Gaspar Antonio Chi<br />Gaspar Antonio Chi was an educated Yucatan Indian who was taught languages such as Spanish, Aztec,...
Gaspar Antonio ChiBridging the Conquest of Yucatan <br />During Gaspar Antonio Chi’s life, the Spanish king Charles V was ...
Don Melchior CaruaraycoA Kuraka of Cajamarca in Sixteenth-Century Peru<br />A Kuraka was an Andean leader and served as an...
Don Melchior CaruaraycoA Kuraka of Cajamarca in Sixteenth-Century Peru<br />Don Melchior is an example of what happened to...
Dona Isabel SisaA Sixteenth-Century Indian Woman Resisting Gender Inequalities<br />Dona Isable Sisa was an indigenous wif...
Dona Isabel SisaA Sixteenth-Century Indian Woman Resisting Gender Inequalities <br />The author of this story describes Is...
Ursula de Jesus:A Seventeenth-Century Afro-Peruvian Mystic<br />Ursula de Jesus was an extraordinary woman because of her ...
Ursula de Jesus<br />Ursula is another example of how a mixed blooded woman with slave decent rose in a racist society tha...
Diego de Ocana:Holy Wanderer<br />Diego de Ocana was born in the year 1570 near Toledo and died in the year 1608 in Mexico...
Diego de Ocana:Holy Wanderer<br />Diego de Ocana’s story is relative because it reiterates the theme of how a literate and...
Felipe GuamanPoma de Ayala:Native Writer and Litigant in Early Colonial Peru<br />Felipe GuamanPoma de Ayala was an indige...
Felipe GuamanPoma de Ayala:Native Writer and Litigant in Early Colonial Peru<br />This man and his impact on colonial Lati...
Eugenio Sinanyuca:Militant, Non-revolutionary Kuraka, and Community Defender<br />Eugenio can be described just as the cha...
Eugenio Sinanyuca:Militant, Non-revolutionary, Kuraka, and Community Leader<br />Sinanyuca and Tupac were both opposed to ...
Jose Antonio de Silva:Marriage and Concubinage in Colonial Brazil<br />Captain Jose Antonio de Silva was born in Lisbon, P...
Jose Antonio de Silva:Marriage and Concubinage in Colonial Brazil<br />This story of a man succumbing to lust for other wo...
Angela Batallas:A Fight for Freedom in Guayaquil<br />Angela Battallas was stated to be born not long after 1800 and is de...
Angela Batallas:A Fight for Freedom in Quayaquil<br />This story tells about how a young slave girl was able to overcome t...
VictorinaLoza:Quitena Merchant in the Second Half of the 18th Century<br />Dona Maria VictorinaLoza was born in Quito but ...
VictorinaLoza:Quitena Merchant in the Second Half of the 18th Century<br />Dona Maria VictorinaLoza was another example of...
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    1. 1. Gaspar Antonio Chi<br />Gaspar Antonio Chi was an educated Yucatan Indian who was taught languages such as Spanish, Aztec, Latin and his native tongue. He could be considered the Malinche of the Yucatan during his time because he translated for his people and for the Spanish. He lived from 1531-1610. Although I compared him to Malinche, he was far from being a traitor to his people because he constantly defended his own in court trials of such cases as the rebels of Tekax. <br />
    2. 2. Gaspar Antonio ChiBridging the Conquest of Yucatan <br />During Gaspar Antonio Chi’s life, the Spanish king Charles V was interested in his newly acquired lands and the state it was in, so he frequently sent questionnaires to the settlers . Chi was the man who filled out a bunch of these questionnaires and he told the king of the displeasure of his people since the arrival of the Spanish. He was of noble blood from the Tutul Xiu district and his father, Ah Kin Chi and grandfather were nobles from the Chi chibal and his mother was from Xiu chibal, Ix Kukil Xiu (her name). His insight from these articles give a detailed description of how the indigenous people saw the impact of the European invaders on their lives. <br />Chi also worked as a notary in Merida and was involved in the legal systems of the time. He was able to write in all of the languages listed earlier and even knew Mayan hieroglyphics. Franciscans were in charge of his upbringing and was credited in teaching Chi the ways of his conquerors. <br />
    3. 3. Don Melchior CaruaraycoA Kuraka of Cajamarca in Sixteenth-Century Peru<br />A Kuraka was an Andean leader and served as an essential link between their ancestors or huacas and their ayllu. These men also were political leaders who also performed duties such as assigning labor confirming land usage, punishing lawbreakers and even mediating community disputes. They were also tax-collectors and can be considered aristocrats of the Incan society. They were privileged men who served as a buffer between the Spanish conquerors and the ruled Indians and still carried out some of their original tasks but saw a major decrease in most aspects of their traditional powers.<br />
    4. 4. Don Melchior CaruaraycoA Kuraka of Cajamarca in Sixteenth-Century Peru<br />Don Melchior is an example of what happened to most all of the Kurakas after the Spanish invasion in 1532 of the Tawantinsuyu Empire (Inca Empire). These Kurakas were supposed to be in charge of protecting the people from natural forces in exchange for their labor and goods and even were supposed to protect against other people. So after the Spanish invasion quickly overtook this empire, the Inca people felt let down by their kurakas and sought refuge from the Christian Gods instead. Felipe Caruarayco came from a long lineage of native leaders and was left as the sole heir when his brother Caruatongo was killed in a scrimmage during the capture of Atahualpa. He ruled the people of Guzmango in the province of Cajamarca and when he died he wanted his son, Don Melchior, to take his place. When Don Melchior was old enough to become a kuraka, he was in charge of about 30,000 Incas. The encomendero was Melchior Verdugo and Caruarayco probably got his name from this man. (Caruarayco was responsible for paying homage to this Spanish ruler) Don Melchior Caruarayco came to power around 1560 and his son had taken his place by 1635. This story is an example of how indigenous traditions were slowly becoming obsolete and the new Spanish way of life was overtaking the old ways. It shows the effect of the invading Europeans had on Indian society in every aspect. <br />
    5. 5. Dona Isabel SisaA Sixteenth-Century Indian Woman Resisting Gender Inequalities<br />Dona Isable Sisa was an indigenous wife from Santiago de Curi (today’s Sucre, Bolivia) married to an Andean cacique principal named don Domingo Itquilla. There was a dispute over property and inheritance between the couple and this case is an example of how an Indian woman was able to manipulate these new patriarchal Castilian laws to her advantage. Castilian law dictates that any assets acquired during marriage would be considered “community property”, and therefore legally half would go directly to the living spouse. Domingo claimed that he inherited a number of properties from his ancestors which would not be considered community; his wife disputed this claim.<br />
    6. 6. Dona Isabel SisaA Sixteenth-Century Indian Woman Resisting Gender Inequalities <br />The author of this story describes Isabel Sisa as indefatigable and I think that word depicts her perfectly. She is a woman who defied the stereotype sentiment of how naïve the indigenous population was after being exposed to a new set of laws brought by the Europeans. Even more she defies the design of these laws that give more power to the male in a marriage than to a woman. Although her testimony revealed some unsavory details about both husband and wife’s adulterous lives, she ended up being victorious after her husband had passed away. During the life of don Domingo Itquilla, he was able to keep the upper-hand in the eyes of the courts but that would change soon after his death because of the cunning of Dona Isabel Sisa and because she was capable of reading and writing and understood Castilian law. The fact that both Domingo and his wife Isabel could read and write led to why they were so wealthy in their community and the author quotes Joanne Rappaport, “only those who knew how to write , or who were able to communicate with scribes, either through Spanish or through an interpreter, could lay any claim to the reigns of power,” best describes why this story is significant to history. Doesn’t give any specific dates pertaining to her birth and death.<br />
    7. 7. Ursula de Jesus:A Seventeenth-Century Afro-Peruvian Mystic<br />Ursula de Jesus was an extraordinary woman because of her patience and faith in God helped her live through 28 years of slavery. She was born in 1604 and died in the year 1666 as an African-Peruvian donada to the Santa Clara Convent in Lima, Peru. Her life can be described as one devoted to God and to her convent. But she also was known for her visions of spirits who had gone to purgatory and assisting them with gaining entrance to Heaven. Ursula had been exposed to mysticism by one of her early owners by the name of, Luisa de Melgarejo Sotomayor, who was a beata. <br />
    8. 8. Ursula de Jesus<br />Ursula is another example of how a mixed blooded woman with slave decent rose in a racist society that didn’t allow much advancement for women, especially colored women. She showed immense patience, even though she was described as self-centered and rebellious, living her life as a slave to other nuns and owners throughout her life. Once she had finally gained her independence, which was bought by a nun in her convent, she lived her life devoted to helping people from all ethnicities cope with the harsh thoughts of death. An incident where Ursula had a near death experience from falling into a well led her to transform into an ideal model as God’s servant. <br />I am amazed that this woman was able to practice these type of visions and not be called a heretic. The author described Ursula as being exposed to mysticism and it was a fine line from what was to be considered mystic and what was to be seen as witchcraft. Although Ursula was able to free herself from the bonds of slavery, she never acted as if she were better than the other slaves by continuing to help anyone no matter their color or status in the community. Ursula was also able to write and keep a diary which shows that she had a decent level of education and her writings have left clues for historians in understanding how society was like during the seventeenth century in that region (Lima, Peru). This society wasn’t much different from the colonial stratification inherited from the Europeans. <br />A Seventeenth-Century Afro-Peruvian Mystic<br />
    9. 9. Diego de Ocana:Holy Wanderer<br />Diego de Ocana was born in the year 1570 near Toledo and died in the year 1608 in Mexico City. He devoted himself to Jeronymites, the Virgin’s guardians since 1389. Diego stayed in Guadalupe for nearly a decade until he was sent off to the New World, replacing another friar. He and his companion Martin de Posada were called demandadores, or questors, and their goal was to spread the faith to the outer regions, also to collect alms. The Castilian monarchs supported this group and their quest and off went Ocana with his adventures in the New World. <br />
    10. 10. Diego de Ocana:Holy Wanderer<br />Diego de Ocana’s story is relative because it reiterates the theme of how a literate and knowledgeable Spanish born man of color was able to advance in the hierarchy of society by becoming a useful member of a religious sect. Once he was chosen to travel to the New World, he was committed to recording his adventures in writing. His skill of being able to record his travels could be considered useful to historians and his duty of collecting contributions from coffers at any municipality that could afford to was indicative of his main goal. This duty and his position as a religious man spreading the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe would spread his sects reach and reception of alms. Ocana would orchestrate a variety of audiovisual programs such as preaching, special Masses, local festivals and even theatrical performances in order to gain new members to the faith. His adventure through Sana could be summed up as him being more concerned about the alms that he was receiving rather than the spreading of the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe.He wasn’t concerned about the worshipping of their faith or deity but instead his greed can exemplify how religion was used as a tool in gaining more converts and receiving more alms and not really caring about the truth of their religion and the good morale deeds men of faith should have over the idea of solely collecting alms.<br />
    11. 11. Felipe GuamanPoma de Ayala:Native Writer and Litigant in Early Colonial Peru<br />Felipe GuamanPoma de Ayala was an indigenous Peruvian man and his title in the chapter states his occupation as a writer. He was born the son of a noble family located in central Southern Peruvian province of Lucanas. Felipe was capable of speaking Quechua and Aru dialects and picked up Spanish when he was a teenage probably. His book, El primer nuevacorónica [sic] y buengobierno (The First New Chronicle and Good Governmvent) which chronicled the mistreatment of his fellow countrymen at the hands of the colonial Spain. It was written for King Philip III but never was received by him.<br />
    12. 12. Felipe GuamanPoma de Ayala:Native Writer and Litigant in Early Colonial Peru<br />This man and his impact on colonial Latin America is evident in his writings and his capability to file a lawsuit against the colonization of his homeland. Although his litigation failed miserably and he suffered great consequences because of it; such as losing all his property and then was exiled out of his town where he had been a noble. His dedication in exposing the Spanish settlers as men who took what belonged to him and his countrymen was courageous as he was trying to stand up against the invading Spanish settlers in a court room instead of a battlefield. His actions was unique because not many indigenous people were competent enough to take on the Spanish crown by means of intellectual prowess and in writing so that historians could study his words and perspective of the times he was living in. This mans life repeats the fact that a person could become a leader amongst his community if he able to write or even be a translator like Felipe or Malinche. Not only was it beneficial for historians that these indigenous people were able to record their accounts of their lives but it was also an advantage that many of these people from this book details. <br />
    13. 13. Eugenio Sinanyuca:Militant, Non-revolutionary Kuraka, and Community Defender<br />Eugenio can be described just as the chapter does is accurate, he was a kuraka or Andean ancient leader of his people. But unlike his friend and fellow Indian, Tupac Amaru, he sought peace for his people instead of rebellion. Eugenio was an ethnic leader of Coporaque, Peru and after replacing another kuraka he had gained much respect his people. Unlike Tupac, who had been from a family of kurakas, Eugenio had been chosen by the Spanish to replace Cristobal who had neglected his position by being a drunk and absent from his duties. Sinanyuca earned his respect by being able to help his community by defending his position in court legally and even by breaking laws in order to come to their aid.<br />
    14. 14. Eugenio Sinanyuca:Militant, Non-revolutionary, Kuraka, and Community Leader<br />Sinanyuca and Tupac were both opposed to the mita or forced labor imposed by the Spanish at the Potosi silver mines but Amaru was a man who wanted to take action by rebelling against colonial rule. As a result of all the economic pressure brought upon the indigenous people by the hand of the Spanish, TupacAmaru was fed up, along with a number of his people. At first these uprisings were small and insignificant in the eyes of the colonial state, but eventually through time and oppression the angry indigenous people became increasingly violent and this is evident with the killing of a tax collector (cobrador) in Cusipata. This incident along with others personified how cruel these cobrados could be and the boiling point had been reached when Tupac had started his rebellion in 1780 by hanging a corregidor named Antonio de Arriaga. The choice of not joining this rebellion made by Sinanyuca and his people of Coporaque decided that it was not in their interest and based on local circumstances, it was not for them. This relationship between Tupac and Eugenio shows how these communities functioned based on their traditions and differences as natives in a colonial society. I am not sure when Eugenio died because it doesn’t state his death. <br />
    15. 15. Jose Antonio de Silva:Marriage and Concubinage in Colonial Brazil<br />Captain Jose Antonio de Silva was born in Lisbon, Portugal around the year 1742 and died in 1797. They called him “Captain” because he was the commander of the militia in the rural Paulista neighborhood of Santana during the last quarter of the 18th century. The pressure to marry a woman of suitable prestige as him led him to marry, dona Clara Maria Ribeira. As stated in the chapters title, he had engaged in numerous affairs outside of his marriage. Colonial Brazil had an established hierarchy in their society based on a variety of factors including race, gender, and property. Although the elites of colonial Brazilian society wanted to maintain this standard, people such as Silva proved that lust could win over the sentiment of hierarchy. <br />
    16. 16. Jose Antonio de Silva:Marriage and Concubinage in Colonial Brazil<br />This story of a man succumbing to lust for other women not of his high status demonstrates how Jose Antonio de Silva was able to effect the lives of his mistresses despite how they were considered to be of lower status. The Church believed that marriage should be between equals in age, fortune, and social status but was unable to enforce these rules in the Americas for many obvious reasons. It is explained that colonial Sao Paulo was a society where patriarchs could exercise great power over women, especially in sexual matters. Two of de Silva’s mistresses were able to improve their status in their communities by having the census taker change their racial category from mestiza or parda (dark-skinned) to white is an example of how Jose’s lifestyle ignored what was supposed to be a social hierarchy. During these affairs he birthed many illegitimate children but none with his wife but his wife still had a relatively good life considering that she was able to remarry a younger gentleman while still sustaining her wealth. Documents show that de Silva was an important man both in Sao Paulo and in Santana as he had many important duties in both areas. This story shows how the mixing of races and status were inevitable due to the human component of lust and desire overcame the rules from the Church and social hierarchy. The result of these things creates the Brazil we know today that comprise of a plethora of mixed blood people. <br />
    17. 17. Angela Batallas:A Fight for Freedom in Guayaquil<br />Angela Battallas was stated to be born not long after 1800 and is described as a slave girl from Quayaquil, Ecuador. She lived a redundant slave occurrence where she has a sexual encounters with her master and ends up bearing his child. The owners name was Ildefonso Coronel and was described as a promising young man who was active in supporting the independence movement. Coronel had promised his mistress (Angela Battallas) that he would grant her freedom one day. This promise is what Angela will be set on achieving throughout the description of the events which involves her filing a legal suit against her owner. She conducts her case very eloquently and seek his help. <br />
    18. 18. Angela Batallas:A Fight for Freedom in Quayaquil<br />This story tells about how a young slave girl was able to overcome the social hierarchy that had her placed at the bottom and her owner at the very top (especially because she was his slave, also he was a male). Angela’s case was a frequent occurrence for young slave women because men usually let their sexual appetites get the best of them. So in order to win her case she approached Simon Bolivar, a.k.a. the Liberator hoping to gain his support in the matter. She had told him about her misfortunes and he quickly sympathized with her and wrote a letter of his support to the court which swayed the courts decision in favor of Angela. This is another demonstration of the “wrath of a woman” as her master began to distance himself from her as she became pregnant. But unlike some of our previous characters, Angela would hire a lawyer; which would seem logical for a slave girl. The fact that the country was going through many changes with new laws banning future slavery helped Angela’s argument and her lawyer Rufino Mora presented it with his cunning expressions. Angela Batallas’ case reflects the sentiments of independence and freedom from tyranny and who better to be the hero in this case than the man liberating the whole country.<br />
    19. 19. VictorinaLoza:Quitena Merchant in the Second Half of the 18th Century<br />Dona Maria VictorinaLoza was born in Quito but her ethnicity could not be established with the documents provided to the author. Her parents seem to have been well off enough to afford a comfortable lifestyle. Maria was probably taught at home about how to train to become a merchant and began with being able to read and write. She had married an older man by the name of don Fernando Lucas de la Pena who was also a merchant. The author describes Maria as being a tough business woman who would hunt down her debtors. After the death of her first husband she remarries a younger man with no financial endowments in order to keep her business running, for he would collect for her. Her story takes place in Ecuador. She died on November 25, 1805.<br />
    20. 20. VictorinaLoza:Quitena Merchant in the Second Half of the 18th Century<br />Dona Maria VictorinaLoza was another example of how an extraordinary person was able to excel in life due to her knowledge of reading and writing. Along with these skills she was also taught to be a ferocious business woman which would define her life. It seems that she was also a honorable wife and even better mother. She never birthed any children but instead adopted an illegitimate child left at her doorstep. Throughout her life she is able to accumulate a small fortune worth approximately 38,000 pesos which she would leave to her surviving nephew and god-daughters and other female relatives. Her life was unique because she was a woman to begin with, building her fortune in a volatile economic and sometimes violent community. Victorina is a bright woman who understands her status in her community and uses any means to sustain her lifestyle along with her fortune. By remarrying so quickly after her first husband’s death, she strategically marries a younger man to do her biddings and traveling because no “respectable” woman could do it herself. Her life and experiences are an inspiration of how a “woman” could overcome a patriarchal type society and still be able to prosper. Women could look up to dona Maria VictorinaLoza, for she was an exceptional person. <br />

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