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Mughal empire

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  • 1. The Mughal Empire
  • 2. Founding of the Mughal Empire Babur founder – Turkish decent – Married to a descendent of Genghis Khan Conquers Delhi in 1526 to officially start the empire
  • 3. Humayun Succeeds his father to the throne Not as effective or likeable Rumors of opium addiction throughout his reign Two decades of his reign are survived but not plentiful
  • 4. Akbar Takes the throne at age 13 and rules for 50 years Much more successful ruler – Expanded empire – Use of fire arms – Mansabas to pay for his armies Illiterate Tolerant of religions – One of his wives was a Hindu Famous for his patronage of the arts
  • 5. Akbar Most illustrious ruler of the Mughal empire How did he differ from his Ottoman and Safavid counterparts? Married a Rajput Princess who was a Hindu and welcomed her family Very prosperous
  • 6. Rajputs Warrior Class from northern India Hindu Approximately 15% of Mansabas Confirmed the policy of religious accommodation
  • 7. Major Differences Between Peoples Religion – Indian predominately Hindu – Muslim minority ruling Hindu majority – Muslim beliefs and Hindu beliefs not easily integrated into a single society – Need a new way of ruling a country with these kind of differences
  • 8. Religion Muslims – Destroy Hindu monuments – Expand into Hindu territory – Enslaving prisoners of war and forcing conversion to Islam Potentially dangerous division within the country Akbar eases tensions by stopping worst of the abuse
  • 9. Akbar and Religion Declares himself the infallible messenger of God in 1579 – Would this be allowed under Islam? Why or why not? – What do you believe is his main purpose for doing this? Allows for cases to be heard by himself
  • 10. New Religion? Akbar creates a new religion – Mix of Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Sikh and Christian beliefs
  • 11. New Religion? What is Zoroastrianism? – One of the worlds oldest monotheistic religion  Ahura Mazda – Elements are pure and fire represents gods light and wisdom – Focus on good works, thoughts and deeds – Cord with three knots – Pray facing a source of light (such as the sun) – Keep minds, bodies, and spirits pure to defeat evil
  • 12. New Religion? What is Sikhism? – Founded in 15th century – Practice religion by coping with everyday problems in the world – There is only one God – God is without form, or gender – Everyone has direct access to God – Everyone is equal before God – A good life is lived as part of a community, by living honestly and caring for others – Empty religious rituals and superstitions have no value
  • 13. New Religion? Akbar creates a new religion – Mix of Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Sikh and Christian beliefs Brings together scholars of all religions to listen to them debate Made part of the court a religious ritual This did not continue after his death
  • 14. Conversions Under Akbar Why would non-Muslim individuals convert even if they were not forced to do so?
  • 15. Economics under Akbar Relatively peaceful time period – Conflict with other Indian Princes Booming trade in cotton cloth with the Europeans – Foreign trade from the port of Surat – Most Europeans had lost control of ports and so were seen as an ally to the Indians  Military protection for trade rights – No Navy of their own Did not understand the inflation of the silver in Europe and the incredibly cheap price they were giving the Europeans
  • 16. Aurangzeb Overzealous grandson of Akbar Reversed stance on religious tolerance – Caused conflict within his own empire Beheaded the 9th Guru of Sikhism – Lead to the formation of the “Army of the Pure” Religion begins to be at the center of armed conflict within the country
  • 17. Downfall of the Mughal Empire Land-Grant System Inability of Aurangzeb to effectively administer the areas under his control Challenges to military from regional players – Marathas – Kikhs – Hindu Rajputs – Afghans Invaded by Nadir Shah – General who took control after the fall of the Safavids – Sacks Delhi and takes the throne with him
  • 18. Limping Empire Officials begin breaking apart and declaring themselves independent Religious groups break away and gain their freedom and flourish Leaves the region susceptible to European intrusion and conquest

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