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    GlobalEd10 Presentation GlobalEd10 Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Leadership in Multicultural Organizations
      Jon P. Zurfluh
      2010
    • Background
      Teacher
      Administrator
      Traveler
      Tsuruga, Japan – 1 summer
      Guangzhou, China – 3 years
      Shanghai, China – 7 years
      Coming soon – Moscow!
    • Complexity
      Heifetz & Linsky (2002)
      The Dance Floor
      Senge (2006)
      Circles of Causality
      Five useful skills:
      Encouraging personal vision – shared comes from personal
      Communicating and asking for support – personal vision vs. representative of corporate vision
      Visioning as an ongoing process – not a static step
      Blending extrinsic and intrinsic visions – beating a competitor vs. setting a new standard
      Distinguishing positive from negative visions – not just as a method of survival
    • Change Theory
      Lewin – 3 steps (ascited in Schein, 1996)
      Unfreeze
      Change
      Freeze
      Kotter – 8 step (1996)
      EstablishUrgency
      GuidingCoalition
      Vision & Strategy
      Communicating
      Empowering
      Short-Term Wins
      Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change
      Anchoring Change in the Culture
    • Drive (Pink, 2009)
      Autonomy
      Mastery
      Purpose
      Remember Maslow? (Maslow, 1943)
    • Leadership – Transactional to Transformational
      Salience of collective identity in self-concept
      Sense of consistency between their self-concept and their actions on behalf of the leader and the “collective”
      Higher level of self-esteem and a greater sense of self-worth
      Similarity between their self-concept and their perceptions of the leader
      Sense of collective efficacy
      Sense of meaningfulness in their work and lives
    • Idealized Influence
      Provides a role model for high ethical behavior, instills pride, gains respect and trust.
    • Inspirational Motivation
      The degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers. Leaders challenge followers with high standards, communicate optimism about future goals, and provide meaning for the task at hand.
    • Intellectual Stimulation
      The degree to which the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks and solicits followers' ideas. Leaders with this style stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers. They nurture and develop people who think independently.
    • Individualized Consideration
      The degree to which the leader attends to each follower's needs, acts as a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follower's concerns and needs. The leader gives empathy and support, keeps communication open and places challenges before the followers.
    • Full Range Model – Bass/Avolio
      (Avolio & Bass, 2004)
    • (Quinn & Spreitzer, 2006)
    • Personality Traits Study
      Extraversion2 – the tendency to be outgoing, assertive, active, and excitement seeking
      Agreeableness1 – tendencies to be kind, gentle, trusting and trustworthy, and warm
      Conscientiousness – achievement and dependability
      Emotional Adjustment – often labeled by its opposite, Neuroticism, which is tendency to be anxious, fearful, depressed, and moody
      Openness to Experience2 – tendency to be creative, imaginative, perceptive, and thoughtful.
    • Universality?
    • Hofstede – Cultural Dimensions
      Power Distance (PDI)
      Individualism (IDV)
      Masculinity (MAS)
      Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)
      Long-term Orientation (LTO)
      (Hofstede & Bond, 1984)
    • Power Distance
      Low characteristics
      Low dependence needs
      Inequality minimized
      Hierarchy for convenience
      Superiors accessible
      All should have equal rights
      Change by evolution
      High characteristics
      High dependence
      Inequality accepted
      Hierarchy needed
      Superiors often inaccessible
      Power holders have privileges
      Change by revolution
    • Individualism
      Low characteristics
      “We” consciousness
      Relationships have priority over tasks
      Fulfil obligations to family, in-group, society
      Penalty implies loss of “face” and shame
      High characteristics
      “I” consciousness
      Private opinions
      Fulfill obligations to self
      Penalty implies loss of self-respect and guilt
    • Masculinity
      Low characteristics
      Quality of life, serving others
      Striving for consensus
      Work in order to live
      Small and slow are beautiful
      Sympathy for the unfortunate
      Intuition
      High characteristics
      Performance ambition, a need to excel
      Tendency to polarise
      Live in order to work
      Big and fast are beautiful
      Admiration for the successful achiever
      Decisiveness
    • Uncertainty Avoidance
      Low characteristics
      Relaxed, less stress
      Hard work is not a virtue per se
      Emotions not shown
      Conflict and competition seen as fair play
      Acceptance of dissent
      Flexibility
      Less need for rules
      High characteristics
      Anxiety, greater stress
      Inner urge to work hard
      Showing of emotions accepted
      Conflict is threatening
      Need for agreement
      Need to avoid failure
      Need for laws and rules
    • Long-Term Orientation
      Low characteristics
      Absolute truth
      Conventional/traditional
      Concern for stability
      Quick results expected
      High characteristics
      Many truths
      Pragmatic
      Acceptance of Change
      Perseverance
    • Example #1 – United States
      (from CultureGPS for the iPhone/iPad)
    • Example #2 - China
    • Comparing
      United States
      China
    • Two Areas of DifferenceU. S.  China
      Lower Individualism
      People generally center the interest of the (in-) group over the interest of the individual
      From birth on people are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups which protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty
      Expect status and maturity to be valued
      Anticipate opinions to be predetermined by the in-group
      Expect priority to be put on the relationship when starting a business or work relation
      More Long-Term Orientation
      Expect people to foster virtues oriented toward future rewards; in particular, perseverance and thrift
      Expect the main work values to include learning, honesty, adaptiveness, accountability, and self-discipline
      Anticipate wide social and economic differences to be undesirable
      People accept change, relativity, and interrelations
      Anticipate pragmatic, sythesizing thinking to be common
    • GLOBE research
      (House, Javidan, Hanges, & Dorfman, 2002)
    • Connecting the Two
    • Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (2004). Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Manual and Sampler (3rd ed.). Mind Garden, Inc.  
      Heifetz, R. A., & Linsky, M. (2002). Leadership on the line: Staying alive through the dangers of leading. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.  
      Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: Do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 9(1), 42-63.  
      Hofstede, G. (2005). Cultures and organizations : software of the mind (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.  
      Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81-94.  
      Hofstede, G., & Bond, M. H. (1984). Hofstede's culture dimensions: An independent validation using Rokeach's value survey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 15(4), 417-433.
      House, R. J., Javidan, M., Hanges, P., & Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business, 37(1), 3-10. doi:10.1016/S1090-9516(01)00069-4  
      Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.  
      Pink, D. (2009). Drive : The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York: Riverhead Books.  
      Podsakoff, P., MacKenzie, S., Moorman, S., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leaderbehaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizationalcitizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 107-142. doi:10.1016/1048-9843(90)90009-7  
      Quinn, R. E., & Spreitzer, G. M. (2006). Entering the fundamental state of leadership: A framework for the positive transformation of self and others. In R. J. Burke & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Inspiring Leaders (pp. 67-83). London: Routledge.  
      Senge, P. M. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization (Revised.). New York: Doubleday/Currency.  
      Spreitzer, G. M., Perttula, K. H., & Xin, K. (2005). Traditionality matters: An examination of the effectiveness of transformational leadership in the United States and Taiwan. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(3), 205-227.