Brief idea on it…• The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, Earth Summit was a major united-Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 June to 14 June 1992.• In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development was also be held in Rio, and is also commonly called Rio+20 or Rio Earth Summit 2012. was held June 20-22nd.
Who were present ??????• 172 governments participated, with 108 sending their heads of state or government.Some 2,400 representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) attended, with 17,000 people at the parallel NGO "Global Forum" (a.k.a. Forum Global), who had Consultative Status.
What was the result ??????• An important achievement was an agreement on the Climate Change Convention which in turn led to the Kyoto Protocol. Another agreement was to "not carry out any activities on the lands of indigenous peoples that would cause environmental degradation or that would be culturally inappropriate".• The Convention on Biological Diversity was opened for signature at the Earth Summit, and made a start towards redefinition of measures that did not inherently encourage destruction of natural ecoregions and so-called uneconomic growth.
Green economy• The green economy is one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. Green economy is an economy or economic development model based on sustainable development and a knowledge of ecological economics.
What comes under green economy ???• Green economy includes green energy generation based on renewable energy to substitute for fossil fuels and energy conservation for efficient energy use.• Renewable energy(solar, wind, geothermal, marine including wave, biogas, and fuel cell)• Green buildings (green retrofits for energy and water efficiency, residential and commercial assessment; green products and materials, and LEED construction)
Where was it held ???• The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) took place in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Who were present ???????• Government officials from 178 countries and between 20,000 and 30,000 individuals from governments, NGOs and the media participated in this event to discuss solutions for global problems such as poverty, war or the growing gap between industrialised and developing countries.
What did they talk about ??? • The UN summit focused on three broad concepts: An "Earth Charter" covering a number of principles aiming at development and the protection of the environment, was the first focus for discussion. Secondly, "Agenda 21" was intended to be a global action plan for sustainable development; thirdly, developing countries demanded a substantial increase in new funding from developed countries to contribute to sustainable development in the South.
What did they talk about ??? • Negotiations attempted to reach agreements at least on the broad outlines of several conventions covering climate change, biological diversity, forests etc. Especially representatives from developing countries emphasised at Rio the importance of their right to economic development, which goes together with growing impacts on the environment, so that industrialised countries have a special responsibility for the realisation of the global environmental goals stated at UNCED.
What did they do after it ???• The years after UNCED/Rio have seen a series of global UN conferences dealing with action plans for human development. While UNCED delivered an agenda for sustainable development, governments met in 1994 for the Cairo Conference on Population and Development; in 1995 for the Copenhagen Social Development Summit and the Beijing Conference on Women and Development; in 1996 the Istanbul conference on Human Settlements and the Food Summit in Rome. In addition, there have been many agreements covering climate, biodiversity,desertification, access to information, persistent organic pollutants (POP) etc.
Did the implement it ???• It is apparent that governments have not been implementing the plans for action UNCED and the following conferences and agreements have (or should have) produced. As the world faces a dangerous and uncertain ecological future, governments are lacking true commitment to the sustainable development agenda.
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