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  • The Constitution of the Republic of Singapore is the supreme law of Singapore.
  • RCH celebrated on 21 st july. To commemorate the 1964 racial riots
  • Bilingual policy-> Every student in school is required to learn English and their ”assigned” mother tongue, which is the language of their associated race.
  • On 18 January 1966, shortly after Singapore's independence, the President of Singapore appointed a Constitutional Commission helmed by Chief Justice Wee Chong Jin to consider how the rights of racial, linguistic, and religious minorities in the nascent nation should be protected. [9] Singapore had just been ejected from Malaysia, and had experienced an extended period of racial and religious tension resulting from the Maria Hertogh riots. This experience reinforced the need for a multiracial society based on equality among races. [10] The Commission, in its report on 27 August 1966, [11] found that such equality was best protected by giving minority rights equal footing with the fundamental liberties in the Constitution. [12] In addition, it recommended a "Council of State", an advisory body that would inform the Government of the effects its laws would have on minorities. This concept was based on the Kenyan Council of State which was established in 1958 during its phase of transition to African majority rule. [13] The idea of an advisory body which could not significantly impede the legislative agenda was viewed by lawmakers as a promising innovation. In addition, the creation of an advisory council ensuring equal treatment in legislation was very much in line with the idea that, as citizens become increasingly aware of racial and religious issues, national growth will very much depend on an approach to such problems that is not fraught with religious and racial tensions. [14]
  • In order to remain relevant, several amendments have been made to the Constitution in the 80s and 90s To preserve multi-racialism in Parliament, the Constitution was amended in 1988 to introduce the concept of Group Representation Constituency (GRC) so that Religious harmony is also not taken for granted. In August 1992, the Constitution was amended to provide for a
  • Money bills Bills that the Prime Minister certifies as affecting "the defence or security of Singapore, or which relate to the public safety, peace or good order of Singapore". Bills that the Prime Minister certifies to be so urgent that any delay in enactment would be detrimental to the public welfare. It has been argued that such exemptions are too wide and may be open to abuse. For instance, it is up to the Speaker to determine whether any bill falls within the definition of a money bill, and once he has certified his opinion on the matter in writing, that is "conclusive for all purposes and shall not be open to question in any court". [72] Moreover, grounds upon which bills may be excluded such as "public safety" and "peace", have been described as "nebulous" with potentially wide definitions that are open to abuse by the government in power. [73] As regards a bill that has been enacted on a certificate of urgency and assented to by the President, the Speaker is required to send the Act of Parliament to the Council as soon as possible for its report, which is then presented to Parliament. [74] However, the Constitution contains no provisions as to any steps that Parliament is required to take to amending the Act if an adverse report is made. [73]
  • In fact, it does not appear that any person has the power to do so. The door may be open for potential abuse with appointments based on some political agenda rather than merit. The counterpoint is that it is precisely those in power who are best placed to scrutinize bills for illegitimate differentiating measures, because "it is often those with political affiliations who can make the biggest contribution to the discussion; if nothing else, from the folly and error of their past ways".
  • In order to remain relevant, several amendments have been made to the Constitution in the 80s and 90s To preserve multi-racialism in Parliament, the Constitution was amended in 1988 to introduce the concept of Group Representation Constituency (GRC) so that Religious harmony is also not taken for granted. In August 1992, the Constitution was amended to provide for a
  • at least one of the MPs in a GRC must be a member of the Malay, Indian or another minority community of Singapore. In addition, it was economical for town councils, which manage public housing estates, to handle larger constituencies. The GRC scheme came into effect on 1 June 1988.
  • In order to remain relevant, several amendments have been made to the Constitution in the 80s and 90s To preserve multi-racialism in Parliament, the Constitution was amended in 1988 to introduce the concept of Group Representation Constituency (GRC) so that Religious harmony is also not taken for granted. In August 1992, the Constitution was amended to provide for a
  • Social and political backdrop There were several prevailing social and political conditions in the 1980s which prompted the introduction of the bill. These were detailed in the Maintenance of Religious Harmony white paper. First, there had been an increase in religious fervour and assertiveness among religious groups, which was part of a worldwide religious revival. [59] This had led to an increase in inter-religious tensions. [60] Secondly, intra-religious tensions had also been observed. [61] Thirdly, several incidents had taken place suggesting that religious groups and leaders were entering the realm of politics. [62] [edit] Inter-religious tensions Sri Srinivasa Perumal Temple, a Hindu temple along Serangoon Road Inter-religious tensions were largely attributed to aggressive and insensitive proselytization by religious groups, mostly Protestant churches and organizations. [63] Examples cited in the ISD report annexed to the white paper included tensions in August 1986 when Hindus found posters publicizing a Christian seminar pasted at the entrance to their temple, and when Christian missionaries distributed pamphlets to devotees going into temples along Serangoon Road. [64] There were also two disputes in July 1988 and January 1989 involving the funerals of non-Muslims who had converted to Islam. The non-Muslim families had wanted to cremate the bodies according to their respective non-Islamic religious rites, but a Muslim organization applied for court orders to claim the bodies and bury them according to Islamic rites. Both these disputes were eventually settled out of court. [65] [edit] Intra-religious tensions Hostility between sub-groups under the same religious umbrella also became apparent in the 1980s. [66] In October 1989, for instance, a Hindu sect called the Shiv Mandir burnt an effigy of Ravana, a Hindu mythological king, during a religious festival. This caused outrage among Tamil Hindus, who wanted to retaliate by staging a protest demonstration and threatened to retaliate by burning the effigy of Lord Ramachandra. [67] Intra-religious tensions among Christian groups surfaced after the distribution of pamphlets and booklets denigrating the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope by some Protestants. [68] [edit] Mixing of religion and politics According to the ISD report, the mid-1980s also saw Catholic priests engaging in social activism and using Catholic religious gatherings and publications as platforms to comment on political issues. [69] Following the arrest of Vincent Cheng and others associated with him and their detention under the Internal Security Act ("ISA"), [70] several priests spoke out against the arrests at masses, describing it as an injustice and an attack on the Church. [71] Several foreign Muslim theologians such as Imaduddin Abdul Rahim, Ahmed Hoosen Deedat and Mat Saman bin Mohamed were banned from entering Singapore after they delivered lectures or speeches inciting the Muslim community in Singapore against the Government. [72]
  • However, there are also notable differences between the Sedition Act and the MRHA. The first relates to the consequences of violation. Under section 4 of the Sedition Act, an offender is criminally liable. In contrast, under the MRHA, the imposition of a restraining order does not per se carry criminal liability. It is only when this restraining order has been breached that criminal liability will attach to the offender. [106] This difference reflects the varying approach towards disruption of public order – the punitive approach of the Sedition Act contrasts with the pre-emptive approach of the MRHA. Such an arrangement allows the Government to mount a calibrated response against perpetrators. [107] If the Sedition Act was the only relevant statute in operation, it might result in disproportionately harsh action being taken against minor public order disturbances. The second difference relates to the mischief that both statutes address. Tt is clear that the MRHA was meant to address mischiefs of a religious nature. In comparison, the Sedition Act encompasses a broader category of mischief. This is seen in section 3(1)(e), where only hostile actions relating to race and classes of people have a seditious tendency. Whether "classes of people" includes religious groups has yet to be directly commented on by the courts. However, the District Court case Public Prosecutor v. Koh Song Huat Benjamin (2005) [108] suggests that a perpetrator can be charged under the Sedition Act when the acts committed connote anti-religious sentiments. [109] This effectively subsumes the mischief of the MRHA under the Sedition Act.
  • Chinese educated low income
  • Play and work together
  • First government-run Chinese medium school Common school syllabuses Civics was introduced into all schools Under colonial rule separate language medium schools existed and government kept their involvement in education to a minimum. These segregated schools not only prevented students from different racial backgrounds from interacting, they also differed greatly in terms of breadth and depth of instruction and resources. The English medium mission schools and clan supported Chinese medium schools were largely better funded than the Malay medium schools and Tamil medium schools.
  • National rally 1986…
  • keep in touch with their heritage and cultural values.
  • inculcate values and build competencies in our pupils to develop them into good individuals and useful citizens.
  • Many Singaporeans, especially pupils and younger Singaporeans, knew little of our recent history. They did not know how we became an independent nation, how we triumphed against long odds, or how today's peaceful and prosperous Singapore came about. The worry was over whether this lack of knowledge would adversely affect young people‘s commitment to Singapore.
  • Every child, regardless of race or religion, can study in schools and tertiary institutions.
  • Ss presentation

    1. 1. Importance of managingSingapore’s ethnic diversity
    2. 2. Our composition by race… Department of Statistics, Singapore
    3. 3. Our composition by religion… Department of Statistics, Singapore
    4. 4. Importance of managing Singapore’s ethnic diversitySingapore is a multi-racial, multi-cultural and multi-ethnic society  Prevent history from repeating itself  Security & peace for its citizensEconomic progress and prosperity  Foreign investments
    5. 5. The Periodisation Phase 1(1965-79)  4 official languages  English as the neutral lingua franca-> Bilingual Policy  Presidential Council for Minority Rights (PCMR) Phase 2(1979-90)  SAP schools  Speak Mandarin campaign  Mendaki Phase 3(1990-99)  Presidential Council for Religious Harmony (PCRH)  Other self-help groups(SINDA, CDAC & Eurasian Association) Phase 4(2000-present)  Developing of common space  Rendering support to other races for the develop of cultural elites
    6. 6. Managing Singapore’s ethnic diversity3 KEY aspectsBuilding a national identity by instilling a sense ofbelongingSafeguarding the interests of minority groupsDeveloping common space
    7. 7. Building A NationalIdentityMulti-racialism PolicyCommon Practices
    8. 8. Multi-racialism an ideology that promotes a society consisted of various races, while accepting the different cultural background written into the Constitution in 1965 upon independence embedded as the core rationale for many public policies social cultural differences were simplified into the 3 main racial group plus one residual (CMIO)Phase 1
    9. 9. Why Multi-racialism? ensures that every race is treated fairly with no special rights given to any particular group  self-help groups celebrate the identity of everyone in Singapore where all can coexist in harmony  Racial Harmony Day maintain and strengthen the cultural identities unique to each race  posters of National Day with the inclusion of representatives from each ethnic groupPhase 1
    10. 10. Multi-racialism Disadvantages Individuals coming from mixed heritage  to identify themselves with their father’s or mother’s racial group or both  Bilingual PolicyPhase 1
    11. 11. Common Practices Cultivating loyalty and national pride st in 25 Augu th d Implemente Was formally in troduced on 3 rd 1966 December 195 9Phase 1
    12. 12. Safeguarding theinterests of minoritygroupMinority representation policySelf- Help Groups
    13. 13. • Gives minority groups a say in the governance• Safeguard the interests of the minority groups
    14. 14. Minority Self-Help Group Representation Pr e lM Co side tia in un n n or c tia i de il for Sing(P ity il fo l es nc us CM Ri r Pr ou io y Rac e l Multi R) ght ed d s Group C elig on Race Representation R rm H) Ha CR Constituency (P (GRC)
    15. 15. (Taken from National Archive ofThe late Mr. Edmund William Singapore )
    16. 16. (Taken from National Archive ofSingapore )
    17. 17. Minority Representation 2 1 99 l 197 tia n r ide il fo 0 Pre s s 1988 re unc ous Cou identia P o i Min n l C elig ony orit cil for Group R rm H) (PC y Righ Ha CR MR ts Representation (P ) Constituency Scrutinise legislation (GRC) passed by Parliament to ensure that there would be no discrimination against minority communities.Phase 1 (Taken from National Archive of
    18. 18. 197 0 Presidential Council for Minority Rights Presidential Council for Minority Rights (PCMR) - Non-elected government body established in 1970. - Consists of members from minority racial and religious group - Ensure that no racial or religious group is disadvantaged as a result of a law passed in the Parliament.Phase 1
    19. 19. 197 0 Presidential Council for Minority Rights Phase 1
    20. 20. 197 0 Presidential Council for Minority Rights  To scrutinize most of the bills passed by Parliament to ensure that they do not discriminate against any racial or religious community.  ExcludesPhase 1
    21. 21. 197 0 While the Presidential Council for President may Minority Rights block certain appointments to the Council, he cannot remove a permanent member from his seat. Phase 1 As at 2011
    22. 22. Minority Representation 19 Pr 70 es 2 M Co ide 9 l in un n 19 tia o c t n r (P rity il fo ial 1988 ide il fo CM Ri r s re unc ous R) ght P o i s Group C elig ony Representation R rm H)Scrutinise Constituency Ha CRlegislation passed by (P (GRC)Parliament toensure that there Every political partywould be no contesting the electiondiscrimination in a GRC must field atagainst minority least one candidatecommunities. from the minority communities. Phase 2 (Taken from National Archive of
    23. 23. 1988 Group Representation ConstituencyGroup Representation Constituency (GRC)-At least 1 of the candidates in the team contesting for General Elections mustcome from the minority racial communities- Ensure that the minority racial groups are represented in the Parliament.-Get around the problem of voting along racial lines Phase 2
    24. 24. 1988 Group Representation Constituency- Another perspective of regrouping…- Original intent faded, voter’s decision is over shadowed by thematerial benefits of Town Councils (1989) and CommunityDevelopment Councils (1997). Phase 2
    25. 25. PCMRs advisory role largely lies within the legislative process, while the PCRH renders advice on the exercise of executive power - Minority restraining order. Representation Phase 3 2 19 99 l Pr es 70 1 n tia M Co ide 1988 side il for in un n re unc ous o c t P o (P rity il fo ial i C elig ony CM Ri r R rm H) R) ght Group s Representation Ha CR (P Constituency Scrutinise legislation (GRC) • Resolve any potential passed by Parliament religious conflicts. Every political party to ensure that there contesting the election • All leaders of the would be no in a GRC must field at major religious groups discrimination against least one candidate in Singapore are minority communities. from the minority represented in this communities. Council. (Taken from National Archive of
    26. 26. 199 2 Presidential Council for Religious HarmonySource: MICAPresident S R Nathan with members of the PresidentialCouncil for Religious Harmony at the Istana, 1999. Phase 3
    27. 27. 199 2 Presidential Council for Religious Harmony Phase 3
    28. 28. 199 2 Presidential Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act(CHAPTER 167A) Council for Religious Harmony Phase 3;page=0;query=Id%3A%22546aa4b9-fa79-4dce-bdeb-590ecd9a1409%22%20Status%3Ainforce;rec=0#pr.
    29. 29. Nature and effect of restraining ordersA restraining order made against officials or members of religious group or institution under section 8(1) may be made for the following reasons:[10] Criminal sanctions may be(a) from addressing orally or in writing any congregation, parish or group of worshippers or in the eventreligious group or imposed members of any of a institution on any subject, topic or theme asorder. specified in the breach of a restraining may be order without the prior permission of the Minister;(b) from printing, publishing, editing, distributing or in any way assisting or contributing to any publication produced by any religious group without the prior permission of the Minister; or(c) from holding office in an editorial board or a committee of a publication of any religious group without the prior permission of the Minister.
    30. 30. Sedition Act  criminalizes any act that has a seditious tendency  publication of seditious materials  the utterance of seditious words,  and the importing of seditious material.  a tendency to promote feelings of ill will and hostility between different races or classes of the population of Singapore Internal Security Act  allows the Singapore government to investigate security threats like international terrorism, foreign subversion, espionage and acts of violence or hatred using race or religion.  confers on the government the right to arrest and preventively detain individuals without trial for up to two years at a time in certain defined circumstances under Section 8(1)(a) of the ISA.  controversial because some regard it as a draconian law that curbs civil liberties  Proponents of the law argue that the ISA is necessary for the city-state to serious security threats pre-emptively thwart
    31. 31. Self-Help GroupSing ced le Race lti Ra d Mu
    32. 32. Single Raced 1984 1990 1919 1992 Government backed, race based Intra-racial emotional rapport & support was more effective than a neutral non-racial national approach Improve social and economic position in the society Help less fortunate members of their community to get aid in their studies or training for jobs Help Singaporeans to cope and compete with one another on equal footing
    33. 33. SingleRaced
    34. 34. SingleRaced
    35. 35. SingleRaced
    36. 36. SingleRaced
    37. 37. SingleRaced
    38. 38. SingleRaced
    39. 39. SingleRaced
    40. 40. PM Goh, 2002b on Self Help GroupsShould remain focused on remedial classes and programmes to improve the academic standards of their studentsResist pressures to extend their activities to areas which are more appropriately addressed by other community and social service organizationsPrinciple of partnerships should be applied to all services where there is no particular need for them to be provided along racial lines.
    41. 41. Self-Help Group  Create common Sing space (PM ed le Race Multi Rac Goh, 1999) d  CommonC I playing field for C I all and a separate playing field for M O community M O Phase 4
    42. 42. Multi Raced Nurture a harmonious society through cross-cultural education and further contribute to the success of multi- racial Singapore Joint effort between community development councils and the Self Help Groups Race relations and champion racial harmony initiatives Phase 4
    43. 43. Phase 4 Multi Raced
    44. 44. Multi Raced Phase 4
    45. 45. Multi RacedPhase 4
    46. 46. PM Goh, 1999cNot in Government’s policy to have four overlapped circles merged into oneSingapore is unique because of its multiracial and multireligious characterShould preserve this valuable attribute
    47. 47. Multi Raced
    48. 48. Developing CommonSpaceSingapore’s Education SystemHDBInter Racial and Religious Confidence CirclesPeople’s AssociationNational Service
    49. 49. Background – in the 1950s and60s Diverse collection of people different languages and cultures. Widespread student unrest in Chinese schools First locally elected government formed an All-Party Committee in 1956 to look into the problem of Chinese education
    50. 50. Report by the All-party CommitteeEmphasized the importance of bilingual education, and inter-mingling of students from different language medium schools.Most of the recommendations from this report were incorporated into the 1956 White Paper on Education Policy. Singapore Education System, taken from
    51. 51. Introduced Bilingualism Policy in1965 English is the first language Purposes of Education in Singapore Economic necessity Integrate the new nation together  Forges national identity and links the different ethnic groupsPhase 1
    52. 52. Bilingualism policy Mother tongue language is used to impart moral values and cultural traditions of each racePhase 1
    53. 53. Creation of SAP schools in 1979 Reason: There are many advantages to English being the language of instruction. Nevertheless, this has also weakened a new generation of Singaporeans command of their mother tongue and unavoidably, their identification with their own culture.Phase 2
    54. 54. Speak Good Mandarin Campaign in 1979 Make Mandarin the main language amongst the heterogeneous dialect-speaking Chinese community The use of dialects in local media is still largely banned, and films and videos in dialects are not allowed unless they are dubbed over in Mandarin.Phase 2
    55. 55. Character and Citizenship Education Various key programmes such as: Civics and Moral Education (CME, 1992), National Education (NE, 1997), Community Involvement Programme (CIP, 1997) Social and Emotional Learning (SEL, 2005)Phase 3 – Phase 4
    56. 56. National Education must be a vital component of our education process…. It is an exercise to develop instincts that become part of the psyche of every child. It must engender a shared sense of nationhood, an understanding of how our past is relevant to our present and future. It must appeal to both heart and mind.8 September 1996 during the Teachers’ Day rallyPhase 3
    57. 57. Launch of National Education in 1997 Objectives: Develop national cohesion Raise awareness of Singapore’s recent history as well as the challenges to and constraints on the country’s development, Cultivate in students the instincts for survival Instill in them confidence in the future of the countryPhase 3
    58. 58. 6 key NE messages Singapore is our homeland; this is where we belong. We must preserve racial and religious harmony. We must uphold meritocracy and incorruptibility. No one owes Singapore a living. We must ourselves defend Singapore. We have confidence in our future.Phase 3
    59. 59. Phase 4
    60. 60. Opportunities Offered byEducational InstitutionsCCAs in schools encourages teamwork and build better bondsPolicy of meritocracy Every child, regardless of race or religion, can study in schools and tertiary institutions.
    61. 61. Opportunities Offered by EducationalInstitutionsIs there really meritocracy in Singapore?
    62. 62. In year 2010… The implementation of meritocracy in Singapore had not been as equitable as it should have been.Taken from ‘Singapore Malays: Being Ethnic Minority and Muslim in a Global City-State’
    63. 63. Compulsory Religious Knowledge In 1982, the government introduced compulsory religious knowledge classes for upper secondary students. This was to ensure Singaporean students did not lose their values in the face of westernisation and hedonism. There were 6 options: Bible Knowledge, Buddhist Studies, Confucian Ethics, Hindu Studies, Islamic Religious Studies and Sikh Studies.Phase 2
    64. 64. Compulsory Religious Knowledge Within 5 years, the government realised that the program was detrimental to ethnic relations. The program emphasised differences and encouraged interaction only within the same faith. It also contributed to religion revivalism in Singapore. The program was abruptly terminated in 1990 and replaced with Civics and Moral Education.Phase 2
    65. 65. Madrasahs Madrasah is an Arabic word which means "school". However, in the present context a madrasah means an Islamic Religious school. Historically, the madrasah started like other forms of Islamic education; the learning of the Quran and Hadith from individual ulama or the studies of Islam conducted in mosques. Its main purpose was to educate an individual on Islamic religion or various aspects of the religion.Phase 2
    66. 66. Madrasahs What law does the madrasahs come under? All the madrasahs come under the Education Act. Under section 87 and 88 of the Administration of Muslim Law Act, the control of Muslim Religious Schools shall be vested in MUIS. What are the objectives of the madrasahs? The madrasahs are intended to produce the religious elites to lead the community on religious matters. The mosque madrasahs provide basic Islamic education i.e. fardhu ain to students who attend government schools. How many madrasahs are there in Singapore? There are 6 full time madrasahs and 27 part time mosque madrasahs.Phase 2
    67. 67. Madrasahs What subjects are taught at the madrasahs? Madrasahs :The students are taught the various subjects in Islamic Education and Arabic Language. Academic subjects such as English, Maths and Malay Language are also taught in the madrasahs. Mosque Madrasahs :The students are taught basic religious subjects only. Students start to attend one year after they start secular school.Phase 2
    68. 68. HDB1980s:• People had the freedomto buy and sell their flats 1989:• Resulted in a higher •Ethnic Integration Policyconcentration of people of introducedthe same race in particular •Puts a limit on the proportionhousing estates of races in every neighbourhood and block •Ensures a proportionate distribution of ethnic groups in the housing estatesPhase 2
    69. 69. HDB The percentage for Indians and Others were raised by 2% in March 2010 to better reflect the population profile of SingaporePhase 2
    70. 70. HDB ●The SPR quota (5 Mar 2010) will be set at 5% and 8% at the neighbourhood and block levels respectively. Malaysian PRs are excluded from the quota due to "close cultural and historical similarities".Phase 4
    71. 71. Inter-Racial and Religious Confidence CirclesPhase 3
    72. 72. Inter-Racial and Religious Confidence Circles ● Each circle represents one community. ● The intention is not for the circles to overlap completely but to maximise the overlapping of the circles. ● Where the circles overlap, there is a shared common playing field. Where they do no overlap, there is a playing field individual to each community. ● This helps to build a harmonious nation out of diversity. PM Goh (1999)Phase 3
    73. 73. Community Engagement ProgramPhase 4
    74. 74. Community Engagement ProgramA network of people to help prevent racial & religious conflictThe Community Engagement Programme (CEP) seeks to strengthen the understanding and ties between people of different races and religions, and build up our societys skills and knowledge in coping with emergencies.Response plans to cope with the shock of a terrorist incidentThrough the Community Engagement Programme, the community will be involved in response plans that will be activated when a crisis, e.g. a terrorist incident, does occur. These plans aim to help Singaporeans cope with the shock and to stay calm and resilient. This will ensure that our society stays together, and we can continue with our daily lives as quickly as possible. Phase 4
    75. 75. Community Engagement ProgramPhase 4
    76. 76. Developing common spaces People’s Association (PA)  1 July 1960 to promote racial harmony and social cohesion in Singapore  Umbrella network of 1800 GROs which includes CCCs, 550 RCs, over 100 NCs (neighbourhood committees) 106 community clubs, 5 CDCs, National Youth Council, National Community Leadership Institute, Outward Bound Singapore and Water VenturePhase 1
    77. 77. Developing common spacesEvents & programmes by People’s Association (PA)  SoundWaves  PA Talent Season  Gentarasa  Chingay Phase 4
    78. 78. Developing common spaces Events & programmes by People’s Association (PA)  National Orange Ribbon Celebration  CDC (functions as a local administration of its District, promotes community bonding and social cohesion)  Ethnic bonding home-stay programme (North East CDC)  "Saturday! Series” (South West CDC)Phase 4
    79. 79. Developing common spaces National Integration Council (NIC)  set up in April 2009 to promote and foster social integration among Singaporeans and new immigrants.  Community Integration Fund (CIF)  Singapore Citizenship (SC) Journey  E-Journey  Singapore Experiential Tour  Community Sharing SessionPhase 4
    80. 80. Developing common spaces Nparks Community in Bloom  Launched in May 2005  Avenue for residents to create beautiful roadside gardens to spruce up their estates  can be found in both public and private housing estates, schools as well as other organisations, such as hospitals and welfare homes.)Phase 4
    81. 81. Developing common spaces Shared experiences through National Service (NS)  Compulsory NS introduced in 1967  All able-bodied men upon reaching the age of 18 required to serve NS  Dual purpose: National defence & promoting interethnic solidarity  Strengthening of bonds, camaraderie & friendship amongst people of different cultures, races, religions and walks of life  “sensitive” jobs within SAF closed to Malays VS meritocracy They say that in NS, everyone… whether Chinese, Malay, Indian or Eurasian, is of the same colour…deep sun burnt brown! When they have undergone tough military training together, they build enduring friendships that last – SM Goh, 2002Phase 1
    82. 82. “We must never put the person in a situation where hemay face a conflict of loyalties. I said in answer to aquestion some nearly 2 years ago that it is a difficultmatter to put a Malay-Muslim of deeply religious familybackground in charge of a machine-gun. We shouldnever have to ask this of anyone. For nearly every job,a person’s race and religion are irrelevant. But in thesecurity services, because of our contact, we cannotignore race and religion in deciding suitability”.
    83. 83. In conclusion…3 key aspects to manage ethnic diversity in Singapore  Building a national identity by instilling a sense of belonging  Safeguarding the interests of minority groups  Developing common spaceThe issue of ethnicity in Singapore… akin to a time-bomb or nuclear power generator?
    84. 84. A worst case scenario…
    85. 85. But if managed well…
    86. 86. How to develop a more sustainable & meaningful multiracialism…Greater effort towards building a Singaporean national identity  Reduce countervailing pulls of race, culture & religionCommitment of ethnic Chinese to multiracialism  Need to reach out to the other races
    87. 87. How to develop a more sustainable & meaningful multiracialism… Concerted effort to reduce role of ethnic self-help groups in socio-economic life. Think national, not ethnic! Emphasis on civic education & promotion of sustained, genuine interaction between races Minimize focus on Malay-Muslim Singaporeans’ loyalty
    88. 88. Phase 1(1965-79)  4 official languages  English as the neutral lingua franca-> Bilingual Policy  Presidential Council for Minority Rights (PCMR)Phase 2(1979-90)  SAP schools  Speak Mandarin campaign  MendakiPhase 3(1990-99)  Presidential Council for Religious Harmony (PCRH)  Other self-help groups(SINDA, CDAC & Eurasian Association)Phase 4(2000-present)  Developing of common space  Rendering support to other races for the develop of cultural elitesIn what ways has the government’s management ofethnic diversity changed or remained the same since1959?
    89. 89. THANK YOU!
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