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    brand management brand management Presentation Transcript

    • Nation branding and country image: Opportunities andlimitations of a media-centric approach Keith Dinnie Temple University, Tokyo, Japan
    • 2
    • Nations have always competed with each other The shifting balance between ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ power Investment attraction Export promotion Tourism 3
    • Many countries do not know what to do The use of brand management techniques is relatively new Many governments are not familiar with these techniques Every country should develop its own original nation branding strategy 4
    • A blind faith in the power of advertising Much public money is spent on expensive advertising campaigns However, very little evaluation is made of the effectiveness of these ad campaigns 5
    • Public relations consultancies Generate positive media coverage Develop ongoing relationships with journalists and editors But reality must underpin the spin 6
    • A more balanced approach is required A media-centric approach operates via: – Paid-for advertising in relevant media – News management through PR officers and/or consultants However, the range of nation branding tools extends far beyond a media-centric approach 7
    • Complementary nation branding tools and techniques Activation of diaspora networks Improved coordination between different stakeholder groups Cultural diplomacy Increasing the entrepreneurialism of Embassy networks 8
    • Key concepts in nation branding Identity versus image The identity-image gap The facets of nation-brand identity Deconstructing nation-brand image Positioning the nation-brand 9
    • 3 key elements of branding theory Brand identity Brand image Brand positioning 10
    • Identity versus image A simple but robust perspective: – Identity refers to what something truly is, its essence – Image refers to how something is perceived There is frequently a gap between these two states 11
    • The identity-image gap This tends to be a negative factor Many nations struggle with the frustration of not being perceived correctly by the rest of the world Stereotypes and clichés can dominate perceptions of some nations 12
    • Would you allowthis man to brand your nation? 13
    • Nation branding attempts to reduce the identity-image gap By identifying prejudices and misperceptions By enabling nations to dismantle and oppose the negative forces that could: – Hold back the nation’s economic development – Damage the nation’s standing in the world community 14
    • Constructing the nation-brand narrative Narrative identity theory Imaginative & creative input in brand identity development Poets, novelists, and other creative writers could play a significant role in enhancing their nation’s reputation 15
    • The facets of nation-brand identity Nation-brand identity is built upon a limited range of all the constituent parts of national identity External audiences are unwilling to process huge amounts of information about a country’s history, culture, society 16
    • Deconstructing nation-brand image The mental representations (images) that people have of countries can derive from various influencing factors Nations have varying degrees of control over these influencing factors 17
    • Image-formation factors Personal experience Nation-brand Word of campaigns mouth Behaviour of COUNTRY National citizens IMAGE stereotypes Export Politics brands Sports performances 18
    • Assessing brand image via brand personification ‘Brand personification’ is a qualitative research technique The question: “If brand X were a person, what kind of person would it be?” Product brands have been using this technique for years – there is no reason why it could not be applied to nation-brands 19
    • Perceptions of Brand Spain amongst Japanese students aged 18-25“If Spain was a person, what kind of person would it be?” 20
    • “Spain is a cheerful girl, she always smiles for everyone,she makes everyone happy.” 21
    • “Passionate dancer. It isbecause the image of Spain is passion.” 22
    • “A girl, aged 25 years old. Beautiful and sexy. Likes dancing and singing. She has 5 boy friends who are waiting for the day they can date her.” 23
    • “Man, 30 years old, wears red clothes. He is confident in himself.” 24
    • “A man in his middle age drinking and singing every day, all day long.” 25
    • Perceptions of Brand Portugal amongst Japanese students aged 18-25“If Portugal was a person, what kind of person would it be?” 26
    • “A young very ambitious woman.” 27
    • “Spain’s younger sister, but a bit more calm.” 28
    • “Mysterious” 29
    • “Thoughtful person who likes to communicate with others.” 30
    • “Male. Quiet and a big guy. Inhis 40s. Wise man. Has a wife. The wife is very beautiful. Has few friends but very close.” 31
    • Conceptual model of nation-brand identity and image Key components: Nation-brand identity History Language Territory Political regime Architecture Sport Literature Art Religion Education system Icons Landscape Music Food & drink Folklore Branded exports Sporting achievements Communicators of The diaspora Marketing communications nation-brand identity Brand ambassadors Cultural artefacts Govt foreign policy Tourism experience Prominent personalities Audiences: Nation-brand image Domestic consumers External consumers Domestic firms External firms Inward investors Governments Media 32
    • Positioning the nation-brand The concept of positioning is a key issue in brand management and strategy The work of advertising agencies and branding consultancies includes: – Establishing effective positioning platforms – Designing campaigns for successful implementation of the desired positioning 33
    • Positioning defined “Positioning is the act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market” – Kotler & Keller, 2006 34
    • National tourism campaigns often lack distinctive positioning Such campaigns score low on distinctiveness They make generic, undifferentiated claims for their sandy beaches, sunshine, etc Risk of commoditization Higher-end cultural tourism offers potential for better positioning 35
    • Nation-brand positioning platforms Nation-brand Positioning platformSouth Africa “Alive with possibility”Bolivia “The authentic still exists”Scotland “The best small country in the world”India “India Shining”Thailand “Amazing Thailand”Malaysia “Truly Asia” 36
    • 37
    • The New France – Breaking Through the Perception Barrier Mr Philippe Favre, French Ambassador for international investment, Chairman and CEO of Invest in France Agency 38
    • Background Now the world’s 5th largest economy, France is a modern and dynamic country located at the heart of the largest market in the world – Europe It has reinvented itself over the past few years: – Significant privatizations & reforms across key sectors to become more internationally competitive – Business formalities have been simplified – First-class infrastructure & talented workforce 39
    • The perception gap France’s leading edge technology and innovation in healthcare is familiar to investors in China and Japan However, this is overlooked by companies in the USA and the UK, who are preoccupied with outdated perceptions that go against the modern actuality of France 40
    • Changing the world’s opinion The French government recognized that correcting the discrepancy between the myth and the reality of France’s image was important for: – The success of its economy – Inward investment levels 41
    • Invest in France Agency (IFA) Government organization responsible for promoting international investment and helping foreign investors succeed in France As part of its mission, IFA has helped erase misconceptions about France over the past 3 years with the rollout of an image campaign: – “The New France. Where the smart money goes.” 42
    • Collaborative approach With a total budget of 35 million Euros, the campaign was developed & run by IFA in collaboration with several French government bodies, including: – UBIFrance, Maison de la France, information service dept, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, French Economic Mission, Sopexa, EDUFrance, Treasury Directorate, etc 43
    • Campaign goals Raise France’s economic profile among 5 leading target investment countries: – USA, UK, Germany, Japan, China Improve foreign investor opinions of France Create solid relationships with foreign investors for long-term dialogue 44
    • Campaign strategy Focus on boosting visibility & credibility Tangible facts and testimonials from international corporations already doing business in France Senior executives from 12 reputable global companies (e.g., FedEx, Toyota, Xerox, GE, Sony) described: – The ease of setting up; the access to qualified talent; the convenience of a central location 45
    • Emphasizing France’s attractiveness Flexible labor laws Superior healthcare system Diverse business clusters Statistical benchmarks displaying competitiveness in categories such as: – Real-estate costs, employee salaries, tax rates 46
    • High-impact advertisements Over 185 ads endorsed “The New France” in top economic news publications: – Financial Times, Wall Street Journal, Handelsblatt, Nikkei Billboard ads also appeared at major airports in: – USA, UK, Japan, China, and Roissy Charles de Gaulle airport in Paris 47
    • Supplementary marcoms tools Sector videos A comprehensive multilingual communications kit A book available in 5 languages A microsite, www.thenewfrance.com 48
    • Face-to-face contacts IFA executives met with economic leaders and potential investors at nearly 150 high- profile events during the campaign, including: – World Economic Forum in Davos – Business Week Leadership Forum – Fortune Innovation Forum 49
    • Campaign results 61% of respondents in USA and UK said it made them view France in a new light 40,000 new jobs created in France in 2006 from foreign investment projects, a 33% increase over 2005 50
    • Conclusions Media strategy needs to be balanced by face-to-face contacts Allocate resources to building long term relationships with investors and other target audiences Develop a collaborative approach between different Government Ministries and Departments 51
    • The FIST (fully inclusive stakeholder) approach Government Public sector Private sector Citizens organizations organizations Tourism board Inward investment Trade associations Not-for-profit agency Chambers of commerce organizationsEconomic development PSC brands Diaspora agency 52
    • Thank you for your attention END 53