What is culture?
• “that complex whole which includes
knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, an
d any other capabilities and habits acquired by
man as a member of society”
Communication and Culture
Communication is cultural
• It draws on speech
patterns, language, and nonverbal
• It is interactive
• It operates through social
Why Cross Culture
Communication is important ?
◦ Business Opportunities
◦ Job Opportunities
◦ Improves the contribution of employees in a diverse workforce
◦ Sharing of views and ideas
◦ Talent improvisation
◦ An understanding of diverse market
Globalization: Cross border movement of people, goods and data brings more
and more cultures into contact with one another and increases the potential of
cross culture communication.
What is different?
1. Communication Styles
2. Attitudes toward conflicts
3. Decision making style
4. Approaches to knowing
What is hidden below the surface?
Four Fundamental Patterns of Cultural Difference
Different cultures use different
systems of understanding
• Low-context cultures -- place
relatively less emphasis on
• High-context cultures -- place
relatively more emphasis on
Face and Face-Saving
Face is the standing a person has in
the eyes of others
The importance of “face” and
face-saving varies across cultures
• Some cultures value “face” more
than their own well-being
• Other cultures do not care about
face all that much
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