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Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
Japanese Dynasty
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Japanese Dynasty

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A Detailed view on the different dynasties formed and vanished in Japan

A Detailed view on the different dynasties formed and vanished in Japan

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  • Jomon pots have been recently dated as early as 14,500 BCE. Bulk of population was centered in middle Honshu. Infant death was the principal reason for the low average life expectancy. Few people lived past 40. The shell mounds are frequently 250 yards in diameter and contain numerous objects including tools.
  • Yayoi is located near Tokyo. It is the site from which the first period distinctive pottery was recovered. A ten to 15 times increase would mean a population 2, 500,000 to 3,750,000. The increase in population probably was not due exclusively to immigration, but rather represented the improved conditions of life that wet-rice production permitted DNA samples taken by the Japanese suggest that immigrant wet-rice farmers were from the lower Yangze River basin.
  • Sarcophagus were initially made of wood but eventually were replaced with carved stone. Hollow clay haniwa were placed upon and around kofun as offerings, models, boundary markers, places where the spirits might reside, or all of the above. Some of the shapes seen here include houses, cylinders, and a boat.
  • The Asuka period is also called the early Yamato period. The second half of the Yamato period is the Nara period. Yamato Province is now Nara Prefecture. The term Asuka comes from the name of the plain – Asuka. Teh period is defined in politacal and art history terms. For the purpose of art history it lasted until 710.
  • japan sent a large expeditionary force to support Paekche. It was defeated along with Paekche forces in 663 at the Battle of Paekche River
  • The greatest artistic medium of these new painting styles was the illustrated manuscript, or emakimono , developed in the late 900's. The emakimono ("painted scrolls") were really scrolls that one rolled out. Illustrations would occupy the full height of the scroll; beside the illustration would be the story. The greatest of these scrolls is the Genji monogatari emaki , an illustrated scroll of The Tale of Genji from the early 1100's.
  • Zen Buddhism stressed simplicity and self control Appealed to the Samurai. Emphasis on meditation and manual labor. Chores lead to enlightenment
  • The Medieval Period-- In the Hôgen Disturbance of 1156 there were Taira and Minamoto on both sides of the fighting, but in the Heiji Disturbance (1160) the Taira were solidly aligned against the Minamoto. A Taira victory enabled the clan to become the new aristocracy at court from 1160 until the early 1180s. In 1180 Minamoto chieftains rose in the provinces to precipitate a war ( Taira-Minamoto War ) that led to the defeat of the Taira in 1185. The main victor in the Taira-Minamoto War was Minamoto no Yoritomo , who in 1192 established the first true warrior government in Japanese history, the Kamakura shogunate (1192-1333). In 1192 Yoritomo received court appointment as seii tai shôgun , or "barbarian-subduing generalissimo," the title that in ensuing centuries symbolized military overlordship of Japan. See shôgun .
  • Transcript

    • 1. JAPANESE DYNASTY IN DIFFERENT PERIODS CHITRA K
    • 2.  
    • 3. Paleolithic Culture <ul><li>No solid evidence of human presence before </li></ul><ul><li>35,000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest inhabitants of Japan are believed to have </li></ul><ul><li>migrated from Northwest Asia and from the </li></ul><ul><li>islands/regions of southwest Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settle in coastal regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name comes from Chinese jih pen which means “origin of the sun” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At one time there was a land bridge connecting southern Japan with Korean peninsula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan was relatively safe from invasion &amp; develops independent of the rest of Asia </li></ul></ul>
    • 4. Jōmon (Neolithic) Culture <ul><li>Jomon Period (10,500-300 BCE): One of Japan’s earliest distinct </li></ul><ul><li>culture, Jomon , meaning “cord markings ”, refers to the technique </li></ul><ul><li>that this culture used to decorate earthenware vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>The dominate people were probably Ainu . The population may </li></ul><ul><li>have reached 250,000. Average life expectancy was 15 years. </li></ul><ul><li>They were primarily hunter-gatherers who lived on deer, wild bore and fish. </li></ul><ul><li>Villages consisted of 6-10 pit dwellings and were marked by huge </li></ul><ul><li>shell mounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Human remains indicate tooth mutilation, a Southeast Asian </li></ul><ul><li>initiation practice. </li></ul>
    • 5. Ainu <ul><li>Ainu are to the closest in cultural and physical appearance to the Jomon </li></ul><ul><li>Referred to as the “hairy ones” </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s equivalent to American Inuit </li></ul><ul><li>Live in the northern most regions of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to move northward as Japanese population expands in 8 th Century </li></ul>
    • 6. &nbsp;
    • 7. &nbsp;
    • 8. Jomon figure shows signs of sympathetic magic .
    • 9. Yayoi Culture <ul><li>The Yayoi period was 200 BCE-300 CE . It was Japan’s iron age. </li></ul><ul><li>The population increased by ten to 15 times </li></ul><ul><li>suggesting a major influx of people who settled </li></ul><ul><li> in Kyushu and the Kansai area. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal remains indicate anatomical differences from the existing population. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA samples suggest migrants were from China’s lower Yangze River basin . </li></ul><ul><li>The period is marked by settled wet-rice </li></ul><ul><li>agriculture and metallurgy . Metals were used to </li></ul><ul><li>produced weapons, tools, mirrors &amp; ceremonial </li></ul><ul><li>bells. </li></ul><ul><li>Shamanism and fertility cults were common. </li></ul>
    • 10. Horse-rider Theory <ul><li>Namio-Egami </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Character of Yayoi and Early Tomb Periods is “Incantatory, sacrificial, southeast Asian, in a word agricultural” </li></ul><ul><li>Late Tomb Period is “realist, </li></ul><ul><li>warlike, baronial, north Asian, in </li></ul><ul><li>a word Horse-rider” </li></ul>Yayoi pots were wheel thrown and hi temp fired.
    • 11. Yayoi uji: clans <ul><li>Clans headed by single figure -- both </li></ul><ul><li>War-chief and priest </li></ul><ul><li>Women held prominent place in uji , </li></ul><ul><li>perhaps even serving as clan head or </li></ul><ul><li>Priestess. </li></ul><ul><li>Each clan associated with a single god or </li></ul><ul><li>kami – which represented a force of </li></ul><ul><li>Nature. </li></ul><ul><li>When one uji conquered another, it </li></ul><ul><li>absorbed its kami into its own religious </li></ul><ul><li>practices resulting in a complex </li></ul><ul><li>pantheon of kami </li></ul>
    • 12. &nbsp;
    • 13. KOFUN-The Tomb Period <ul><li>Kofun – ancient burial mounds </li></ul><ul><li>Korean Connection </li></ul><ul><li>Keyhole shape </li></ul><ul><li>150,000 kofun have been found. The largest were 400 meters in length. </li></ul><ul><li>The tombs indicate the increasing organization of society and the existence of surplus labor. </li></ul>
    • 14. Late Tomb Period <ul><li>Yamato kings and local chiefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex web of allegiance and fealty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loosely centralized political order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Korean Connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crucial transmitters of ideas and material culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wa military on peninsula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 th century wars on peninsula stimulated immigration to archipelago. </li></ul></ul>
    • 15. &nbsp;
    • 16. <ul><li>Known as largest tumulus (pit graves covered by sometimes enormous mounds). </li></ul><ul><li>Central mound, which takes the keyhole form. </li></ul><ul><li>1,600 feet long and rises to a height of 90 feet. It covers 458 acres. </li></ul><ul><li>Objects were placed with the coffin to assist in the transition to the next life. </li></ul>
    • 17. Burial Practices <ul><li>This Tall Pine Burial Mound near Nara was decorated with paintings and star patterns on the ceiling . </li></ul><ul><li>Haniwa are clay figures &amp; objects that were placed around tombs. </li></ul>
    • 18. Asuka Transformation <ul><li>The Asuka period is the first when the Japanese imperial court ruled relatively uncontested. </li></ul><ul><li>The court was located in the Asuka region of Yamato Province, but had no permanent capital. </li></ul><ul><li>The period (538-646 CE) overlaps the late Tomb period and extends to the Taika Reform. </li></ul><ul><li>The Yamato court exercised power over clans on Honshu and Kyushu. They suppressed warring clans , awarded titles to subordinated chieftains and acquired agricultural land. </li></ul>
    • 19. Korean Connection <ul><li>The late Asuka period was greatly influenced by contact with Korea, especially through refugees. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism was introduced under the sponsorship of the King of Paekche (552). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warfare on the peninsula included an attempted invasions by Sui (611-614) and a struggle for supremacy between Paekche, Koguryo &amp; Silla, prompting Korean immigration to Japan . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The perceived threat to Japan of a unified Korea under Silla and Tang control spurred domestic reform . </li></ul></ul>Vairocana in the Todaiji
    • 20. &nbsp;
    • 21. Nara Period: 710-794 <ul><li>710: first permanent capital established at Nara </li></ul><ul><li>712: A Record of Ancient Matters: first book of orally preserved historic legends </li></ul><ul><li>Emperors embraced Buddhism leading to rapid and dramatic expansion </li></ul><ul><li>759: The Manyoshu : first poetry anthology </li></ul><ul><li>784:Rise in political power of Buddhist monasteries led to capital being moved to Nagaoka </li></ul>
    • 22. Nara Fashion During the Nara and the previous Asuka periods, techniques for dyeing silk were developed. Clothing consisted of many pieces including upper and lower garments, jackets, a front skirt, and a back skirt.
    • 23. In 794 Japan’s emperor moved the capital to Heian, now called Kyoto . Many nobles moved to Heian, where they developed an elegant and stylish court society . At the Heian court, Japanese culture flowered. The Heian Period <ul><li>Heian nobles lived in beautiful palaces , enjoyed lives of privilege </li></ul><ul><li>So removed from common people, many called selves “dwellers among the clouds” </li></ul>Life in the Heian Period <ul><li>Rules governed all aspects of court behavior, dress </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate silk gowns for women </li></ul><ul><li>Proper way to write note, an art form </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone expected to write poetry </li></ul>Etiquette
    • 24. Heian Court Dress
    • 25. <ul><li>Fujiwara family controlled Japan for </li></ul><ul><li>most of Heian period </li></ul><ul><li>Many Fujiwaras served as regent </li></ul><ul><li>Fujiwaras often married daughters to heirs of throne </li></ul><ul><li>Rich landowners with private armies eventually challenged </li></ul><ul><li>Fujiwaras, Japan’s central government </li></ul>The Fujiwaras Detail of the Flying Storehouse, from The Legends of Mount Shigi
    • 26. Heian Style <ul><li>A culture more independent of Chinese influence </li></ul><ul><li>miyabi : courtliness makoto : simplicity aware : melancholy mono no aware :evanescence </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on the exquisite and evanescent </li></ul><ul><li>Literary : poems, letters, pillow books </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme sensitivity to nature </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of convention and fashion </li></ul>
    • 27. Heian Literature <ul><li>Men continued to write Chinese-style poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Women began to write in Japanese prose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First novel: Genji Monogatari by Lady Murasaki Shikibu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaries: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Pillowbook by Sei Shonagan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As I Crossed a Bridge of Dreams by Lady Sarashina </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 28. &nbsp;
    • 29. &nbsp;
    • 30. Kamakura Period Bakufu Government: Lord-Retainer System <ul><li>Shogun’s government structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Classic Patron-client, or Lord-retainer system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shogun accepts allegiance (oaths of loyalty) from lesser lords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each lord supported by corps of samurai retainers who swear allegiance to him. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lords provide leadership and resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retainers provide military service , loyalty, and obedience to their lord </li></ul></ul>Kamakura Period Samurai Warrior
    • 31. Feudalism
    • 32. Samurai <ul><li>Weaponry: </li></ul><ul><li>Swords </li></ul><ul><li>Bow and Arrow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also Spears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For mounted samurai </li></ul></ul>
    • 33. Samurai Charging
    • 34. Kamakura: Japan under attack <ul><li>Mongol invasions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1274 &amp; 1281 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divine Winds : or Kamikaze save Japan at the last moment </li></ul>
    • 35. Warring States Period:1467-1568 CE <ul><li>100 years of civil war </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Bushido and lord-retainer system </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic changes in social structure </li></ul><ul><li>Change in economic structure </li></ul>
    • 36. Muromachi Period <ul><li>1336 – 1573 </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of the shogun and samurai rule, leading to “Age of Wars” </li></ul><ul><li>Zen Buddhism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry landscape gardening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ryoan-ji, Kyoto (Below) </li></ul></ul>
    • 37. Gempei War Period -Civil Wars <ul><li>1156: Hôgen Disturbance- -Taira (or Heike) and Minamoto (or Genji) on both sides </li></ul><ul><li>1160: Heiji Disturbance- - Taira were solidly aligned against the Minamoto. A Taira victory enabled the clan to become the new aristocracy at court from 1160 until the early 1180s </li></ul><ul><li>1180: Taira-Minamoto War -- Minamoto chieftains rose in the provinces that led to the defeat of the Taira </li></ul>
    • 38. Sengoku Period(1477-1568) <ul><li>Onin War (1467-77) </li></ul><ul><li>Total disintegration of central authority. </li></ul><ul><li>High feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of high culture </li></ul><ul><li>Constant warfare </li></ul>
    • 39. Momoyama Period <ul><li>1573 – 1615 </li></ul><ul><li>Three powerful warlords ousted shogun and consolidated political authority </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of castles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Himeji Castle (White Heron Castle ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tea ceremony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sen no Rikyu, tea master </li></ul></ul>
    • 40. Azuchi/Momoyama Period(1568-1598) <ul><li>3 Shoguns who unified Japan in the late 1500s are: </li></ul><ul><li>Oda Nobunaga: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Buddhist control over Japanese politics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built castles to defend his lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paved the way for unification with new administrative practices. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continued centralized govt. power. </li></ul><ul><li>Changed the tax on the land from money to quantities of rice (koku). </li></ul><ul><li>Society based on formal class structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Created a standing army. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers and warriors had to choose one or the other and not both </li></ul><ul><li>Supported painters and new types of drama. </li></ul><ul><li>Established his government base in Edo. </li></ul><ul><li>Finalized unification of Japan </li></ul>Toyotomi Hideyoshi: Tokugawa Ieyasu
    • 41. Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi Tokugawa Ieyasu
    • 42. Edo Period <ul><li>1615 – 1868 </li></ul><ul><li>Tokugawa Ieyasu reinstated title of Shogun </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions set up to limit social and cultural change </li></ul><ul><li>Banning of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Expelled all foreigners except Dutch </li></ul>
    • 43. Edo Period Control Techniques <ul><li>Japanese forbidden to leave &amp; return (1635). </li></ul><ul><li>Foreigners forbidden to enter (1639). </li></ul><ul><li>Local areas controlled by daimyo (lords). </li></ul><ul><li>Daimyo controlled by shogunate. </li></ul><ul><li>Travel discouraged . </li></ul>
    • 44. Meiji Restoration <ul><li>Shogun forced to relinquish power </li></ul><ul><li>Power officially in hands of Emperor Mutsuhito </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- His reign was called the “Meiji” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan westernized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Quickly went to work crafting a constitution </li></ul></ul>Satsuma/Choshu Plotters
    • 45. Meiji Leadership <ul><li>Collective leadership with the Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>20-30 young leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Mostly samurai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Mostly from Satsuma or Choshu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Includes some reformers among the royal court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Known as the Meiji Oligarchy </li></ul>Young Emperor Meiji
    • 46. Meiji Restoration: Rapid Westernization / modernization <ul><li>Abolish Caste Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Strip Daimyo of Han and special privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Compensate Daimyo for lost land with cash </li></ul><ul><li>Abolish Samurai class and privileges </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt conscript army of commoners </li></ul><ul><li>Forbid wearing of swords </li></ul><ul><li>Assign many former samurai as government </li></ul><ul><li>officials </li></ul>
    • 47. Meiji Art takes a modern turn
    • 48. The Taisho Period (1912-1926) and the 1920s <ul><li>Financial conditions force cuts in spending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to fund domestic program and new divisions in military </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister Saionji forced out of office </li></ul><ul><li>Mass demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt at imperial order fails </li></ul><ul><li>Significance : first time party majority, back by popular opinion, had overthrew a cabinet </li></ul>
    • 49. xxxx xxxx xxx I. Emperor’s Rule II. Samurai’s Rule X III. Modern -ization WAR IV. Postwar Clan fights × 645 NARA Centralization HEIAN Nobles, Decentralization Internal wars, dynamic &amp; fluid society Peace, isolation, conservative class society EDO Tokugawa Shogunate KAMAKURA MUROMACHI SENGOKU 1867 MEIJI Westernization, industrialization, militarilization Rapid recovery and growth Hunting &amp; gathering Taika Reform Rice Chinese culture &amp; political system Buddhism WEST: guns &amp; Christianity WEST!!! US occupation 1945-52 1603 PP.16-17
    • 50. &nbsp;

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