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Human brain

Human brain






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    Human brain Human brain Presentation Transcript

    • The Human
    • Part I:Lobes, the Cerebral Cortex, and Cortical Regions of the Brain
    • Cerebrum -The largest division of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes. CerebrumCerebrum Cerebellum
    • Cerebral Cortex - The outermost layer of graymatter making up the superficial aspect of thecerebrum. Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex
    • Cerebral Features:• Gyri – Elevated ridges “winding” around the brain.• Sulci – Small grooves dividing the gyri – Central Sulcus – Divides the Frontal Lobe from the Parietal Lobe• Fissures – Deep grooves, generally dividing largeregions/lobes of the brain – Longitudinal Fissure – Divides the two Cerebral Hemispheres – Transverse Fissure – Separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum – Sylvian/Lateral Fissure – Divides the Temporal Lobe from the Frontal and Parietal Lobes
    • Gyri (ridge) Sulci (groove)Fissure(deep groove)
    • Specific Sulci/Fissures: Central Sulcus Longitudinal Fissure Sylvian/Lateral Fissure Transverse Fissure
    • Lobes of the Brain (4)• Frontal• Parietal• Occipital• Temporal
    • Lobes of the Brain - Frontal• The Frontal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Frontal Bone of the skull.• It plays an integral role in the following functions/actions: - Memory Formation - Emotions - Decision Making/Reasoning - Personality Investigation (Phineas Gage)
    • Lobes of the Brain - Parietal Lobe• The Parietal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Parietal Bone of the skull.• It plays a major role in the following functions/actions:- Senses and integrates sensation(s)- Spatial awareness and perception (Proprioception - Awareness of body/ body parts in space and in relation to each other)
    • Lobes of the Brain – Occipital Lobe• The Occipital Lobe of the Brain is located deep to the Occipital Bone of the Skull.• Its primary function is theprocessing, integration, interpretation,etc. of VISION and visual stimuli.
    • Lobes of the Brain – Temporal Lobe• The Temporal Lobes are located on the sides of the brain, deep to the Temporal Bones of the skull.• They play an integral role in thefollowing functions: - Hearing -Organization/Comprehension of language - Information Retrieval
    • Lobes and Structures of the B. Brain G. A. F.C. E. D.
    • Lobes and Structures of the BrainA. Central SulcusB. Frontal LobeC. Sylvian/Lateral Fissure A. (groove) G.D. Temporal Lobe B.E. Transverse Fissure F.F. Occipital LobeG. Parietal Lobe C. (groove) D. E. (groove)
    • A. K. J.Cortical Regions B. I. H. G.C. D. E. F.
    • Brain structure Cerebrum cerebellumhypothalamus Pituitary gland medulla brain functions
    • Spinal Cord • Runs through the vertebral canal(neural canal) • Extends from foramen magnum to second lumbar vertebra • Regions – Cervical – Thoracic – Lumbar – Sacral – Coccygeal • Gives rise to 31 pairs of spinal nerves – All are mixed nerves
    • Cranial Nerves Spinal nerves• 12 pairs • 31 pairs• Emerge from brain • Emerge from spinal• Supplied to different cord parts of head • Connected to• Sensory, motor, or different body parts mixed • All are mixed nerves
    • • The organs (the "viscera") of our body, such as the heart, stomach and intestines, are regulated by a part of the nervous system called the autonomic nervous system (ANS).• The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system and it controls many organs and muscles within the body.
    • The ANS is most important in two situations:• In emergencies that cause stress and require us to "fight" or take "flight" (run away)• In non emergencies that allow us to "rest" and "digest."
    • • Eye, ear, nose, skin and tongue• Enable the body to detect the various changes in the surroundings• Important link between external and internal environment• Makes body irritable and sensitive
    • • Largest organ• Epidermis and dermis• Dermis has receptors1) Pacinian corpuscle-pressure2) Merkel’s disk and Meissner corpuscle - touch3)End organ of Krause - cold4) Ruffini’s organ- warmth
    • • Two parts- external nose and nasal cavity• Nasal cavity has mucous membrane on top side• Molecules dissolve in the mucous and stimulate olfactory receptor cells• Olfactory nerve carries impulses to the brain
    • • Organ of taste• Has gustatory receptors or taste buds• chemicals in the food dissolve in saliva and stimulate these receptors.• Four regions,a) Back – bitterb) Tip – sweetc) Sides – salt and sour