Part I:Lobes, the Cerebral Cortex, and Cortical Regions of the Brain
Cerebrum -The largest division of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes. CerebrumCerebrum Cerebellum
Cerebral Cortex - The outermost layer of graymatter making up the superficial aspect of thecerebrum. Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex
Cerebral Features:• Gyri – Elevated ridges “winding” around the brain.• Sulci – Small grooves dividing the gyri – Central Sulcus – Divides the Frontal Lobe from the Parietal Lobe• Fissures – Deep grooves, generally dividing largeregions/lobes of the brain – Longitudinal Fissure – Divides the two Cerebral Hemispheres – Transverse Fissure – Separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum – Sylvian/Lateral Fissure – Divides the Temporal Lobe from the Frontal and Parietal Lobes
Gyri (ridge) Sulci (groove)Fissure(deep groove)
Specific Sulci/Fissures: Central Sulcus Longitudinal Fissure Sylvian/Lateral Fissure Transverse Fissure
Lobes of the Brain (4)• Frontal• Parietal• Occipital• Temporal
Lobes of the Brain - Frontal• The Frontal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Frontal Bone of the skull.• It plays an integral role in the following functions/actions: - Memory Formation - Emotions - Decision Making/Reasoning - Personality Investigation (Phineas Gage)
Lobes of the Brain - Parietal Lobe• The Parietal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Parietal Bone of the skull.• It plays a major role in the following functions/actions:- Senses and integrates sensation(s)- Spatial awareness and perception (Proprioception - Awareness of body/ body parts in space and in relation to each other)
Lobes of the Brain – Occipital Lobe• The Occipital Lobe of the Brain is located deep to the Occipital Bone of the Skull.• Its primary function is theprocessing, integration, interpretation,etc. of VISION and visual stimuli.
Lobes of the Brain – Temporal Lobe• The Temporal Lobes are located on the sides of the brain, deep to the Temporal Bones of the skull.• They play an integral role in thefollowing functions: - Hearing -Organization/Comprehension of language - Information Retrieval
Lobes and Structures of the B. Brain G. A. F.C. E. D.
Lobes and Structures of the BrainA. Central SulcusB. Frontal LobeC. Sylvian/Lateral Fissure A. (groove) G.D. Temporal Lobe B.E. Transverse Fissure F.F. Occipital LobeG. Parietal Lobe C. (groove) D. E. (groove)
Spinal Cord • Runs through the vertebral canal(neural canal) • Extends from foramen magnum to second lumbar vertebra • Regions – Cervical – Thoracic – Lumbar – Sacral – Coccygeal • Gives rise to 31 pairs of spinal nerves – All are mixed nerves
Cranial Nerves Spinal nerves• 12 pairs • 31 pairs• Emerge from brain • Emerge from spinal• Supplied to different cord parts of head • Connected to• Sensory, motor, or different body parts mixed • All are mixed nerves
• The organs (the "viscera") of our body, such as the heart, stomach and intestines, are regulated by a part of the nervous system called the autonomic nervous system (ANS).• The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system and it controls many organs and muscles within the body.
The ANS is most important in two situations:• In emergencies that cause stress and require us to "fight" or take "flight" (run away)• In non emergencies that allow us to "rest" and "digest."
• Eye, ear, nose, skin and tongue• Enable the body to detect the various changes in the surroundings• Important link between external and internal environment• Makes body irritable and sensitive
• Largest organ• Epidermis and dermis• Dermis has receptors1) Pacinian corpuscle-pressure2) Merkel’s disk and Meissner corpuscle - touch3)End organ of Krause - cold4) Ruffini’s organ- warmth
• Two parts- external nose and nasal cavity• Nasal cavity has mucous membrane on top side• Molecules dissolve in the mucous and stimulate olfactory receptor cells• Olfactory nerve carries impulses to the brain
• Organ of taste• Has gustatory receptors or taste buds• chemicals in the food dissolve in saliva and stimulate these receptors.• Four regions,a) Back – bitterb) Tip – sweetc) Sides – salt and sour