China Port Overview 2009


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The following is a brief overview of China's major ports and their development plans

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China Port Overview 2009

  1. 1. Shanghai Port<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 28,006,000 TEUs up 7.08% on 26,152,000 TEUs in 2007<br />Shanghai Port is located at the east end of the Yangtze River Delta, which is the convergence point of the Yangtze transport corridor (east to west) and the ocean transport corridor (south to north). Shanghai Port is the major hub port at China’s east coast, with an annual foreign trade throughput accounting for about 20% of the total volume of the nation’s major coastal ports. In June 2002, the Yangshan Deepwater Port started construction, which demonstrated that Shanghai Port transformed from a river port into a real sea port. The Phase-3 project of the Yangshan Deepwater Port Area has already completed, with the Phase-4 project under construction at present. It is planned that by the year of 2012, the port will boast a 10km-long deepwater quay length, over 30 deepwater container berths, and a planned throughput of over 13 million TEUs each year. <br />The financial crisis has also impacted on the business of Shanghai Port. Although SIPG’s (Shanghai International Port Group) core business – container sector – did not shrink, the slowdown of the growth was obvious. For the second year in a row, the Port of Shanghai ranked second in the world in terms of container throughput. <br />Shenzhen Port<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 21,416,000 TEUs, up 1.49% on 21,100,000 TEUs in 2007<br />Shenzhen Port is located in the southern region of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province, to the east of the Pearl River Estuary (Lingding Estuary) and adjacent to Hong Kong. The port consists of the following major areas: Shekou, Chiwan, Mawan and Yantian. <br />In 1993, Yantian Port Group established a joint venture, Yan Tian International Container Terminals Ltd. (YICT), with Hutchison Whampoa Yantian Port Investment Co. In the new venture, Yantian Port Group owned a 27% stake and Hutchison Whampoa owned 50%, with the rest 23% stake held by COSCO and Maersk.<br />Yantian Port was significantly influenced by the financial crisis, as its major lines are American lines (50-60%) and European lines. Currently, Yantan Port is applying to the State Council for establishing “Yantian Bonded Port” for further development. <br />Meanwhile, Shekou, Chiwan and Mawan, the three ports under China Merchants Group, joined together to cope with the current crisis and for the expansion construction of Qianhai Bay Bonded Port Area.<br />According to The General Plan of Shenzhen Port, based on the “two wings” of its east and west port groups, the port will develop Yantian and Longgang Areas in the east and six areas i.e. Nanshan, Dachanwan, Dachan and Xiaochan Islands and Bao’an Areas in the west, with the aim to establish three major port areas of Yantian, Nanshan and Dachanwan. <br />It is predicted that by the year 2010, Shenzhen port container throughput will reach 26 mn TEUs. By 2020, Shenzhen port container throughput will reach 38 mn TEUs, container berths will be added to 67. <br />Guangzhou<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 11,001,000 TEUs, up 18.8% on 9,260,000 TEUs in 2007<br />As the largest comprehensive hub port in South China, Guangzhou Port keeps increasing in cargo volume owing to its fast growing hinterlands’ economy. Owing to the fast economic development of the neighboring areas, the port throughput enjoys a steady growth. According to The General Plan of Guangzhou Port, during the “11th five-year Plan”, Guangzhou Port planned to invest about 24.97 billion yuan to establish 20 navigational channels (10000dwt) and 39 deepwater berths, as well as expand the port capacity by 69.24 million tons and 6.04 million TEUs. Guangzhou Port Group invested in over 10 billion yuan to establish 14 specialized deepwater bulk and container berths (50000-150000 dwt), including Nansha Phase-1 and Phase-2.<br />With enhanced infrastructure construction, the four port areas (i.e. Nansha Port, Xinsha Port, Huangpu Port and Downtown Port) now have more functions. To date, Nansha Port area has established nearly 30 domestic and international lines and attracted the world’s top 10 container liner companies with 19 foreign trade container liner routes covering Europe, America, Africa, Oceania, the Mediterranean, the Red Sea and Southeast Asia etc.<br />Guangzhou Nansha Bonded Port Phase-1 successfully passed the national check on July 9, 2009. The deepwater terminal at Nansha Port Area enabled Guangzhou Port to achieve an annual container throughput of over 11 million TEUs in 2008. Guangzhou Port became one of the top 10 container ports in the world for the first time.<br /> It is estimated that by 2010, the Guangzhou port cargo throughput will reach 400 million tonnes and container reach 14 mn TEUs.<br />Ningbo-Zhoushan<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 10,934,000 TEUs, up 15.9% on 9,430,000 TEUs in 2007<br />There are 19 port areas in Ningbo-Zhoushan Harbor, eight of which are located in Ningbo Harbor.And the other eleven port areas belong to Zhoushan Harbor. <br />The general plan of Ningbo-Zhoushan Harbor, which is replied by Ministry of Transport and the government of Zhejiang province in April of 2009, makes function assignment and resource integration for the 19 harbor Areas in order to create three core areas. These core areas are container transport core area (formed by Beilun, Jintang, Chuanshan, Daxie, Meishan, Liuheng and Yangshan), import crude oil transshipment core area (formed by Zhenhai, Beilun ,Daxie, Laotangshan and Dinghai) and bulk cargo such as coal and iron ore transshipment core area (formed by Beilun ,Liuheng, Sijiao and Qushan) .Currently, Ningbo-Zhoushan harbor is the biggest iron ore transshipment base in China. <br />Besides, Yangshan Harbor, which is constructed and operated by shanghai municipal government is also brought in this plan. Previously, Ningbo-Zhoushan Harbor and Shanghai Harbor are competitors. However, this plan confirmed that Shanghai Harbor will be branded as a pivotal port for containers from both home and broad. And Ningbo-Zhoushan Harbor is estimated to be a main trade port for containers and Transportation hub for bulk cargo such as energy sources and raw materials.<br />According to the plan, during the fllowing five years, RMB 58.9 bn Yuan will be invested in new berths and terminals in Ningbo-Zhoushan. The Container handling capacity of Beilun will increase to 12 mn TEUs in 2010.<br />Qingdao Port<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 10,004,000 TEUs, up 5.8% on 9,460,000 TEUs in 2007<br />Qingdao Port, formed by Old Port Area, Huangdao Oil Port Area and Qianwan New Port, currently own 72 berths and 15 world-class ports for containers, iron ore, crude oil, coal and grain. In 2008, the port achieved a record volume of 300 million tons, ranking world's No.7, and it's container volume hit 10.02 million TEU, ranking word's No.10.  Meanwhile, the import iron ore volume rank the first in the world and the import crude oil volume rank the first in China. <br />In 2008, Qingdao Port invested 2.35 billion and built 5 dock berths for 10,000 dwt. In 2009, Qingdao  Port will speed up the construction of the Qianwan bonded port area while closing this area. It's estimated that 19 container berth in Qianwan bonded port area  will be in operation by 2010 and the annual volume will hit 11.5 million TEU. Qingdao Port is planning to turn itself to a international maritime center in northeast   area of Asia withiin 2 or 3 years. <br />It is estimated that at the end of 2010, Qingdao container throughput will reach 12 million TEUs. Qingdao is on its way to become an International Shipping Centre and regional distribution hub.<br />Tianjin<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 8,503,000 TEUs, up 19.7% on 7,103,000 TEUs in 2007<br />Tianjin Port is a artificial port with the highest level waterway in the world. The port is planned to cover a total land area of 100 square kilometers by 2010.<br />In 2009, Tianjin Port Group will invest 15.1 billion yuan to build a multi-functional port, with infrastructure construction and improvement to be carried out at 6 terminals. To date, Dongjiang Bonded Port Area Phase-1 has started free trade operation, with 3 shipping companies registered in the area. Meanwhile, Tianjin has developed 12 inland dry ports, extending the logistics network to its vast hinterland.<br />With total investment of RMB 6.6 yuan, Beigangchi Container Terminal has six 100,000dwt container berths and designed annual capacity of 4 mn TEUs. Dongjiang Bonded Port Area, covers 10 square kilometres, will be fully built up in 2010, to form Tianjin port as an international shipping and logistics centre.<br />At present, there are three new container berths under construction, with a planned annual throughput of 1.7 million TEUs.<br />In order to speed up the transition from a traditional bulk cargo port to a modern container port, during the " 11th Five-Year Plan" period, Tianjin Port will focus on the development of container transportation, about 20 new container berths will be built up before the year 2010, and the container throughput of Tianjin port will reach 12 million TEUs by then.<br />Xiamen<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 5,035,000 TEUs up 8% on 4,630,000 TEUs in 2007<br />At present there are six areas at Xiamen Port: Dongdu, Haicang, Songyu, Liuwudian, Zhaoyin, Houshi, Shima and Passenger Terminal. <br />In September 2008, Haicang Bonded Port Area officially started construction, covering a total planned area of 9.45 square km. With a total investment of 5 billion, Haicang will become the largest and most developed National Taiwanese Investment Zone in mainland China.<br />Xiamen Port has become the largest ore material logistics center in Asia. Liuwudian Terminal (to start operation soon) and its large hinterland will be developed into Haixi Steel and Ore Material Logistics Center. <br />Dongdu Port area will become Xiamen’s general cargo center, providing comprehensive logistics services for light industries, pharmaceutics and food industries in Xiamen and neighboring areas. <br />Zhaoyin and Houshi Port Area are located in Zhangzhou. These two port Areas will be developed into fuel and mining material depot and transshipment center. At present, the storage yard is planned to cover an area of 10 square km.<br />It is predicated that by 2010 the Xiamen port cargo throughput will reach 120 mn tonnes, and container throughput will reach 10 mn TEUs. <br />Dalian<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 4,526,000 TEUs up 18.8% on 3,810,000 TEUs in 2007<br />Dalian Port is a natural deepwater port, which is the largest port for bulk grain and oil import and export business and foreign trade activities. The port has over 80 modern berths for containers, crude oil, refined oil, grain, coal and chemical products etc.<br />Dalian Port consists of eight port areas, five of which have a history of over 60 years. With the scale-up and specialization of international vessels, the port infrastructure can no longer meet the requirements of modern shipping industry. Therefore, Dalian Port Group is accelerating the development and construction of new port areas e.g. Dayao Bay, Nianyu Bay and Dalian Bay. In particular, Dayao Bay Area will become the core port area of Dalian Port and even the surrounding port clusters. <br />The container transportation of Dalian Port is mainly in Dayao Bay Port Area. Dayao Bay port is one of the four major international deepwater transit port in China, which bears more than 90% foreign trade container transport of Northeast China. The container terminals along the south shore of Dayao Bay are being built. It is expected that 18 container berths at Dayao Bay will have been completed by 2010, and it will form Dalian port 10 mn TEUs handling capacity.<br />In the first half of 2009, the throughput of Dalian Port mainly depended on the transshipment of ore and oil products. The advantages of transshipment will become more and more important in the future development.<br />In order to expand transshipment business, Dalian Port is building oil terminals of 400000dwt and speeding up the reconstruction of the 300000dwt ore terminals.<br />Dalian port container terminal handling capacity is predicted to reach 8mn TEUs by 2010.<br />Lianyungang<br />Total TEU throughput 2008: 3,000,000 TEUs, up 49.7% over 2,003,000 TEUs in 2007<br />In June,2009, " Jiangsu Coastal Development Plan" ,which was approved by Standing Committee of the State Council, emphasizes on the important function of Lianyungang in promoting the coordinated development of all regions. <br />According to the latest " Lianyungang Port Overall Plan" , the main port area of Lianyungang consists of Xugou, Miaoling, Maoyao, Qitai and Dadi port areas, which will focus on container and large cargo transit business. Lianyungang is also positioning itself as an regional international hub port linking Qingdao, Shanghai, Japan, Korea and Central Asia. Maoyao, Miaoling and Xugou are main running port areas in Lianyungang, which have 35 berths for containers, gains, coal, ore and chemicals and also over 40 container courses to Europe, America, Middle East, Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia. <br />According to the " Jiangsu Coastal Development Plan" , in the future, Lianyungang port will form a " a center and two wings" pattern of principal port area, Xuyu port area(south wing), Guanhe port area, Ganyu(north wing) and Qiansandao port area. <br />Lianyungang port container terminal handling capacity is predicted to reach 3.4mn TEUs in 2010 and 8mn in 2020.<br />Suzhou<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 2,57,000 TEUs, up 35.2% on 1,900,000 TEUs in 2007<br />The three port areas in Suzhou port have their own distinguished features. <br />Taicang port area is an important part of Shanghai international  maritime center and container transportation hub port. Meanwhile , Taicang port is also the main container trade port in Jiangsu province. Currently, Suzhou port is the biggest manufacturing base of senior lubricant and the biggest LPG manufacturing base in eastern China.<br />Changshu port area has become one of the biggest import steel base.  <br />Zhangjianang port area is the biggest waterage lumber import base. <br />According to plan, during the period of the 11th Five-Year Plan, Suzhou port will invest 13.5 billion to build  35 quay berths and focus on the phase3 and phase 4 instruction of Taicang container berth and 200,000 dwt and 150,000 dwt ore berth. <br />Suzhou port container terminal handling capacity is predicted to reach 4.5mn TEUs in 2010 and 12mn in 2020.<br />Yingkou<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 2,037,000 TEUs, up 48.7% on 1,370,000 TEUs in 2007<br />Yingkou port is located in the checkpoint of Bohai Economic Sphere and Northeast economic region and it's the nearest outgoing sea port to northeast three provinces and Inner Mongolia hinterland, which will get Yingkou port the most favorable advantages.<br /> It's formed by Yingkou port area, Bayuquan port area and Xianrendao port area and 85% of transportation volume is internal trade. During the period of the 11th Five-Year Plan, Yingkou port is estimated to invest 14 billion to build 61 berths.  <br />On June 16th, 2009, Xianrendao port area was opened and 300,000dwt crude oil terminal was run to production officially. Yingkou Port Group<br />is about to finish the construction of No 54, No 55 and No 56 berth in Bayuqan port area by the end of 2010. <br />  <br />Yantai<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 1,532,000 TEUs, up 22.6% on 1,250,000 TEUs in 2007<br />Yantai Port is spread along Jiaodong Peninsula’s 200 km coastline. The port includes four areas: Zhifu Bay Port Area, Western Port Area, Penglai Port Area and Longkou Port Area.<br />Zhifu Bay Port Area has 48 berths which are mainly for bulk cargos like grain, fertilizers and steel. <br />Penglai Port Area is specialized in ore, timber and coal sectors.<br />Longkou Port Area is a comprehensive port area to meet the requirements of local economy and port industrial park development. The area focuses on coal, ore, bauxite, grain and container. <br />Western Port Area is the key project of Yantai Port. According to the plan, the 1.5-billion-yuan project will cover a water area of 500 square km, with a port operation zone of 24 square km and a port industrial park of 26 square km. The area is to be divided into five sections for oil, liquid chemical industry, bulk cargo, general cargo and container. In addition, 65 berths are to be built, with a throughput capacity of 15 million TEUs.<br />Nanjing<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 1,292,000 TEUs, up 21.9% on 1,060,000 TEUs in 2007<br />Nanjing port is the most favourable and the most reasonable port along the Yangtze River for transitting containersis. <br />At present, more than 25% of the containers along the Yangtze River come in and go out through Nanjing, the development of transit business will strengthen Nanjing port as the key transit hub in the upper stream area along the Yangtze River. It is estimated that in 2010, the container supply along Yangtze River will reach 3.6 million TEUs. <br />During the “11th Five-Year Plan” period, Nanjing Port will focus on the development of Longtan and Xiba Port Areas and the reconstruction of Yizheng and Shenshenxu Port Areas, with 42 new berths planned to be built up.<br />In the coming 5 years, Nanjing will invest 12.2 billion yuan for new port construction, planning to build 45 berths of 1000 dwt along Yangtze River and 170 inland river berths of 300 dwt. In particular, 5 billion yuan will be invested for the construction of Longtan Phase-4 to 7 projects, with an aim to achieve a throughput capacity of 6 million TEUs.<br />Longtan Port Area is at the heart of Nanjing Port. The whole project is divided into 7 phases. At present, completed projects are Phase-1 to 3, i.e. container port area, general cargo port area and bulk cargo port area. Longtan Port Phase-4 is a 2.4-billion project, with 5 container berths to be built and a throughput capacity of 1.2 million TEUs annually. The Phase-4 project will be completed and start operation in 2010. The number of container terminals at Nanjing Port will be added to 11 by then, and the annual container handling capacity will reach 3 mn TEUs. <br />Quanzhou Port<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 1,207,000 TEUs, up 18.3% on 1,020,000 TEUs in 2007<br />Quanzhou port is located in the southease of Fujian Province. It now has four port areas, namely: Meizhou Bay south coast port, Quanzhou Bay, Shenhu Bay and Weitou Bay.<br />According to the general plan, Quanzhou Bay Port Area will be developed into a modern logistics port for container, general and bulk cargo, passenger and tourism services. South Meizhou Bay Port Area is a new project under construction, which will be a major oil and chemical industrial base and multi-functional international transshipment trading port in China. Shenhu Bay and Weitou Bay Port Areas will provide services for local economic development. <br />Quanzhou Port Authority proposed a new plan (commonly known as " artificial island" programme), to make an artificial island with 5,313 metres in length and 600 metres in width. And 15 berths are planned on the island with a designed annual cargo handling capacity of 44 mn tonnes, of which container handling capacity of 2.95 mn TEUs. It is understood that COSCO Pacific Limited and Quanzhou Port Group will jointly cooperate in the project of " artificial island" . <br />By 2010, Quanzhou Port will built up 37 berths of 10000dwt, handling cargos of over 100 million tons and 2 million TEUs. It is planned that by 2020, the port will have 80 berths of 10000 dwt, handling cargos of over 200 million tons and 10 million TEUs.<br />Fuzhou<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 1,177,000 TEUs, up -2% on 1,202,000 TEUs in 2007<br />Fuzhou port is formed by inside Mouth-Bar of the Minjiang River port area, Songxia port area, Jiangyin port area and Luoyuan port area and it has 118 productive berths. In May of 2009, the body construction of No 4 and No 5 berth in Jiangyin port are was finished. <br />This is a soly-invested construction by Fuzhou Port Group Co,Ltd with total invest of 1.05 billion RMB. Phase 1 of this construction is to build two 50,000 dwt container berth and the total length of quay is 667 meters. The designed total capacity is 700,000 TEU. The construction started in May of 2006 and cost almost 3 years to put into production. <br />It is reported that Fujian communications department is making effort on the consolidation of Fuzhou port and Ningde port by the end of 2009.  <br />Ningde port is national Category -1 port and is formed by Sandu'ao, Saijiang, Sansha and Sacheng port area. It has 221 buildable berths and annual capacity can be over 0.4 billion tons. Among the four port areas, Sandu'ao port area is an ideal harbor site for large international transportation hub. After the consolidation of two ports, Fuzhou port will optimize the allocation of resourses . By 2010, Fuzhou port will be ranked as hundred-million-ton port ahead of time.  <br />Zhongshan<br />Total TEU throughput for 2008: 1,137,000 TEUs, up -1% on 1,270,000 TEUs in 2007<br />According to the " Genenal Plan for Zhongshan Port" , there will be 5 port areas in Zhongshan port including Zhongshan, Ma'an, Xiaolan, Huangpu and Shenwan.  <br />In order to raise the ability of loading and unloading, Zhongshan city will invest 2 billion to develop phase two construction of Zhongshan port, which is the biggest construction ever in history of Zhongshan port. In this construction, a multi-use port will be built to the east of Ma'an island with two new 5,000 dwt multi-use berths and the annual capacity is designed to be 1.65 million tons. Phase two construction of Ma'an port area is the major project in east coastal development by Zhongshan city and also becomes the important support of harbor industry and logistics such as energy, electricity, powerpetrochemical industry and steel industries. <br />The plan is divided into two stages. By 2010, with the existence of 4 berths, Zhongshan port will build two new berths. And by 2020, Shenwan port area will own nine 1000dwt berths and the total capacity of loading and unloading is 4.5 million tons.  <br />In accordance with Zhongshan’s " 11th Five-Year Plan" , till 2010, Zhongshan port cargo throughput will reach 40 mn tonnes and container throughput will exceed 2 mn TEUs. <br />