Vitamin D References By- Chintan Chavda 1. Vitamin D3 in Infection―Subclinical vitamin D deficiency and nonexclusive breastfeeding in the first4 months of life were significant risk factors for severe ALRI (acute lowerrespiratory infection) in Indian children‖.Wayse V, Yousafzai A, Mogale K, Filteau S, Association of subclinical vitamin D deficiency with severe acute lowerrespiratory infection in Indian children under 5 y: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Apr;58(4):563-7.―We found a high rate of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill children‖Madden K, Feldman HA, Smith EM, Gordon CM, Keisling SM, Sullivan RM, Hollis BW, Agan AA, Randolph AG, VitaminD Deficiency in Critically Ill Children; Pediatrics. 2012 Aug 6.―We conclude that a large bolus dose of vitamin D is associated withreductions in two inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. This studysupports the concept that vitamin D may help regulate inflammation in CF‖Grossmann RE, Zughaier SM, Liu S, Lyles RH, Tangpricha V, Impact of vitamin D supplementation on markers ofinflammation in adults with cystic fibrosis hospitalized for a pulmonary exacerbation; Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul 18. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.82―This suggests that vitamin D(3) may down regulate the recruitment andactivation of T-cells through CXC chemokines at the site of infection and mayact as a potential anti-inflammatory agent‖.Selvaraj P, Harishankar M, Singh B, Banurekha VV, Jawahar MS. Effect of vitamin D(3) on chemokine expression inpulmonary tuberculosis; Cytokine. 2012 Jul 14.―A truncated isoform of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) is present atsignificantly reduced levels in the SF of oligoarticular patients at risk ofdisease extension, relative to other subgroups (p<0.05). Furthermore,sialylated forms of immunopurified synovial VDBP were significantly reducedin extended oligoarticular patients (p<0.005).Reduced conversion of VDBP toa macrophage activation factor may be used to stratify patients to determinerisk of disease extension in JIA patients‖.Gibson DS, Newell K, Evans AN, Finnegan S, Manning G, Scaife C, McAllister C, Pennington SR, Duncan MW, MooreTL, Rooney ME, Vitamin D binding protein isoforms as candidate predictors of disease extension in childhood arthritis.J Proteomics. 2012 Jul 6.―This study opens up the issue of recognising severe vitamin D deficiency( < 25 nmol/l) as a possible risk factor for diabetic foot infections and theneed for vitamin D supplementation in such patients for a better clinicaloutcome‖.
Tiwari S, Pratyush DD, Gupta B, Dwivedi A, Chaudhary S, Rayicherla RK, Gupta SK, Singh SK.Prevalence and severity of vitamin D deficiency in patients with diabetic foot infection. Br J Nutr. 2012 Apr 3:1-4.―25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency was associated with active tuberculosis(odds ratio 2·9 [95% Cl 1·3—6·5], p=0·008), and undetectable serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (<7 nmol/L) carried a higher risk of tuberculosis (9·9[1·3—76·2], p=0·009). 25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency may contributeto the high occurrence of tuberculosis in this population. Polymorphisms intheVDR gene also contribute to susceptibility when considered incombination with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency‖Robert J Wilkinson PhD a b, Martin Llewelyn MRCP b, Zahra Toossi MD a, Punita Patel MSc b, GeoffreyPasvol DPhil b, Ajit LalvaniMRCP c, Dennis Wright PhD b, Mohammed Latif MRCP b, Dr Robert N Davidson MD b.Influence of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on tuberculosis among Gujarati Asians inwest London: a case-control study; The Lancet, Volume 355, Issue 9204, Pages 618 - 621, 19 February 2000―We report here that TLRactivation of human macrophages up-regulatedexpression of the vitamin D receptor and the vitamin D1–hydroxylase genes,leading to induction of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and killing ofintracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We also observed that sera fromAfrican-American individuals, known to have increased susceptibility‖.Toll-Like Receptor Triggering of a Vitamin D–Mediated Human Antimicrobial Response; www.sciencexpress.org / 23February 2006 / Page 1/ 10.1126/science.1123933―Observational studies have demonstrated important links between ricketsor vitamin D deficiency and higher rates of infectious diseases that havesignificant burden of disease, such as pneumonia and tuberculosis.SEMIRA MANASEKI, Vitamin D for Childhood Pneumonia, INDIAN PEDIATRICS; VOLUME 49__JUNE 16, 2012―Increased production of 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 result in synthesis ofcathelicidin, a peptide capable of destroying M. tu-berculosis as well as otherinfectious agents. When serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D fall below 20ng per milliliter (50 nmol per liter), the monocyte or macrophage isprevented from initiating this innate immune response, which may explainwhy black Americans, who are often vitamin D–deficient, are more prone tocontracting tuberculosis than are whites, and tend to have a moreaggressive form of the disease‖. 2. Vitamin D3 in Immunity System―Vitamin D(3) affects both the innate as well as adaptive immune responses.Epidemiological studies have established that vitamin D(3) deficiency playsan important role in tuberculosis (TB) and viral influenza prevalence as wellas susceptibility to active disease in TB. Vitamin D(3) status has been
associated with the clinical course of HIV infection and drug interaction withanti-retroviral therapy‖.Khoo AL, Chai L, Koenen H, Joosten I, Netea M, van der Ven A. Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center,Department of Laboratory Medicine, Laboratory Medical Immunology , Nijmegen , Netherlands. Translating the role ofvitamin D(3) in infectious diseases; Review of infectious diseases vitamin D trials – Feb 2012―An efficient immune response against the intracellular pathogenMycobacterium tuberculosis is critically dependent on rapid detection of theinvader by the innate immune response and the activation of the adaptiveimmune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) contribute to innate immunityby the detection of Mycobacteria-associated molecular patterns andmediating the secretion of antibacterial effector molecules. TLRs influencethe adaptive immune response by upregulation of immunomodulatorymolecules supporting the development of a Th1-biased T cell response. Inthis manner, activation of TLRs contributes to defense against microbialinfection.‖Stenger S, Modlin RL, Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through mammalian Toll-like receptors; Curr OpinImmunol. 2002 Aug;14(4):452-7.―The net effect of the vitamin D system on the immune response is anenhancement of innate immunity coupled with multifaceted regulation ofadaptive immunity. Epidemiological evidence indicates a significantassociation between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence ofseveral autoimmune diseases, and clarification of the physiological role ofendogenous VDR agonists in the regulation of autoimmune responses willguide the development of pharmacological VDR agonists for use in the clinic.The antiproliferative, prodifferentiative, antibacterial, immunomodulatoryand anti-inflammatory properties of synthetic VDR agonists could beexploited to treat a variety of autoimmune diseases, from rheumatoidarthritis to systemic lupus erythematosus, and possibly also multiplesclerosis, type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, and autoimmuneprostatitis.‖Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2008 Aug;4(8):404-12. Epub 2008 Jul 1. Control of autoimmune diseases by the vitamin Dendocrine system. Adorini L, Penna G.―As the vitamin D receptor is expressed on immune cells (B cells, T cells,and antigen-presenting cells), and these immunologic cells are all capable ofsynthesizing the active vitamin D metabolite, vitamin D has the capability ofacting in an autocrine manner in a local immunologic milieu. Vitamin D canmodulate the innate and adaptive immune responses. Deficiency in vitaminD is associated with increased autoimmunity and an increased susceptibilityto infection. As immune cells in autoimmune diseases are responsive to the
ameliorative effects of vitamin D, the beneficial effects of supplementingvitamin D-deficient individuals with autoimmune disease may extend beyondthe effects on bone and calcium homeostasis‖.Aranow C., Vitamin D and the immune system; J Investig Med. 2011 Aug;59(6):881-6.―Vitamin D3 has wide-ranging effects on the immune system. Due to itsactions on both Th1 and Th2 mediated immune responses, vitamin Ddeficiency has been purported as a potential unifying factor in the rise of theprevalence of both Th1 disorders (autoimmunity) and Th2 disorders(allergies) over a similar time span. Vitamin D may be of particularly criticalimportance at early stages of development to ensure proper immunefunction later in life‖.ADVANCES in orthomolecular research, Volume 3 Issue 5 page 25-27―Vitamin D has been linked to immune system and lung development inutero, and our epidemiologic studies show that higher vitamin D intake bypregnant mothers reduces asthma risk by as much as 40% in children 3 to 5years old‖Augusto A. Litonjua, MD, MPH, and Scott T. Weiss, MD, MS, Boston, Mass, Is vitamin D deﬁciency to blame for theasthma epidemic?; J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL NOVEMBER 2007. 3. Vitamin D3 in Respiratory System―In children with asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroids, vitamin Ddeficiency is associated with poorer lung function than in children withvitamin D insufficiency or sufficiency’.Ann Chen Wu1,2,3, Kelan Tantisira3,4,5, Lingling Li1,3, Anne L. Fuhlbrigge3,4, Scott T. Weiss3,4,5, AugustoLitonjua3,4,5 and for the Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Effect of Vitamin D and InhaledCorticosteroid Treatment on Lung Function in Children Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. September 15, 2012 vol. 186 no.6 508-513―Vitamin D deficiency causes deficits in lung function that are primarilyexplained by differences in lung volume. This study is the first toprovide direct mechanistic evidence linking vitamin D deficiency and lungdevelopment, which may explain the association between obstructive lungdisease and vitamin D status‖.Graeme R. Zosky1,2, Luke J. Berry1,2, John G. Elliot3, Alan L. James3, Shelley Gorman1,2 and Prue H. Hart,Vitamin D Deficiency Causes Deficits in Lung Function and Alters Lung Structure; Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.May 15,2011 vol. 183 no. 10 1336-1343 4. Vitamin D3 in Digestive System―Vitamin D receptors (VDRs) and vitamin D metabolic enzymes have beenidentiﬁed in many other tissues aside from bone and the intestine,
suggesting involvement in the metabolism and function of many cell types.Speciﬁcally, VDR is expressed in cells of the immune system, such as T cells,activated B cells, and dendritic cells‖.Augusto A. Litonjua, MD, MPH, and Scott T. Weiss, MD, MS, Boston, Mass, Is vitamin D deﬁciency to blame for theasthma epidemic?; J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL NOVEMBER 2007.―The reviewed data for vitamin D and its oxygen analogue OCT indicategenomic effects on multiple target tissues of the digestive system thatinvolve cell proliferation and differentiation, endo- and exocrine secretion,digestion and absorption for maintaining optimal functions, with potentialsfor health prophylaxis and therapies.‖Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2008 Apr-Jun;33(2):85-100. Vitamin D and the digestive system. Stumpf WE.―we have considered the importance of vitamin D as a real hormoneresponsible for both muscle and bone strength. With aging there is asigniﬁcant reduction in the genomic and non-genomic effect of vitamin Dwhich has been associated with increasing incidence of falls and fractures‖.Manuel Montero-Odasso, Gustavo Duque. Vitamin D in the aging musculoskeletal system: An authentic strengthpreserving hormone; Molecular Aspects of Medicine 26 (2005) 203–219 5. Vitamin D3 in nervous system & Brain development―The relationship of many of these diseases and aging related changes inphysiology show a U-shaped response curve to serum calcidiolconcentrations. Clinical data suggest that vitamin D3 insufficiency isassociated with an increased risk of several CNS diseases, including multiplesclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, seasonal affective disorderand schizophrenia. In line with this, recent animal and human studiessuggest that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with abnormaldevelopment and functioning of the CNS. Overall, imbalances in thecalcipherol system appear to cause abnormal function, including prematureaging, of the CNS‖.P. Tuohimaa, T. Keisala, A. Minasyan, J. Cachat, A. Kalueff, Vitamin D, nervous system and aging; 26 March 2009;received in revised form 4 July 2009; accepted 6 July 2009.―Experimental data suggest that cerebral white matter is vitamin Dresponsive and oligodendrocytes in the brain and spinal cord and expressvitamin D receptors. It is possible that differentiation and axonal adhesion ofoligodendrocytes are influenced by vitamin D level during brain developmentand a relative lack of vitamin D may increase oligodendroglial apoptosis‖
Abhijit Chaudhuri, Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow G51 4TF,UK, Why we should offer routine vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and childhood to prevent multiple sclerosis;14 June 2004; accepted 24 June 2004―The widespread distribution of 1a-OHase and the VDR suggests thatVitamin D may have autocrine/paracrine properties in the human brain.‖Darryl W. Eyles, Steven Smith, Robert Kinobe, Martin Hewison, John J. McGrath, Distribution of the Vitamin D receptorand 1a-hydroxylase in human brain; Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 29 (2005) 21–30―The VDR is expressed in the neurons and glial cells, and induces nervegrowth factor – exerting a potent inhibitory effect upon mitosis andpromoting cell differentiation‖.Brown J, Bianco JI, McGrath JJ, Eyles DW. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces nerve growth factor, promotes neuriteoutgrowth and inhibits mitosis in embryonic rat hippocampal neurons. Neurosci Lett 2003;343:139–143.―Vitamin D could play a significant role in the brain in a way analogous tothe neuroactive steroids, modulating neuron excitability and the productionof specific neurotropins and nervous tissue growth factors in neurons andglial cells, inducing the production of calcium-binding proteins, and actingthrough the nitric oxide system‖.FAUSTINO R. PE´ REZ-LO´ PEZ, Vitamin D: The secosteroid hormone and human reproduction, Department ofObstetrics and Gynecology, Zaragoza Gynecological Institute, Zaragoza, Spain. 24 September 2006; accepted 1October 2006.―In a cross-section of older adults, vitamin D deficiency was associated withlow mood and with impairment on two of four measures of cognitiveperformance‖.Consuelo H. Wilkins, M.D., Yvette I. Sheline, M.D., Catherine M. Roe, Ph.D., Stanley J. Birge, M.D., John C. Morris, M.D.Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Low Mood and Worse Cognitive Performance in Older Adults. Am J GeriatrPsychiatry 14:12, December 2006. 6. Vitamin D in Cardiovascular System―Vitamin D may potentially affect the treatment and prevention ofhypertensive vascular disease, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias,peripheral vascular disease, lipid metabolism, and diabetes mellitus.Accumulating epidemiologic evidence suggests that hypovitaminosis D maybe associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events andexperimental data generally support the hypothesis that vitamin D has aprotective role in cardiovascular health‖. Artaza JN, Mehrotra R, Norris KC. Vitamin D and the cardiovascular system. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009 Sep;4 (9):1515-22. Lee JH, OKeefe JH, Bell D, Hensrud DD, Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency an important, common, and easily treatable cardiovascular risk factor? J Am Coll Cardiol 2008 Dec 9;52(24):1949-56. Levin A, Li YC. Vitamin D and its analogues: do they protect against cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney disease? Kidney Int 2005 Nov; 68 (5):1973-81.
Wu-Wong JR, Nakane M, Ma J, Ruan X, Kroeger PE. Effects of Vitamin D analogs on gene expression profiling in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis 2006 May;186(1):20-8.―Hypovitaminosis D is associated with disturbed glucose metabolism andpancreatic cell dysfunction, lipoprotein alterations, hypertension, overweightand obesity. The evidence highlights the importance of improving vitamin Dstatus in the general population for the prevention of adverse long-termhealth risks, including cardiovascular health‖Faustino R. Pérez-López, Vitamin D metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women,department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Zaragoza, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Clínico Universitariode Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, Zaragoza 50009, Spain; Maturitas 62 (2009) 248–262.―Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in neonates with congenital cardiacdefects, regardless of race. Second, 25(OH)D levels are not altered by CPB.Third, higher 24 hour postoperative 25(OH)D levels are associated with areduction in inotropic requirement in neonates undergoing cardiac operationswith CPB. These findings provide support that vitamin D may play a role inmyocardial injury and postoperative recovery‖.VITAMIN D STATUS IN NEONATES UNDERGOING CARDIAC OPERATIONS: RELATIONSHIP TO CARDIOPULMONARYBYPASS AND OUTCOMES, March 24, 2012.―Diastolic dysfunction is likely related to vitamin D deficiency as well sincesecondary hyperparathyroidism in these patients is induced by chronicvitamin D deficiency. The cardiovascular changes observed are not easilyreversible, hence early preventive therapy with vitamin D supplementationbefore the onset of vitamin D deficiency is advocated‖.Amit Patange; Rudolph Valentini; Wei Du; Michael Pettersen, VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IS ASSOCIATED WITHDIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE, J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(13s1):E2147-E2147. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)62148-2