Very early in the development of theMacintosh computer’s monitor hardware,Apple chose to use a resolution of 72pixels per inch. Matches the standard measurement of theprinting industry. Allows desktop publishers and designers tosee on the monitor what their printed outputwill look like (WYSIWYG).
The Font Wars Are Over 1985- Desktop publishing revolution wasspearheaded by Apple and theMacintosh computer.Word processingPage layout software productsAdobe Postcript page desciptionOutline Font language
Postscript - a method of describing animage in terms of mathematical constructsused not only to describe the individualcharacters of a font but also to describeentire illustrations and whole pages of text.can be easily scaled bigger or smallerlooks right whether drawn at 24 points or 96 points,whether the printer is a 300 dpi LaserWriter or a high-resolution 1200, 2400, or even 3600 dpi image settersuitable for the finest print jobs.
Object-Oriented languagePostscript quickly became the de facto industryfont and printing standard for desktoppublishing and played a significant role in theearly success of Apple’s Macintosh computer.
Type 3 font technologyOlder than Type 1was developed for output to printersrarely used by multimedia developers
Type 1 font technologycurrently over 6,000 different Type 1typefaces available.Type 1 fonts also contain hints special instructions for grid-fitting to help improveresolution. can apply to a font in general or to specificcharacters at a particular resolution.
Other companies followed Adobe intothe desktop publishing arena with theirown proprietary and competitive systemsfor scalable outline fonts. 1989- Apple and Microsoft announced ajoint effort.- to develop a “better and faster” quadraticcurves outline font methodology, calledTrueType.
TrueType addition to printing smooth characters onprinters would draw characters to a low-resolution (72 dpi or 96 dpi) monitor. Apple and Microsoft would no longerneed to license the PostScript technologyfrom Adobe for their operating system.because TrueType was based on Apple Technology, itwas licensed to Microsoft.
Adobe and Microsoft then developed anew and improved font managementsystem incorporating the best features ofboth Postscript and TrueType.and by 2007, OpenType became a free, publiclyavailable international standard.THE FONT WARS WERE OVER
WARNING TrueType, OpenType, and PostScript fonts donot display (or print) exactly the same, eventhough they may share the same name andsize. The three technologies use different formulasmeans that word-wrapping in a text field maychange.if you build a field or a button that precisely fits textdisplayed with PostScript font, be aware that if youthen display it with the same font in TrueType orOpenType, the text may be truncated or wrapped,wrecking your layout.
Commercial Type Foundriesand Font Sites www.typequarry.com/ www.oldfonts.com/ www.myfonts.com/ www.bitstream.com/ www.will-harris.com/These gateways lead to a discussion of fontsand where to find them.
ASCII Character SetExtended Character SetUnicode
The ASCII (American Standard Code forInformation Interchange ) Character Set 7- bit character coding system mostcommonly used by computer systems inthe U.S. and abroad assigns a number or value to 128charactersBoth lower- and uppercase lettersPunctuation marksArabic numbersMath symbols32 control characters
ASCII code numbers always represent aletter or symbol of the English Alphabet.a computer or printer can work with the number thatrepresents the letter, regardless of what the lettermight actually look like on the screen printout.o was invented and standardized foranalog teletype communication early inthe age of bits and bytes.
millions of installed computers andprinters use ASCII, it is difficult to setany new standards for text withoutthe expense and effort of replacingexisting hardware.for these 128 characters, most computers andprinters share the same values.
The Extended Character Set Byte- consists of 8 bits- the most commonly used building block forcomputer processing .ASCII uses only seven bits to code its 128characters ; the eighth bit of the byte isunused.
this extra bit allows another 128characters to be encodedbefore the byte is used up.computer systems today use these extra128 values for an Extended Character Set.Extended Character Set is mostcommonly filled with ANSI (AmericanNational Standards Institute ).also known as the ISO-Latin-1 characterset; it is used when programming thetext of HTML web pages.
NOTE The rules for encoding extendedcharacters are not standardized. ThusASCII value 165, for example, may bebullet character on the Macintosh or thecharacter for Japanese yen in Windows(ANSI).
Unicode 1989- a concerted effort on the part oflinguist, engineers, and informationprofessionals from many well-knowncomputer companies has been focused on a16-bit architecture for multilingual text andcharacter encoding. original standard accommodated up toabout 65,000 characters to include thecharacters from all known languages andalphabets in the world.
Mapping Text Across Platforms Fonts are perhaps the greatest crossplatform concern They must be mapped to the other machine. Font substitution in many cross-platform-savvy applications, you canexplicitly define the font mapping.
It is not just fonts that areproblematic; characters, too,must be mapped acrossplatforms.
Special Characters in HTML In HTML, character entities based uponthe ISO-Latin-1 standard make up thealphabet that is recognized by browsersoftware on the World Wide Web. All of the usual characters of an EnglishKeyboard are included.
the 7-bit ASCII set is built in but for the extended character set, youmust use an escape sequence torepresent them in an ISO-Latin-1 HTMLdocument.
Multilanguage Web Pages languages other than English may havemany escaped characters.
FontLab specializes in font editors for bothMacintosh and Windows platforms. can be use to develop PostScript,TrueType, and OpenType fonts forMacintosh, Windows, and Sunworkstations.
Making Pretty Text you need a toolbox full of fonts andspecial graphics applications that canstretch, shade, shadow, colour ,and anti-alias your words into real artwork. typically found in bitmapped drawings simply choosing the font is the first step
TrueType, OpenType, and PostScriptoutline fonts allow text to be drawn at anysize on your computer screen withoutjaggies:
pasting an image that was anti-aliased against a light backgroundonto a darker-colored backgroundusing transparency can beproblematic: the blending pixels alongthe edge will show as a halo and mayhave to be edited pixel by pixel.
Multimedia- the combination of text,graphic, and audio elements into a singlecollection or presentation. becomes interactive multimedia when you givethe user some control over what information isviewed and when it is viewed. interactive multimedia becomes hypermediawhen its designer provides a structure of linkedelements through which a user can navigateand interact.
when a hypermedia project includeslarge amounts of text or symbolic content,this content can be indexed and itselements then linked together to affordrapid electronic retrieval of theassociated information. When words are keyed or indexed to other words,you have a hypertext system