WORLD (1900 TO
I. THE ANCIENT WORLD
PRE HISTORIC LIFE
Modern man which is known as HOMO SAPIENS evolved from many species about 5 lakh
NEANDERTHAL MAN , an early subspecies of homo sapiens in human evolution survived
from 200,000 yrs ago to 30,000 years ago.. They developed in several areas of world and
began to use more tools to hunt, to build shelters and develop the FIRST FORMS OF
Overlapping with NEANDERTHAL man was the subspecies from which modern man directly
descended HOMO SAPIENS better known as CRO MAGNON MAN.
CRO-MAGNON MAN was much like neanderthal man in his creation of rough forms of
They developed arrows , axes , tools etc and lived in a climate that was much colder than
present climate and so needed ways to keep warm and dry.
ANIMAL SKINS Was the 1st form of clothing and cro magnon man used tools such as rock
and bone scrapers to strip the flesh and cut skins into primitive forms of clothing.
First civilized human settlements developed in MESOPOTAMIA centered in present day
AT SOME point neanderthals learned how to use thick, furry hides
from these animals to keep themselves warm and dry . With this
discovery CLOTHING WAS BORN.
They used thin strips of animal hide to tie the furs about
themselves in a way that BELTS Are used today.
They developed earliest forms of body covering.
TUNIC- FIRST ASSEMBLED PIECE OF CLOTHING
Made from two rectangular pieces
Of animal hide bound together on
one short side with a hole left for
HEAD. Tunic was ancestor of shirt.
NEEDLE- ONE OF THE MOST IMP. INVENTION
MADE of slivers of animal bone which were
sharpened at one end and had an eye at other
CRO MAGNON MAN developed CLOSE
FITTING PANTS ,SHIRTS ,SHAWLS ,HOODS,
ICEMEN(austria) – Thin leather loin cloth
covered around genitals,sewn leggings,
long sleeve fur coat extended till knees
closed with belt sometimes,
HIDE boots stuffed with
grass,cap of thick fur
Iceman with his body
SHOES MADE OF HIDES OF DEER OR SHEEP.
IN NORTH AMERICA PRESENCE OF NATURAL PLANT
FIBERS ALLOWED PEOPLE TO WEAVE MORE BETTER FITTING
SHOES WHICH ARE A PREDECESSOR TO MODERN SANDALS.
Mesopotamia ,a large region centered between Tigris and
Euphrates river in MODERN DAY IRAQ,laid the foundation
for customs that would dominate later EUROPEAN culture.
The SUMERIANS created the earliest civilization in Mesopotamia . 3000 B.C
AKKADINS Took power around 2350B.C
BABYLONIANS rose to power in 1894 B.C
PERSIANS 550B.C 330B.C
MEN wore WAIST STRINGS OR LOIN CLOTH.
LATER WRAPAROUND SKIRT WAS INTRODUCED
WHICH HUNG TILL KNEE AND WAS HELD BY THICK
ROUNDED BELT TIED AT BACK.
SHAWLS WERE WORN AND WERE DECORATED
WITH SIMPLE BORDER OR ALLOVER PATTERNS .
SUMERIAN WOMEN WORE SEWN OUTFITS WITH
TIERS OF FRINGES.. SHAWLS OR TOPS WERE ALSO
FRINGED WORN BY MEN.
AT THE END OF SUMERIAN RULE BOTH MEN AND
WOMEN WORE SKIRTS AND SHAWLS.
Elaborate hairstyles soon became important for both men and
women in Mesopotamia. Men started to grow their hair longer
and would wear it in waves. The king began to wear a full beard
and long braided hair tied in a large bun at the nape of his neck.
Women continued to wear their hair long, twisting it into large
buns that covered the top of the head to the base of the neck and
adorning it with ribbons and pins.
Sculpture showing a
While the men living in the Sumerian (3000–2000 B.C.E.),
the Akkadian (2350–2218 B.C.E.), and the Babylonian
B.C.E.) empires of Mesopotamia, the region between the
Euphrates Rivers in present-day Iraq, went barefoot all
Assyrian men began to wear sandals for everyday use
B.C.E. The evidence suggests that all men went barefoot
and some men continued to go barefoot all the time.
began to wear protective sandals for everyday use,
those living in the more mountainous areas, and some
The Asian societies that began in modern-day China are
among the oldest known human societies on earth. In the last
century, however, with the modernization of the ancient nations of
China and Japan, people in the West have come to know a great
deal about early Asian cultures.
Evidence of human settlement in China dates back nearly 600,000 years. In about 1875 B.C.E. a
powerful empire known as Xia began the first Chinese dynasty , the name for a long period of
rule by several generations of a family. detailed knowledge of Chinese history begins with
the dynasty that followed: the Shang dynasty (c. 1550–c. 1050B.C.E.). Though China began as a
small empire centered on the Great Bend of the Yellow River, it expanded over time to become
quite a vast kingdom. Under the Zhou, the empire expanded even more and the Chinese came
into conflict with other non-Chinese peoples who they called“BARBARIANS.” The Chinese felt
that their culture and clothing was far superior to that of barbarians.
Japan is an island nation that lies to the northeast of China. it was not until settlers from
China and Korea traveled to Japan in the sixth century C.E. that a definable society TOOK
ROOT. Early Japanese society was deeply rooted in Chinese customs and traditions of
religion, governance, and costume. Each king surrounded himself with warriors known as
samurai. The samurai had a distinct warrior culture of their own, with rules of behavior
and dress. The culture had a great influence on fashion in Japan.
Chinese people wore Mao suits, the simply cut, dull-colored outfits favored by the
Beginning with the earliest Xia dynasty (1875–1550 B.C.E.), we can see some of the basic
forms of Chinese dress. The majority of the people wore a simple outfit consisting of a tunic
or jacket called a SAN and a pair of loose trousers called a KU.
The customary garment of the upper classes in ancient China , was the ROBE,
• a long-sleeved,
• loose-fitting garment that fastened in the front. The exact cut and style of these robes
changed significantly over the course of Chinese history. At times the sleeves were narrow; at
other times quite loose and billowing.
•Sometimes the robes were belted, while at other times they hung loose about the waist.
•These robes were fastened either down the middle or across the right side of the chest, but
never across the left.
•Made of SILK
•By the time of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911 C.E.), the highly ornamented DRAGON ROBE
had become the signature garment of the ruling class.
SAN –TUNIC OR
MAO SUIT WITH
A composite of many animals, including a snake, an eagle, a tiger, and a devil, the
dragon symbolized the natural world and transformation.
It was associated with Chinese emperors from at least the first century. It was a
long robe, reaching to the ankles, with long sleeves and a circular opening for the
A large front panel on the wearer’s left side of the garment was wrapped and
fastened at the right side, in the traditional Chinese style.
The key element on a dragon robe was, of course, the dragon. Most dragon
robes had one large dragon in the center of the garment, with smaller dragons on
the sleeves and lower down the hem.
The robes were made of rich silk, sometimes in several layers or with silk padding
to add warmth.
Occasionally the robes would include embroidery at the neck fastening
or the cuffs.
Two Chinese women wearing
patterned cheongsams, which
are considered the national dress
of Hong Kong.
•The cheongsam (CHONG-sahm) is the dress that most
westerners associate with China.
• It is a long, close-fitting dress with short sleeves, a slit up
one side, a mandarin collar (a round, stand-up collar that
is worn close to the neck), and a fastening across the right
side of the upper chest.
• The cheongsam first appeared shortly after the collapse
of the Qing dynasty in 1911, which had ruled China since
• Women especially began to have more freedom and
wanted to modernize their clothing to allow more freedom
of movement and comfort. But they didn’t want to just
adopt Western dress. The cheongsam represented a
•It used traditional Chinese fabrics
like silk. However, when the Communist
Party took control of mainland China in
1949, the cheongsam quickly went out of STYLE.
Japan borrowed many Chinese customs, including rule by emperors, growing
rice, the Buddhist religion, and many clothing traditions,
Including the wearing of robes for the wealthy and trousers and simple tunics
for the poor.
During the Heian period (794–1185 C.E.), however, the Japanese began to create
distinct versions of clothing.
While poorer classes continued to wear fairly simple clothing, including
loose trousers and a simple linen shirt for men and a loose skirt for women,
members of the upper classes and nobility began to develop very distinct clothing
The basic Japanese garments were the kosode, a short-sleeved shirt that opened in
front, and the hakama, or long trousers.
The kosode eventually evolved into the garment most associated with
Japan, the kimono. The kimono, whose name means “thing to
wear,” is the Japanese equivalent of the Chinese robe and is worn
by both men and women. It is a long garment tied at the waist
with an obi, or sash. The kimono has many variations according
to the circumstance in which it is worn. Many other garments
form part of the traditional Japanese dress, such as the haori, the
ho, the kataginu, and the kinu.
Japanese women march in a parade, wearing blue
Kataginu are men’s vests with broad,
worn with hakama, or trousers, to form a kamishimo, or
complementary outfit. The hakama are worn in a
contrasting color or fabric from the kataginu.
•Kimono refers to the principal outer garment of Japanese
dress, a long robe with wide sleeves, made of various
materials and in many patterns.
•Though Western dress is now the norm in contemporary
Japan, the kimono is still worn on special occasions.
•Although the modern kimono is generally a T-shaped
robe , there are a variety of subtle variations for different
wearers and different occasions.
Japanese hairstyles often relied
on pins, combs, and other
Forms of fasteners to keep hair in
This geisha, or female
wears a bright red obi at her
waist and plays the drum.
A woman wearing
For over a thousand years, tiny feet were symbols of feminine
beauty, elegance, and sexuality in China. In order to achieve the goal of tiny three-inch “lotus
feet” (the lotus was a kind of flower), most young Chinese girls had their feet bound tightly
with strips of cloth to prevent growth. Once the process was completed, the deformed feet
were placed into beautiful, embroidered lotus shoes, tiny pointed slippers that were made
especially for bound feet. Foot binding began when a girl was between three and seven years
old and was usually done by her mother. The four smaller toes were bent back, and often
broken, to rest against the sole of the foot. A strip of cloth, about ten feet long and two inches
wide, was wrapped around the foot tightly, forcing it to become both narrower and shorter. As
the foot became shorter, the heel and toes were pulled closer together, making the foot into a
curved arc. After two years of constantly tighter binding, the foot was the perfect size: three to
LOTUS SHOES FOOT BINDING
A Renaissance of learning
Beginning in the late fourteenth century
and escalating in the fifteenth century,
two regions began to lead a rebirth, called
the Renaissance, of learning, culture, and
commerce. This Renaissance began in Italy,
especially around the city of Florence.
Europeans in the fifteenth
typically wore clothing rich in
colors and fabrics
MIDDLE AGES ■
Hose and breeches, which cover the legs individually,
become more common garments for men.
FOURTEENTH CENTURY TO SIXTEENTH CENTURY ■
Cuts and openings in garments
made from slashing and dagging decorate garments
from upper body coverings to shoes.
FIFTEENTH CENTURY AND SIXTEENTH CENTURY ■ The doublet—
padded short overshirt, usually buttoned down the front,
with or without sleeves—becomes an essential men’s garment.
LATE FIFTEENTH THROUGH THE SIXTEENTH
CENTURY ■ The ruff, a wide
pleated collar, often stiffened with starch or
wire, is worn by wealthy men and women of
SIXTEENTH CENTURY ■ Worn underneath
clothing, corsets squeeze and mold women’s
bodies into the correct shape to fit changing
fashions of dress.
first seen on
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ■
The Kuba people, living in the present-day nation of the Democratic Republic of the
Congo, weave a decorative cloth called Kuba cloth. An entire social group of men and
women is involved in the production of the cloth, from gathering the fibers, weaving the
cloth, and dyeing the decorative strands, to applying the embroidery, appliqué, or
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ■ Canes become carefully crafted items and are
carried by most well-dressed gentleman.
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ■ The French Revolution (1789–99) destroys the
French monarchy and makes ankle-length trousers fashionable
attire for all men. Trousers come to symbolize the ideas
of the Revolution, an effort to make French people more
equal, and soon men of all classes are wearing long trousers.
1870 ■ A French hairstylist named Marcel Grateau invents the first
long-lasting hair waving technique using a heated iron to
give hair curls that lasts for days.
LATE 1800s TO EARLY 1900s ■ The feathered war bonnet, traditional to
only a small number of Native American tribes, becomes
known as a typical Native American headdress with the help
of Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show, which features theatrical
representations of the Indians and cowboys of the
American West and travels throughout America and parts
Loose, floppy, two-legged undergarments for women,
bloomers start a trend toward less restrictive clothing for
women, including clothing that allows them to ride bicycles,
play tennis, and to take part in other sport activities
1920s ■ The navy blue blazer, a jacket with brass buttons, becomes
popular for men to wear at sporting events.
1920s ■ A fad among women for wearing short, bobbed hairstyles
sweeps America and Europe.
1930s ■ Popular as a shirt for tennis, golf, and other sport activities
for decades, the polo shirt becomes the most popular leisure shirt for men.
1939 ■ For the first time, Vogue, the respected fashion magazine,pictures
women in trousers.
1946 ■ The bikini, a two-piece bathing suit, is developed and named
after a group of coral islands in the Pacific Ocean.
1950s ■ The gray flannel suit becomes the most common outfit worn
by men working at desk jobs in office buildings.
1980s ■ Power dressing becomes a trend toward wearing expensive,
designer clothing for work.
1990s ■ Grunge, a trend for wearing old, sometimes stained or ripped
clothing, becomes a fashion sensation and prompts designers
to sell simple flannel shirts for prices in excess of one
Versions of clothing available during the 1960s and 1970s,
such as bell-bottom jeans and the peasant look, return to
fashion as “retro fashions.”
1960s – GO GO BOOTS
Shorter the skirt taller the
Punks of 1970s with spike hair into
Hippies often adorned their long
hair with flowers and
Modern version of a wrap
which wraps in the front and
features built-in string ties
around the waist. (1970s)
Worn by legions of
hippies, tie and dye
is perhaps the most
symbol of the 1960s.
The peasant look, with its
long, flowing garments
decorated with embroidery or
floral patterns, was
extremely popular throughout
1960s and 1970s and made a
comeback in the late 1990s.
LIKE YVES SAINT