Tile Murals
   Decorative purposes


Most popular as backsplash


     We$ preserved
"Tile Making." Big Ceramic Store. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
     <http://www.bigceramicstore.com/Supplies/Tilemaking.ht...
"Tile Making." Big Ceramic Store. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
     <http://www.bigceramicstore.com/Supplies/Tilemaking.ht...
Graffiti Art
Towers, George C. "Graffiti Art." Graffiti.org. N.p., 1997. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
     <http://www.graffiti.org/faq/stowers.html>.
Tagging Vs. Graffiti Art



           VS.




                 Towers, George C. "Graffiti Art." Graffiti.org. N.p., 1997. W...
Symbolism
Hill, Suzanne. "Symbols in Art." Art History.Suit 101.com. N.p., 20 Oct. 2006.
     Web. 5 Apr. 2010. <http://arthistory.s...
Famous Mexican Figures
Future Aspirations
A few examples of
   symbolism....
Text




Sunflowers
          "Visual Glossary." Cusimano. N.p., 13 Aug. 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
               <http://www...
Clocks
         "Visual Glossary." Cusimano. N.p., 13 Aug. 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
              <http://www.josephcusiman...
Boats   "Visual Glossary." Cusimano. N.p., 13 Aug. 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
             <http://www.josephcusimano.com/ind...
Butterflies
         "Visual Glossary." Cusimano. N.p., 13 Aug. 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
              <http://www.josephcus...
Preserving Murals
           Pomerantz, Joel. "Making Your Mural Last." BikeMural.org. N.p., 2002. Web. 5
                ...
Community
 ProjectsWeb link"Mural Program." Santo.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
             <http://www.sananto.org/m...
Murals I’ve Documented
    Over The Year
      And Famous Muralists
Philadelphia, PA
Downtown-
Pittsburgh, PA
MoMA, NYC
Shady Side-
Pittsburgh, PA
Cathedral of Learning
Todd Marone

Hatboro, PA
Keith Haring
West Chester,PA
Keith Haring
               "About Haring." Keith Haring. The Keith Haring Foundation, 2009. Web. 6 Apr.
                 ...
Roy Lichtenstein
Lucie-Smith, Edward. "Roy Lichtenstein." Artchive.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr.
     2010. <http://artchiv...
Andy Warhol
Pittsburgh,PA
Andy Warhol
              "The Andy Warhol Family Album." Warhola.com. Warhola Family, 2009. Web. 6 Apr.
                 ...
Lichtenstein




               Warhol
Silk screening on wood
Application
Class Activity
Works Cited
         "About Haring." Keith Haring. The Keith Haring Foundation, 2009. Web. 6 Apr.   "Lascaux Caves." Sacre...
Works Cited Continued
     "Visual Glossary." Cusimano. N.p., 13
     Aug. 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
     <http://www.joseph...
“Don’t measure yourself by what you have
accomplished, but what you should have accomplished
                  with your a...
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  • Art has always been an outlet for me, being an artist, I am always looking for news way to express myself.Some artists are better at drawing, some are better at sculpting- but I myself, am a painter. I have countless canvas&amp;#x2019; done but I wanted to step outside my comfort zone and try something new, which is why I wanted to challenge myself with a mural.

  • Murals are one of the world&amp;#x2019;s oldest forms of art- dating back to the Paleolithical age. Murals are applied directly onto walls, ceilings, and other large flat surfaces. A mural can be one of several different styles- but all are designed to express a thought, issue, tell a story, or bring beauty to the building, whether inside or out.
    Murals are also one of the world&amp;#x2019;s oldest forms of communication.
    Not all murals are large scale, however large scale murals seem to make more of an impact.

  • Because creating a mural can be such a costly process- they are usually commissioned to be painted by government or a private institution. For this reason, murals are more commonly found in schools, government buildings, and on buildings you would find in more urban locations like cities, which are the type of murals you are probably more familiar with.
    However, murals are not limited to these areas. Anyone can create a mural, on a smaller scale, so that they can meet their own budget, such as I did for my project.
  • People from all different back grounds.
    Usually the artists who lead a mural produce lots of different kinds of artwork, rather than just murals alone.
    They maintain a wide range of skills
    Usually a team of artists works together to create a mural, but there is an artist in particular who heads the project and is responsible for making sure that each member of the team knows what they should be doing
    Murals are very popular with community out reach groups

  • Here are a few example of how mural art has transcended and developed though out history.
  • We will begin with the great Caves at Lascaux
  • The caves at Lascaux are the oldest known form of man made art. And are located in Southern France. The caves were discovered by a group of teenagers in 1940.
    Opened to the public in 1948, after years of scientific research were made on them.
    The caves contain nearly 2,000 images,mostly animals
    By 1955 the CO2 produced by visitors, visibly damaged the paintings.
    Hence the caves being closed to the public in 1963. Once closed, the paintings were restored,and from there after monitored on a daily basis.
    The most recent update to the caves was 2 years ago, in 2008- black mold was discovered, and officials are still working at trying to keep it of the paintings.
    At this present time, only a few scientific experts are allowed to work in the caves a few days a month-to try and remove fungus.



  • Depicted everyday life
    Told stories of gods and goddesses
    Decorated tombs

  • Michael Angelo painted the ceiling between 1508-1512. He painted an estimated 12,000 square feet of ceiling space which he was commissioned by Pope Julius II to paint.
    The ceiling is Fresco style
    The central aspect of the ceiling are 9 scenes from The Book of Genesis.
    Used to represent Religious stories. People were illiterate at the time, so the murals would be used as teaching devices.
    The sistine chapel ceiling restoration began in 1984,and after it was completed, the chapel was reopened, in 1994.
  • One of the most iconic images on the chapel ceiling is the hand of god giving life the Adam.
    In the &amp;#x201C;art world&amp;#x201D; this image ranks just as highly as works like The Mona Lisa, by leonardo divinci
  • One of the more recognized parts of the Sistine Chapel.
    Spans the entire wall behind the altar in the chapel
    Is a depiction of the second coming of Christ (the Apocalypse)
    The wall that The Last Judgement is painted on looms out slightly over the church goers as the ceiling rises. The placement of this mural is supposed to be somewhat fearful, in the hopes of it instilling respect for God&amp;#x2019;s power.

  • Diego Rivera is one of the worlds most recognized muralists
    He is credited for the &amp;#x201C;reintroduction&amp;#x201D; of the fresco style mural into modern day society.
    In 1930 Rivera began work on his first two American commissions-that would change the world of art forever.

  • Diego Rivera is considered the greatest mexican painter of the 20th century, probably due to the fact that he had such a profound effect on the international art world.
    Because Rivera used a Fresco style, he was able to introduce his work into the lives of everday people.
    He believed that the grand size of his canvas&amp;#x2019; (or walls) was the perfect way to tackle themes like history and the future of humanity
  • Northern Ireland is said to contain the world&amp;#x2019;s most famous political murals.
    Nearly 2,000 murals have been documented in Northern Ireland since the 1970s.
    The murals usually portray one side&apos;s political point of view.
    Express republican/loyalist beliefs
    Many incorporate religious tolerance into these politically driven murals.

  • Fresco, Buon Fresco, Secco, Mezo Fresco, and Tempra are all styles of painting murals. They all include both pigment and plaster, but differ in the way the pigment and plaster are applied.
    Most of these techinques are dated back to ancient times-and were used by the earliest of civilizations.
  • The word &amp;#x201C;Fresco&amp;#x201D; comes from the Italian word meaning &amp;#x201C;Fresh&amp;#x201D;. To achieve the Fresco technique, paint is first applied onto plaster, and the plaster is then applied onto the surface.
  • When painting a Buon Fresco, pigment is mixed with water and then applied directly onto the surface, which is usually plaster. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster, and after a number of hours the plaster dries. Through out the drying process a chemical reaction occurs between the pigment and plaster. It fixes the pigment particles in the plaster resulting in a painting that has brilliant colors, and is sure to last centuries.
  • Paint is applied onto dry plaster
    Because the paint is being applied to dry plaster, there must be some type of adhesive between both the paint and plaster, for example glue or oil can be used so that the pigments attach to the surface. Centuries ego, egg was used as the adhesive for Secco murals.
  • Meezo Fresco murals are painted on nearly dry plaster, its not too firm but not too loose. The Mezzo Fresco was defined by Ignazio Pozzo as &amp;#x201C; firm enough not to take a thumb print&amp;#x201D;, meaning you can press your thumb into it and will begin to take shape, but not the actual print it self. Because the plaster is neither wet or dry, the pigment only partially penetrates into the plaster.
  • One of the oldest known methods of mural painting. Back in the day Tempra pigments were directly bound to a medium like egg white or yolks. In more recent days, the Tempra pigments are bound to a solvent such as water.
    You are probably most familiar with using tembra paint in art class and school projects.

  • CAM is a method of digitally producing murals on paper, canvas, glass or tiles with the use of computer technology. There is a step by step process to completing a CAM so that the end result looks like it could have been done directly on the surface, in anyone one of the fresco styles. The CAM can also be used to generate graphic designs like advertisements and billboards.
  • Here are photos of a CAM being applied step by step.
    Sheets were printed out and aligned and applied one at a time to create the larger picture. Each sheet was lined up and applied with an adhesive.
  • Examples of CAM can be found on billboards for movies and advertising for corporations all over the world.
    As society evolved, murals morphed into a tool for corporations to manipulate consumers into purchasing products

  • Tile murals are most commonly used for decorative purposes.
    Most of you are probably more familiar with tile backsplash, which you might even have in your own home.

  • Tile murals are usually found in your kitchen, bathroom, or outside.
    Tiles are much more durable to heat,water,and many other elements, which is why they are most commonly found in these settings.
    As you can see most tile murals and backsplash are not used to represent a symbol or tell a story, but more to beautify a setting.

  • Some people even make their own tiles.
    Tiles can be made from various types of clay, low fire, or high fire.
    For countertops and places that are prone to water, high fire stoneware or porcelain clay is better.
    For backsplashes, low fire clay is fine.&amp;#xA0; Low fire clay can be used in areas such as counters and showers if the glaze works well enough, but it takes experimentation to get the right combination of clay and glaze.


  • Graffiti is any type of public markings that may appear in the forms of simple written words to elaborate wall paintings.
    Graffiti art originated in the late 1960&apos;s, and has developed all over the world since.
    Graffiti isn&amp;#x2019;t really accepted as being art like those works that are found in a gallery or a museum.
    The origins of graffiti go back to the beginnings of human, societal living. Graffiti has existed at least since the days of ancient civilizations.
    Spray paint, normal paint, and markers and most popularly used.
    In most countries, defacing property with graffiti without the property owner&apos;s consent is considered vandalism.
    Sometimes, artists are commissioned to communicate social and political messages through their graffiti.
    Often related to underground music and hip hop/ troubled youth.
    The controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials/ law enforcement and graffitists looking to display their work in public locations.


  • The difference between tagging and graffiti is arguable, but some say it&apos;s a clear one: tagging is gang-motivated or meant as vandalism or viewed as too controversial to have public value; while graffiti can be viewed as creative expression.

  • A lot of the time, murals are created to express a thought, feeling, or idea.
    Symbols are used to portray the point that the artist is trying to fulfill.
    One of the most popular symbols throughout murals all over the world, are those used to represent religion and depict religious figures.



  • As a flower which blindly follows the sun, sunflowers have become a symbol of infatuation or foolish passion.
  • Clocks represent the passing of time
  • The boat is a means of escape and adventure, transport and exploration. It symbolizes man&apos;s desire to dare the unknown.
  • The butterfly symbolizes the principle of metamorphosis and is the symbol of eternal beauty, the eternal victim of time.
  • In recent days, most murals are preserved by using a type of sealer,protective coating or varnish.
    Any type of tempra or painted mural, should have a protective coating, to ensure that it is long lasting
    Most tile or mosaic murals, do not need a sealer because of their durability
    Lastly, any type of fresco mural, usually has its sealer mixed in with it, however fresco style murals are much less common than they used to be.
  • Mural art programs are developed to benefit at risk youth(keep kids out of trouble, give them a way to channel creative energy), used to help beautify sections of urban areas, get the community to pull together, making people feel like they have ownership in something.
    Can be used as therapy- a group that works together as a theraputic treatment








  • One the way to the wiz khalifa concert in West Chester
    The artist who produced this murals used the techniques of a very famous muralist. Keith Haring, to inspire their work.
  • Born May 4, 1958, in Reading, PA.
    Attended Ivy School of professional art, Pittsburgh,PA.
    One of his biggest mentors was Andy Warhol
    Throughout his career, he devoted much of his time to public works like murals-
    He produced more than 50 public works between 1982-1989, which usually carried political and social messages.
    Diagnosed with AIDS in 1988
    Died February 16 1990





  • Born October 27, 1923
    A very well known pop artist
    Most well known for advertising and comic book style.
  • A breakfast place I visited in Oakland
    The artist of this mural used a very &amp;#x201C;Warhol&amp;#x201D; like style with his or her painting.
  • Andy Warhol
    Born August 6, 1928
    Began his career as an illustrator-moved on to becoming a fine artist
    Leading figure in the &amp;#x201C;pop art&amp;#x201D; movement
    A lot of his work was viewed as scandelous
    Famous for his use of the silk screen process
    He was always the &amp;#x201C;odd ball out&amp;#x201D;


  • Pop Art emerged as a movement in the mid 1950s
    Characterized by themes and techniques that were popular in cultural things like advertising, comics, and themes in pop culture.
    Pop Art was widely used for bestowing images that are well known to society
    Pop Art is also associated with mechanical techniques of replication.
  • More often than not, Pop Art is seen used for advertising.
    Artists would choose product labels and logos as the subject of their work.




  • Because pop art is my favorite movement in art, i decided to use pop art techniques as the inspiration behind the mural in my room. I&amp;#x2019;ve had a single Warhol print hanging in my room for the past 6 months, on a plain white wall. It is really the only piece of color in my room-and I wanted to exentuate the piece, by creating the mural AROUND it.

    I used bright colors and bold patterns. I also used a speech bubble to outline my favorite marilyn quote. The speech bubble is very &amp;#x201C;lishtenstein&amp;#x201D; one of the more influential artists in the pop art movement. (whos work i showed you previously)


  • I wanted to do something bold, yet refined. Something that was simple, but at the same time complex.

    First I drew up my plan, and chose a color palette. I went to home depot, and picked out a quart of each color, a few paint brushes, and some painters tape, and before I knew it, I was painting my first large scale mural:

  • Painting Murals by Patricia Seligman was one of the more influential sources I used throughout my project, but mostly geared toward my application. In the book, she breaks down the process of creating a mural step by step, from measurement to paint choice and everything in between.

    Another very helpful source I used was &amp;#x201C;Murals&amp;#x201D;, and article and lesson plan by Tacy Towbridge on PBS.org. Not only did it help to inform me on the history behind murals, but also devised a lesson plan, a way of teaching the most important concepts to a class, which helped me choose which concepts I was going to present to all of you.

  • In conclusion, I&amp;#x2019;m really glad that I chose to research murals for my project. Taking on the task of completing a mural was challenging to say the least, but it taught me that I had the skill, ability, and drive to do so (with the help of my friends of course). Most importantly, studying the styles, compositions, and techniques used to create murals-introduced me to new concepts that i plan to put to use in my own artwork, from now on.
  • Transcript of "FINAL SGP Slides"

    1. 1. Murals Chloe Steerman Rieger/ Period 9
    2. 2. Overview Keynote Presentation Video Component Class Activity
    3. 3. Thesis Statement The various styles, symbols, and techniques used to create mural art have been practiced throughout history to express thoughts, feelings, heritage and beliefs. Murals continue to be a creative outlet for many cultures and continue to influence society day by day. By taking on the task of creating my own mural, I proved how such a challenge can be fulfilled and accomplished with the right amount of drive, focus, and responsibility.
    4. 4. Why murals?
    5. 5. What is a mural? One of the world’s oldest forms of art Applied directly onto wa$s, ceiling, and other vast spaces. Kayne, R. "What is a mural?" WiseGeek.com. N.p., 2010. Web. 3 Mar. 2010.      <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-mural.htm>.
    6. 6. Where are murals found? Schools Government Buildings Urban Areas Smith, S.E. "What is the history of mural painting?" www.wisegeek.com. N.p.,      2010. Web. 3 Mar. 2010. <http://www.wisegeek.com/      what-is-the-history-of-mural-painting.htm>.
    7. 7. Who paints murals? Artists that are: determined, commissioned,and posses a wide range of skills From all different backgrounds You don’t NEED to be an artist to help with a mural. Smith, S.E. "What is the history of mural painting?" www.wisegeek.com. N.p.,      2010. Web. 3 Mar. 2010. <http://www.wisegeek.com/      what-is-the-history-of-mural-painting.htm>.
    8. 8. Why do we use murals? A form of story telling To learn from the past A form of therapy
    9. 9. Murals Through the Ages
    10. 10. Caves at Lascaux
    11. 11. "Lascaux Caves." Sacred-Destination.com. N.p., 2010. Web. 3 Mar. 2010.      <http://www.sacred-destinations.com/france/lascaux-caves>.
    12. 12. Egyptian Murals
    13. 13. Hyroglyphic Murals Gods Kings Pharohs Ancient Egypt." Schoolastic.com. N.p., 2010. Web. 3 Mar. 2010.      <http://teacher.scholastic.com/lessonrepro/lessonplans/theme/egypt04.htm>.
    14. 14. Sistine Chapel
    15. 15. Web linkEsaak, Shelly. "Michelangelo-The Sitine Chapel." About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3      Mar. 2010. <http://arthistory.about.com/od/famous_paintings/a/      sischap_ceiling.htm>.
    16. 16. Hand of god giving life to Adam
    17. 17. Last Judgement Painted between 1535-1541 Apocalypse To instill respect for gods power.
    18. 18. Diego Rivera
    19. 19. First commissioned in America in the Reintroduced fresco style 1930’s "Diego Rivera." PBS.org. PBS, 2006. Web. 3 Mar. 2010. <http://www.pbs.org/      wnet/americanmasters/episodes/diego-rivera/about-the-artist/64/>.
    20. 20. Northern Ireland Murals "Political Wall Murals in Northern Ireland." Cain Web Service. N.p., 18 Feb.      2010. Web. 5 Apr. 2010. <http:// cain.ulst.ac.uk/murals/>.
    21. 21. Historical Styles/Techniques Fresco Buon Fresco Secco Mezo Fresco Tempra
    22. 22. Fresco *Afrescco, italian for “&esh” *Paint is applied onto plaster which is applied onto surface "Fresco Terms." MyStudios.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2010.      <http://www.mystudios.com/gallery/giotto/terms.html>.
    23. 23. Buon Fresco *Painting in pigment mixed *Painted onto a thin layer of wet lime with water mortar or plaster "Fresco Terms." MyStudios.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2010.      <http://www.mystudios.com/gallery/giotto/terms.html>.
    24. 24. Secco *Painted on dry plaster Secco is Italian for “dry” "Fresco Terms." MyStudios.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2010.      <http://www.mystudios.com/gallery/giotto/terms.html>.
    25. 25. Mezzo Fresco *Painted on nearly dry plaster *Used by Michaleangelo *Defined by Ignazio Pozzo "Fresco Terms." MyStudios.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2010.      <http://www.mystudios.com/gallery/giotto/terms.html>.
    26. 26. Tempra Pigments are completely binded to medium or solvent. "Fresco Terms." MyStudios.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2010.      <http://www.mystudios.com/gallery/giotto/terms.html>.
    27. 27. Modern Styles/ Techniques *Digital Manufacturing *Cam *Tile *Graffiti
    28. 28. CAM (Computer Aided- Mural) Invented in 1998 by Rainer Maria Latzke Useful for reproducing the same image Also useful for the those who aren’t very ski$ed Han, Hongfan, and Donming Lu. "Computer Aided Protection and Restoration of      Dunhuang Mural ." Computer Aided Protection and Restoration of Dunhuang      Mural (2000): 6434,6435,6436,6437,6438. Galenet. Web. 6 Apr. 2010.
    29. 29. CAM http://www.flickr.com/photos/thewarhol/4016226137/
    30. 30. Han, Hongfan, and Donming Lu. "Computer Aided Protection and Restoration of      Dunhuang Mural ." Computer Aided Protection and Restoration of Dunhuang      Mural (2000): 6434,6435,6436,6437,6438. Galenet. Web. 6 Apr. 2010.
    31. 31. Tile Murals Decorative purposes Most popular as backsplash We$ preserved
    32. 32. "Tile Making." Big Ceramic Store. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.      <http://www.bigceramicstore.com/Supplies/Tilemaking.htm>.
    33. 33. "Tile Making." Big Ceramic Store. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.      <http://www.bigceramicstore.com/Supplies/Tilemaking.htm>.
    34. 34. Graffiti Art
    35. 35. Towers, George C. "Graffiti Art." Graffiti.org. N.p., 1997. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.      <http://www.graffiti.org/faq/stowers.html>.
    36. 36. Tagging Vs. Graffiti Art VS. Towers, George C. "Graffiti Art." Graffiti.org. N.p., 1997. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.      <http://www.graffiti.org/faq/stowers.html>.
    37. 37. Symbolism
    38. 38. Hill, Suzanne. "Symbols in Art." Art History.Suit 101.com. N.p., 20 Oct. 2006.      Web. 5 Apr. 2010. <http://arthistory.suite101.com/article.cfm/      symbols_in_art>.
    39. 39. Famous Mexican Figures
    40. 40. Future Aspirations
    41. 41. A few examples of symbolism....
    42. 42. Text Sunflowers "Visual Glossary." Cusimano. N.p., 13 Aug. 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.      <http://www.josephcusimano.com/index.htm>.
    43. 43. Clocks "Visual Glossary." Cusimano. N.p., 13 Aug. 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.      <http://www.josephcusimano.com/index.htm>.
    44. 44. Boats "Visual Glossary." Cusimano. N.p., 13 Aug. 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.      <http://www.josephcusimano.com/index.htm>.
    45. 45. Butterflies "Visual Glossary." Cusimano. N.p., 13 Aug. 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.      <http://www.josephcusimano.com/index.htm>.
    46. 46. Preserving Murals Pomerantz, Joel. "Making Your Mural Last." BikeMural.org. N.p., 2002. Web. 5      Apr. 2010. <http://www.bikemural.org/muralprotection.html>.
    47. 47. Community ProjectsWeb link"Mural Program." Santo.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.      <http://www.sananto.org/mural/>.
    48. 48. Murals I’ve Documented Over The Year And Famous Muralists
    49. 49. Philadelphia, PA
    50. 50. Downtown- Pittsburgh, PA
    51. 51. MoMA, NYC
    52. 52. Shady Side- Pittsburgh, PA
    53. 53. Cathedral of Learning
    54. 54. Todd Marone Hatboro, PA
    55. 55. Keith Haring West Chester,PA
    56. 56. Keith Haring "About Haring." Keith Haring. The Keith Haring Foundation, 2009. Web. 6 Apr.      2010. <http://www.haring.com/about_haring/bio/index.html>.
    57. 57. Roy Lichtenstein Lucie-Smith, Edward. "Roy Lichtenstein." Artchive.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr.      2010. <http://artchive.com/artchive/L/lichtenstein.html>.
    58. 58. Andy Warhol Pittsburgh,PA
    59. 59. Andy Warhol "The Andy Warhol Family Album." Warhola.com. Warhola Family, 2009. Web. 6 Apr.      2010. <http://www.warhola.com/biography.html>.
    60. 60. Lichtenstein Warhol
    61. 61. Silk screening on wood
    62. 62. Application
    63. 63. Class Activity
    64. 64. Works Cited "About Haring." Keith Haring. The Keith Haring Foundation, 2009. Web. 6 Apr. "Lascaux Caves." Sacred-Destination.com. N.p., 2010. Web. 3 Mar. 2010.      2010. <http://www.haring.com/about_haring/bio/index.html>.      <http://www.sacred-destinations.com/france/lascaux-caves>. "Ancient Egypt." Schoolastic.com. N.p., 2010. Web. 3 Mar. 2010. "Mural Painting (Application and Techniques)." http://www.rexart.com. Rex Art      <http://teacher.scholastic.com/lessonrepro/lessonplans/theme/egypt04.htm>.      Supplies, 2009. Web. 2 Dec. 2009. "The Andy Warhol Family Album." Warhola.com. Warhola Family, 2009. Web. 6 Apr. "Mural Program." Santo.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.      2010. <http://www.warhola.com/biography.html>.      <http://www.sananto.org/mural/>. "Diego Rivera." PBS.org. PBS, 2006. Web. 3 Mar. 2010. <http://www.pbs.org/ "Political Wall Murals in Northern Ireland." Cain Web Service. N.p., 18 Feb.      wnet/americanmasters/episodes/diego-rivera/about-the-artist/64/>.      2010. Web. 5 Apr. 2010. <http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/murals/>. Esaak, Shelly. "Michelangelo-The Sitine Chapel." About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Pomerantz, Joel. "Making Your Mural Last." BikeMural.org. N.p., 2002. Web. 5      Mar. 2010. <http://arthistory.about.com/od/famous_paintings/a/      Apr. 2010. <http://www.bikemural.org/muralprotection.html>.      sischap_ceiling.htm>. Seligman, Patricia. Painting Murals. Illus. Coral Mula. Ed. Jennifer Jones. "Fresco Terms." MyStudios.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2010.      Cincinnati: North Light Books, 2002. Print.      <http://www.mystudios.com/gallery/giotto/terms.html>. Smith, S.E. "What is the history of mural painting?" www.wisegeek.com. N.p., Golden, Jane, Robin Rice, and Monica Yant Kinney. Philadelphia Murals and The      2010. Web. 3 Mar. 2010. <http://www.wisegeek.com/      Stories They Tell. Illus. David Graham and Jack Ramsdale. Philadelphia:      what-is-the-history-of-mural-painting.htm>.      Temple UP, 2002. Print. "Tile Making." Big Ceramic Store. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2010. Han, Hongfan, and Donming Lu. "Computer Aided Protection and Restoration of      <http://www.bigceramicstore.com/Supplies/Tilemaking.htm>.      Dunhuang Mural ." Computer Aided Protection and Restoration of Dunhuang      Mural (2000): 6434,6435,6436,6437,6438. Galenet. Web. 6 Apr. 2010. Towbridge, Tacy. "Murals." PBS.org. N.p., 2004. Web. 2 Dec. 2009.      <http://www.pbs.org/americanfamily/teacher2.html>. Hill, Suzanne. "Symbols in Art." Art History.Suit 101.com. N.p., 20 Oct. 2006.      Web. 5 Apr. 2010. <http://arthistory.suite101.com/article.cfm/ Towers, George C. "Graffiti Art." Graffiti.org. N.p., 1997. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.      symbols_in_art>.      <http://www.graffiti.org/faq/stowers.html>. Kayne, R. "What is a mural?" WiseGeek.com. N.p., 2010. Web. 3 Mar. 2010. Trowbridge, Tacy. "Murals." PBS.org. N.p., 2002. Web. 3 Mar. 2010.      <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-mural.htm>.      <http://www.pbs.org/americanfamily/teacher2.html>.
    65. 65. Works Cited Continued "Visual Glossary." Cusimano. N.p., 13 Aug. 2007. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.      <http://www.josephcusimano.com/ index.htm>. Ward, Stephanie Francis. "Not in My Backyard." ABA Journal 95.4 (2009): 15.      Business Source Premier. Web. 2 Dec. 2009.      <http://search.ebscohost.com/      login.aspx? direct=true&db=buh&AN=37701781&site= ehost-live>.
    66. 66. “Don’t measure yourself by what you have accomplished, but what you should have accomplished with your ability.”
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