GANDHI INSTITUTE FOR TECHNOLOGY
Prof.Subhransu sekhar panda
Chinmoy kanta jena
Krushna chandra sahoo
To analyze the efficiency of heterogeneous
wireless sensor network over homogenous
wireless sensor network.
To analyze the stability, life time ,through put.
WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK
A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
consists of distributed autonomous wireless
sensors nodes to monitor physical or
environmental conditions, such as
temperature, humidity, light
intensity, sound, vibration, pressure, motion etc.
Each node having sensing area of few
meters and radio range approximately 10 to 15
WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK …cntd.
WSN is a self organized or spontaneous
Each node can sense, compute and
communicate each other. They can either
receive message or transmit message and
can transmit messages to the sink (or Base
The sink can use many ways to
communicate with remote network, such as
Internet, satellite and mobile communication
Finally, the Task Manager (User) collects
this transmitted data.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A SENSOR NODE
Few Sensing inputs:
3. Light Intensity
7. Motion .
1. Each node tests whether to become CH or
2. If node becomes CH then it sends cluster
advertisement and waits for response
3. If node decides not to be CH then listens for
advertisements and responses to the closest
CLUSTERING ALGORITHM (Cont…)
1. When cluster is established, CH
data in schedule.
2. After certain time the cluster is disrupted and
new construction phase takes place (rotation
of CH) where new CH are elected
SELECTING CLUSTER-HEADS IN LEACH
Node i chooses random number s between 0 and 1
If s < T(i), node i becomes a cluster head in current
where: P = desired percentage of cluster heads
r=no. of round
CH SELECTION CRITERIA
Cluster head are selected according to
Energy Consumption Rate
Average Energy of the Network:
Base station is fixed and located far from the
All nodes are homogeneous and energy
All nodes can reach base station
Only local information
Data aggregation from node
Forwards aggregated data to BS
Inter-cluster communication via CH
IN A HOMOGENEOUS ENVIRONMENT…
When all nodes start with the same energy level
nodes “randomly” die and within a short period
The result of initial setting or evolution of the sensor
network’s operation :“advanced” node has a “α”
times more energy than “normal” node
The energy of each advanced node is E0(1+α) .
BUT IN A HETEROGENEOUS ENVIRONMENT…
A. Military fields.
B. Medical monitoring and Health care.
C. Industrial Control.
D. Ocean and wildlife monitoring.
E. Building safety.
F. Earthquake Early Warning and
G. Environmental applications.
H. Intelligent green aircrafts.
I. Smart Roads.
APPLICATION DOMAINS OF WSNS
Stability Period: Time until death of the first node
Network lifetime: Time until death of the last alive
Number of cluster-heads per round: Nodes which
will directly send aggregated information to the sink
Throughput: Rate of data reporting to cluster-
heads and to sink