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China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II
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China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II

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Not even the worst economic crisis in 80 years could halt the growth of China’s logistics industry. The world’s rising economic superpower still put up growth numbers that aroused the envy of the rest …

Not even the worst economic crisis in 80 years could halt the growth of China’s logistics industry. The world’s rising economic superpower still put up growth numbers that aroused the envy of the rest of the world. Beijing continued to invest enormous sums of money into massive infrastructure projects, building new airports, railway lines, expressways, and intermodal centres. China’s full-speed march into modernity appeared far less affected by the dire news emanating from other corners of the world than many of the more developed regions.

Logistics, the industry that greases the wheels of the great Chinese economy, continued to grow at a rapid pace. Yet to argue that the 2008-9 was a uniformly positive year for the industry would ignore several troubling signs. Port throughput growth fell nearly everywhere in China over the period; and no place suffered a steeper growth decline than the Pearl River Delta, China’s most developed economic region.

Furthermore, upon closer inspection China’s logistics industry still has significant structural problems that may undermine future development.

Logistics still comprise over 18 percent of GDP, a figure more than double that in developed economies. The industry suffers from under-agglomeration, and many registered logistics companies operating in China lack professional standards and operational efficiency.

Despite tremendous government effort to spread China’s newfound prosperity to less-developed regions, the gap between China’s coastal area and its interior remains large - and growing. The country’s varied economic regions remain less integrated with each other than with various parts of the outside world. Bureaucratic hassles—such as fines levied upon inter-provincial trade—have prevented the massive Chinese economy from operating as a cohesive unit hindering the emergence of national brands able to compete on a global stage.

Aware that suboptimal logistics performance threatens to obstruct overall economic development, Beijing has expended enormous effort in rectifying these problems. Investment in transport infrastructure received a jolt by a CNY 586bn stimulus package, and the Chinese government confidently claims that a nationwide high-speed rail network will be in place by 2020. New airports, expressways, and container terminals will also affect the logistics landscape in coming years.

In addition, reforms such as the Fuel Tax Law have indicated a growing willingness for Beijing to consider green solutions in its logistics industry policy. The coming years are likely to witness an increased emphasis on environmentally-sound practices, a move that could lead to greater industry consolidation as smaller firms struggle to compete in a rapidly changing landscape.

Few observers expect the global economic slowdown to have reversed itself fully by the end of 2010, and correcting structural flaws in the logistics industry will require time, even by the standards of the Chinese government. The industry showed impressive resiliency in the wake of natural disaster in 2008, overcoming both the unseasonably cold weather in the winter and the tragic Sichuan earthquake in May.

Betting against its ability to overcome an economic slowdown would similarly be unwise – even though the World Bank now forecasts that a recovery independent of stimulus spending is likely to require a broad structural change in the composition of GDP growth drivers.

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  • hey, fantastic presentation, any chance you have an updated version of this report? maybe 2014? would be really grateful if you could share it with me
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  • overall aspects about Chinese supply network. thanks
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  • 1. China Intelligence Online 中国物流行业发展报告China Logistics Development Report 2010 Edition II A sectoral research report from CIO Informing business in China
  • 2. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com1 Table of Contents1 TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................................................... 22 CHINA INTELLIGENCE ONLINE .......................................................................................................... 123 INDUSTRY SNAPSHOT ..................................................................................................................... 134 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................... 145 CHINA LOGISTICS INDUSTRY ............................................................................................................ 245.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................ 245.1.1 GLOBAL ECONOMIC REVIEW .......................................................................................................................... 245.2 2009 GLOBAL TRADE REVIEW ............................................................................................................... 265.2.1 FOREIGN TRADE GROWTH SLOWED, IMPORT VOLUME SURPASSED EXPORT VOLUME ............................................ 315.2.2 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA’S COASTAL REGIONS ................................................................................ 315.2.3 GENERAL ECONOMIC OVERVIEW; THE POLICY STIMULUS RESULTS ........................................................................ 325.2.4 LOGISTICS INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT OVER 2008-9 AND OUTLOOK FOR 2010 ...................................................... 345.2.5 GROWING IMPORTANCE OF LOGISTICS INDUSTRY .............................................................................................. 355.2.6 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................................................. 355.2.7 PERCEIVED WEAKNESSES .............................................................................................................................. 365.2.8 IMPACT OF FLUCTUATING OIL PRICES ON THE LOGISTICS INDUSTRY ....................................................................... 365.2.9 FUEL TAX REFORM PLAN ............................................................................................................................... 365.2.10 LABOUR LAW ............................................................................................................................................. 375.2.11 FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN CHINA ......................................................................................................... 375.2.12 KEY STATISTICAL DATA ................................................................................................................................. 385.3 IMPACT OF NATURAL DISASTERS AND BEIJING OLYMPICS ON CHINA’S LOGISTICS INDUSTRY ................................... 395.3.1 IMPACT OF EXTREME WEATHER SPRING 2008 .................................................................................................. 395.3.2 THE 5· WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE ............................................................................................................. 40 125.3.3 BEIJING OLYMPICS ...................................................................................................................................... 405.4 KEY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS .................................................................................................................. 415.4.1 GO WEST .................................................................................................................................................. 425.4.2 GOALS IN 2010 .......................................................................................................................................... 425.5 THE LOGISTICS STIMULUS PACKAGE ......................................................................................................... 445.5.1 THE NEED FOR LOGISTICS INDUSTRY STIMULUS AND RESTRUCTURING PLAN ........................................................... 445.5.2 OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................................................ 445.5.3 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENTS ........................................................................................................................... 495.5.4 MAIN THEMES ............................................................................................................................................ 495.5.5 IMPLICATIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 505.5.6 IMPLEMENTATION ....................................................................................................................................... 515.6 OPPORTUNITIES FOR FOREIGN LOGISTICS PROVIDERS AND SUPPORTING INDUSTRIES WITHIN POLICY DEVELOPMENT ... 525.7 CHALLENGES PRESENTED BY POLICY DEVELOPMENT..................................................................................... 545.8 KEY PROJECTS .................................................................................................................................... 555.8.1 POLICY IMPLEMENTATION ............................................................................................................................ 556 THE GEOGRAPHY OF CHINA’S ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT................................................................ 566.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................ 566.2 THE EAST COAST (AND FUJIAN PROVINCE) ................................................................................................ 606.2.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 606.2.2 LOGISTICAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................ 606.2.3 KEY DYNAMICS ........................................................................................................................................... 606.3 PEARL RIVER DELTA (PRD) .................................................................................................................... 626.3.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................................... 626.3.2 LOGISTICAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................. 636.3.3 KEY DYNAMICS ........................................................................................................................................... 63 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 2
  • 3. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com6.4 THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA.................................................................................................................... 656.4.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................................... 656.4.2 LOGISTICAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................. 656.4.3 KEY DYNAMICS ........................................................................................................................................... 666.5 BOHAI BAY ........................................................................................................................................ 676.5.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 676.5.2 LOGISTICAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................. 676.5.3 KEY DYNAMICS ........................................................................................................................................... 686.6 THE SOUTHWEST ................................................................................................................................ 696.6.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 696.6.2 LOGISTICAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................ 696.6.3 KEY DYNAMICS ........................................................................................................................................... 706.7 THE NORTHEAST ................................................................................................................................. 716.7.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 716.7.2 LOGISTICAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................ 716.7.3 KEY DYNAMICS ........................................................................................................................................... 716.8 NORTHWEST CHINA............................................................................................................................. 736.8.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 736.8.2 LOGISTICAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................ 736.8.3 KEY DYNAMICS ........................................................................................................................................... 736.9 CENTRAL CHINA ................................................................................................................................. 756.9.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 756.9.2 LOGISTICAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................ 756.9.3 KEY DYNAMICS ........................................................................................................................................... 756.10 THE YANGTZE RIVER (CHINA’S THIRD COAST)............................................................................................. 766.10.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 766.10.2 LOGISTICAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................ 766.10.3 KEY DYNAMICS ........................................................................................................................................... 776.11 URBANISATION AND THE CHANGING STRUCTURE OF LOGISTICS NETWORKS ....................................................... 797 REGIONAL MARKET DYNAMICS ....................................................................................................... 807.1 GROWTH OF INTA-ASIA FREIGHT MOVEMENT ............................................................................................ 807.2 ASIA’S DECOUPLING MYTH ................................................................................................................... 828 AIR TRANSPORT.............................................................................................................................. 858.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................ 858.2 REVIEW OF AIR CARGO INDUSTRY IN 2009 AND OUTLOOK FOR 2010.............................................................. 898.2.1 REVIEW OF AIR CARGO INDUSTRY IN 2009 ..................................................................................................... 898.3 OUTLOOK FOR 2010 AND 2011 ............................................................................................................. 948.3.1 INFRASTRUCTURE AND MAIN PROJECTS .......................................................................................................... 968.4 KEY DYNAMICS ................................................................................................................................... 999 ROAD TRANSPORT ........................................................................................................................ 1009.1 OVERVIEW ...................................................................................................................................... 1009.1.1 INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT OVER 2008-9 AND OUTLOOK FOR 2010 ................................................................... 1009.1.2 INFRASTRUCTURE AND MAIN PROJECTS ........................................................................................................ 1029.2 KEY DYNAMICS ................................................................................................................................. 10510 EXPRESS DELIVERY SECTOR ........................................................................................................... 10610.1 OVERVIEW ...................................................................................................................................... 10610.2 REVIEW OF 2009 .............................................................................................................................. 10910.2.1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................... 10910.2.2 SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE ENVIRONMENT................................................................ 11310.2.3 THE INTEGRATION OF EXPRESS SERVICE BUSINESSES ....................................................................................... 11310.2.4 E-COMMERCE ENHANCES THE CONTINUOUS GROWTH OF THE EXPRESS SERVICE INDUSTRY .................................... 114 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 3
  • 4. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com10.2.5 THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CHINA EXPRESS ASSOCIATION.................................................................................... 11410.2.6 MAJOR ISSUES .......................................................................................................................................... 11510.3 OUTLOOK FOR 2010 ......................................................................................................................... 11610.3.1 AS NATIONAL MACRO ECONOMY IMPROVES, EXPRESS DELIVERY MARKET ACHIEVED RAPID GROWTH ................... 11610.3.2 BOOSTING INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW POSTAL LAW .................................... 11710.3.3 EXPLORE NEW MARKETS AND NEW BUSINESS MODELS .................................................................................. 11710.3.4 IMPROVED SERVICE QUALITY WITH ENHANCED COMPETITION .......................................................................... 11810.3.5 ACCELERATE INDUSTRY RESTRUCTURING ....................................................................................................... 11810.4 RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SURVEY OF THE EXPRESS INDUSTRY ...................................................................... 11810.4.1 MARKET STRUCTURE ................................................................................................................................. 12310.4.2 SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES ......................................................................................................................... 12310.4.3 LARGER SCALE ENTERPRISES ....................................................................................................................... 12410.5 GOVERNMENT POLICY........................................................................................................................ 12510.5.1 POLICIES TO MITIGATE FINANCIAL SLOWDOWN............................................................................................... 12510.5.2 ADMINISTRATIVE LEGISLATION .................................................................................................................... 12510.5.3 REFORM AND DEVELOPMENT OF COST CONTROLS AND PRICE ADJUSTMENTS ....................................................... 12611 E-COMMERCE LOGISTICS DEMAND................................................................................................ 12811.1 OVERVIEW ...................................................................................................................................... 12811.1.1 DEVELOPMENT OVER 2008-9 AND OUTLOOK FOR 2010 ................................................................................. 12812 PORTS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE .............................................................................................. 13112.1 DEVELOPMENT IN 2008-9 AND OUTLOOK FOR 2010 ................................................................................. 13212.2 MARITIME CONTAINER TRANSPORT SECTOR ............................................................................................ 13412.2.1 INFRASTRUCTURE AND MAIN PROJECTS ........................................................................................................ 13412.2.2 KEY STATISTICAL DATA ............................................................................................................................... 13812.3 INLAND WATERWAY DEVELOPMENT ...................................................................................................... 14112.3.1 CONTENT OF THE NATIONAL PLAN FOR INLAND WATERWAYS AND PORTS .......................................................... 14212.3.1 YANGTZE RIVER WATERS............................................................................................................................ 14312.3.2 PEARL RIVER WATERS................................................................................................................................ 14312.3.3 THE BEIJING-HANGZHOU GRAND CANAL AND HUAIHE RIVER WATERS .............................................................. 14412.3.4 CHONGQING ............................................................................................................................................ 14412.3.5 WUHAN .................................................................................................................................................. 14512.3.6 NANJING ................................................................................................................................................. 14512.3.7 KEY DYNAMICS ......................................................................................................................................... 14612.4 OVERVIEW OF CHINA BULK PORT DEVELOPMENT ..................................................................................... 14712.4.1 PORT PRODUCTION GROWTH SLOWED AS 3 PORTS JOINED THE ‘100M TON PORT CLUB’ ..................................... 14712.4.2 THROUGHPUT OF MAIN CARGO .................................................................................................................. 14712.5 PORT ANALYSIS- BULK CARGO OPERATIONS ............................................................................................ 14912.5.1 PORT THROUGHPUT OF MAJOR CARGO CATEGORIES ...................................................................................... 14912.5.2 COAL TRANSPORT ..................................................................................................................................... 14912.5.3 QINHUANGDAO ........................................................................................................................................ 15112.5.4 TIANJIN ................................................................................................................................................... 15112.5.5 CANGZHOU HUANGHUA............................................................................................................................. 15112.5.6 TANGSHAN PORT ...................................................................................................................................... 15112.6 IRON ORE TRANSPORT ....................................................................................................................... 15212.6.1 RIZHAO PORT ........................................................................................................................................... 15412.6.2 TANGSHAN PORT ...................................................................................................................................... 15412.6.3 NINGBO-ZHOUSHAN PORT ......................................................................................................................... 15412.6.4 TIANJIN PORT ........................................................................................................................................... 15412.7 OIL PRODUCTS TRANSPORT ................................................................................................................. 15512.7.1 NINGBO-ZHOUSHAN PORT ......................................................................................................................... 15912.7.2 QINGDAO PORT ........................................................................................................................................ 159 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 4
  • 5. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com12.7.3 DALIAN PORT ........................................................................................................................................... 15912.7.4 TIANJIN PORT ........................................................................................................................................... 15913 PORT DEVELOPMENTS .................................................................................................................. 16013.1 CONSTRUCTION OF COASTAL PORTS ...................................................................................................... 16113.1.1 CONSTRUCTION OF CONTAINER TERMINALS .................................................................................................. 16113.1.2 COAL TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION ................................................................................................................. 16213.1.3 CRUDE OIL TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION ......................................................................................................... 16313.1.4 IRON ORE TERMINALS................................................................................................................................ 16413.1.5 CONSTRUCTION OF EMERGING TRANSPORT SYSTEM TERMINALS....................................................................... 16413.2 DEVELOPMENT OF INLAND PORTS 2009 ................................................................................................. 16713.3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SHIP-BUILDING INDUSTRY ............................................................................... 16913.3.1 SHIP-BUILDING INDUSTRY-2009 REVIEW ..................................................................................................... 16913.3.2 STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF CHINA’S SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY ................................................................. 17113.3.3 LOOKING AHEAD....................................................................................................................................... 17213.4 CHINA’S HARBOUR MACHINERY INDUSTRY- CURRENT SITUATION ................................................................. 17413.4.1 MAJOR HARBOUR MACHINERY MANUFACTURERS IN CHINA ............................................................................ 17413.5 DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONTAINER MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY .................................................................. 17613.5.1 CURRENT SITUATION OF THE CONTAINER MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN CHINA ................................................ 17613.5.2 CONTAINER EQUIPMENT LEASING AND RENTAL MARKET CONDITIONS ............................................................... 17613.5.3 MAJOR CONTAINER MANUFACTURING COMPANIES........................................................................................ 17613.5.4 THE CONTAINER MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY- LOOKING FORWARD.................................................................. 17613.6 RELATED HARBOUR SHIPPING BUSINESS ................................................................................................. 17713.6.1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF SHIPPING COMPANIES IN HARBOUR ............................................................................. 17713.6.2 SHIP AGENCY SERVICE ............................................................................................................................... 17713.6.3 CARGO AGENT DEVELOPMENT .................................................................................................................... 17713.7 DEVELOPMENT OF THE PORT LOGISTICS INDUSTRY .................................................................................... 17913.7.1 CURRENT SITUATION OF THE PORT LOGISTICS INDUSTRY IN CHINA .................................................................... 17913.8 DEVELOPMENT OF DRY PORTS IN CHINA ................................................................................................. 18014 FREIGHT FORWARDING ................................................................................................................. 18114.1 REVIEW OF FREIGHT FORWARDING INDUSTRY IN 2009 AND OUTLOOK FOR 2010............................................. 18114.1.1 REVIEW OF FREIGHT FORWARDING INDUSTRY IN 2009 ................................................................................... 18114.2 OUTLOOK OF FREIGHT FORWARDING INDUSTRY FOR 2010 .......................................................................... 18215 THE RAIL SECTOR .......................................................................................................................... 18415.1 OVERVIEW ...................................................................................................................................... 18415.1.1 DEVELOPMENT IN 2008-9 AND OUTLOOK FOR 2010 ...................................................................................... 18415.1.2 HIGH-SPEED RAIL...................................................................................................................................... 18615.1.3 INFRASTRUCTURE AND MAIN PROJECTS ........................................................................................................ 18715.1.4 KEY DYNAMICS ......................................................................................................................................... 18915.1.5 RAIL FREIGHT COMPANIES .......................................................................................................................... 19016 WAREHOUSING ............................................................................................................................ 19116.1 OVERVIEW OF 2008-9 AND OUTLOOK FOR 2010...................................................................................... 19116.1.1 BEIJING-TIANJIN-BOHAI BAY TRIANGLE ........................................................................................................ 19116.1.2 YANGTZE RIVER DELTA............................................................................................................................... 19216.1.3 PEARL RIVER DELTA................................................................................................................................... 19317 APPENDIX..................................................................................................................................... 19418 BEIJING AND BOHAI BAY REGIONAL OVERVIEW ............................................................................. 19418.1 BEIJING .......................................................................................................................................... 19418.1.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 19418.1.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 19518.1.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 19818.1.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 200 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 5
  • 6. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com18.1.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 20018.1.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 20318.2 TIANJIN .......................................................................................................................................... 20518.2.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 20518.2.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 20618.2.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 20818.2.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 20918.2.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS ......................................................................................................................... 20918.2.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 21118.3 JINAN ............................................................................................................................................ 21218.3.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 21218.3.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARK INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK ...................................................... 21318.3.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 21318.3.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 21318.3.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS ......................................................................................................................... 21318.3.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 21418.4 QINGDAO ....................................................................................................................................... 21518.4.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 21518.4.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 21618.4.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 21618.4.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 21718.4.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS ......................................................................................................................... 21718.4.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 21818.5 HARBIN .......................................................................................................................................... 22018.5.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 22018.5.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONE/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK ...................................................... 22118.5.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 22118.5.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 22218.5.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS ......................................................................................................................... 22218.5.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 22218.6 CHANGCHUN ................................................................................................................................... 22418.6.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 22418.6.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 22518.6.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 22518.6.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 22618.6.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS ......................................................................................................................... 22618.6.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 22718.7 SHENYANG ...................................................................................................................................... 22818.7.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 22818.7.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 23018.7.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 23118.7.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 23118.7.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS ......................................................................................................................... 23118.7.6 GOVERNMENT OFFICES .............................................................................................................................. 23218.8 DALIAN .......................................................................................................................................... 23318.8.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 23318.8.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 23418.8.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 23718.8.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 23718.8.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 23818.8.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 238 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 6
  • 7. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com19 PEARL RIVER DELTA ....................................................................................................................... 24019.1 GUANGZHOU ................................................................................................................................... 24019.1.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 24019.1.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 24219.1.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 24319.1.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 24419.1.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 24419.1.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 24719.2 SHENZHEN ...................................................................................................................................... 24719.2.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 24719.2.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 24919.2.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 25019.2.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 25019.2.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 25119.2.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 25319.3 ZHUHAI .......................................................................................................................................... 25419.3.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 25419.3.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 25419.3.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 25519.3.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 25619.3.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 25619.3.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 25819.4 FOSHAN ......................................................................................................................................... 25919.4.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 25919.4.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 25919.4.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 26019.4.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 26119.4.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 26119.4.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 26219.5 JIANGMEN ...................................................................................................................................... 26419.5.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 26419.5.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 26419.5.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 26419.5.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 26519.5.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 26519.5.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 26519.6 DONGGUAN .................................................................................................................................... 26719.6.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 26719.6.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 26719.6.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 26819.6.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 26919.6.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 26919.6.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 27119.7 ZHONGSHAN ................................................................................................................................... 27219.7.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 27219.7.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 27219.7.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 27319.7.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 27419.7.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 27419.7.6 GOVERMENT CONTACTS ............................................................................................................................ 27519.8 HUIZHOU ........................................................................................................................................ 276 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 7
  • 8. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com19.8.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 27619.8.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 27619.8.3 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 27719.8.4 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 27719.8.5 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 27719.9 ZHAOQING ...................................................................................................................................... 27919.9.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 27919.9.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 27919.9.3 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 27919.9.4 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 28019.9.5 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 28020 YANGTZE RIVER DELTA .................................................................................................................. 28220.1 SUZHOU ......................................................................................................................................... 28220.1.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 28220.1.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 28320.1.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 28420.1.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 28620.1.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 28620.1.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 28820.2 NANJING ........................................................................................................................................ 28920.2.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 28920.2.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 29020.2.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 29120.2.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 29220.2.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 29220.3 HANGZHOU ..................................................................................................................................... 29620.3.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 29620.3.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 29720.3.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 30020.3.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 30120.3.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 30120.3.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 30320.4 WENZHOU ...................................................................................................................................... 30520.4.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 30520.4.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 30620.4.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 30620.4.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 30720.4.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 30720.5 NINGBO ......................................................................................................................................... 30920.5.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 30920.5.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 31020.5.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 31120.5.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 31220.5.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 31320.6 SHANGHAI ...................................................................................................................................... 31520.6.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 31520.6.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 31720.6.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 32220.6.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 32420.6.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 32420.6.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 329 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 8
  • 9. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com21 PAN BEIBU BAY REGION ................................................................................................................ 33021.1 NANNING ....................................................................................................................................... 33021.1.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 33021.1.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 33121.1.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 33221.1.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 33221.1.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 33221.1.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 33321.2 BEIHAI ........................................................................................................................................... 33321.2.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 33321.2.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 33321.2.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 33421.2.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 33521.2.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 33521.2.6 GOVERMENT CONTACTS ............................................................................................................................ 33621.3 QINZHOU........................................................................................................................................ 33721.3.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 33721.3.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 33721.3.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 33821.3.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 33821.3.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 33821.3.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 33821.4 FANGCHENGGANG............................................................................................................................. 34021.4.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 34021.4.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 34021.4.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 34121.4.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 34121.4.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 34221.4.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 34321.5 ZHANJIANG ..................................................................................................................................... 34421.5.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 34421.5.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 34521.5.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 34521.5.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 34621.5.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 34621.5.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 34621.6 HAIKOU .......................................................................................................................................... 34821.6.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 34821.6.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 34821.6.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 34921.6.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 34921.6.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 35021.6.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 35122 THE CENTRAL & WESTERN REGIONS .............................................................................................. 35222.1 WUHAN ......................................................................................................................................... 35222.1.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 35222.1.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS............................................................................................ 35222.1.3 WAREHOUSES: BONDED, GENERAL, DANGEROUS GOODS ............................................................................... 35422.1.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 35422.1.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS ......................................................................................................................... 35522.1.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 356 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 9
  • 10. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com22.2 CHONGQING .................................................................................................................................... 35722.2.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 35722.2.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARK INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK ..................................................... 35822.2.3 WAREHOUSES: BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS......................................................................... 35922.2.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 35922.2.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS ......................................................................................................................... 35922.2.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 36222.3 KUNMING ....................................................................................................................................... 36222.3.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 36222.3.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 36322.3.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 36522.3.4 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 36622.3.5 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 36722.4 CHENGDU ....................................................................................................................................... 36922.4.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 36922.4.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 37022.4.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 37222.4.4 PORT ...................................................................................................................................................... 37222.4.5 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 37222.4.6 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 37522.5 GUIYANG ........................................................................................................................................ 37622.5.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 37622.5.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 37722.5.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 37822.5.4 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 37822.5.5 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 37822.6 XI’AN ............................................................................................................................................. 38022.6.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 38022.6.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 38122.6.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 38222.6.4 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 38322.6.5 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 38422.7 YINCHUAN ...................................................................................................................................... 38522.7.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 38522.7.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 38622.7.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 38722.7.4 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 38722.7.5 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 38722.8 URUMQI ......................................................................................................................................... 38922.8.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 38922.8.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 38922.8.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 39022.8.4 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 39122.8.5 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 39122.9 LANZHOU........................................................................................................................................ 39322.9.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ............................................................................................................... 39322.9.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK .................................................... 39322.9.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS .......................................................................... 39422.9.4 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS.......................................................................................................................... 39422.9.5 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 39522.10 XINING ...................................................................................................................................... 396 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 10
  • 11. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com22.10.1 LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ........................................................................................................... 39622.10.2 SPECIAL PROCESSING ZONES/INDUSTRIAL PARKS INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK ................................................ 39622.10.3 WAREHOUSES BONDED, GENERAL, AND DANGEROUS GOODS ...................................................................... 39622.10.4 LOCAL AND FOREIGN 3PLS...................................................................................................................... 39722.10.5 GOVERNMENT CONTACTS ...................................................................................................................... 39723 DISCLAIMER ................................................................................................................................. 399 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 11
  • 12. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com2 China Intelligence Online China Intelligence Online gathers business intelligence and provides analysis as well as general business services for international organisations working or interested in the Greater China and East Asia markets. Business services include company establishment, customised research, sales and marketing, and client representation. Our researchers and analysts collectively have decades of experience on the ground in Mainland China, both living and working; not just in the developed east, but throughout the vast hinterland that represents the real opportunities in the coming decades. In addition, all of our researchers and analysts, Western and Chinese, are fluent and literate in both Mandarin Chinese and English. China Intelligence Online can help you understand the most dynamic and challenging market in the world as well as provide strategic, on the ground practical assistance in entering the market either through translation, relationship building, company incorporation, market research, or sales and marketing. Previous clients have included the Terminal Operators Conference (TOC), Transport Intelligence, Airline Cargo Management, Informa publications such as Cargo Systems and International Freight Weekly, China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing (CFLP) and the China Ports and Harbours Association, among others. For more information contact info@chinaintelligenceonline.com Or visit us online at www.chinaintelligenceonline.com Follow us on Twitter at www.twitter.com/sintelligence 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 12
  • 13. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com3 Industry SnapshotNot even the worst economic crisis in 80 years could halt the growth of China’s logistics industry. The world’srising economic superpower still put up growth numbers that aroused the envy of the rest of the world.Beijing continued to invest enormous sums of money into massive infrastructure projects, building newairports, railway lines, expressways, and intermodal centres. China’s full-speed march into modernityappeared far less affected by the dire news emanating from other corners of the world than many of themore developed regions.Logistics, the industry that greases the wheels of the great Chinese economy, continued to grow at a rapidpace. Yet to argue that the 2008-9 was a uniformly positive year for the industry would ignore severaltroubling signs. Port throughput growth fell nearly everywhere in China over the period; and no placesuffered a steeper growth decline than the Pearl River Delta, China’s most developed economic region.Furthermore, upon closer inspection China’s logistics industry still has significant structural problems thatmay undermine future development. Logistics still comprise over 18 percent of GDP, a figure more thandouble that in developed economies. The industry suffers from under-agglomeration, and many registeredlogistics companies operating in China lack professional standards and operational efficiency.Despite tremendous government effort to spread China’s newfound prosperity to less-developed regions,the gap between China’s coastal area and its interior remains large - and growing. The country’s variedeconomic regions remain less integrated with each other than with various parts of the outside world.Bureaucratic hassles—such as fines levied upon inter-provincial trade—have prevented the massive Chineseeconomy from operating as a cohesive unit hindering the emergence of national brands able to compete ona global stage.Aware that suboptimal logistics performance threatens to obstruct overall economic development, Beijinghas expended enormous effort in rectifying these problems. Investment in transport infrastructure receiveda jolt by a CNY 586bn stimulus package, and the Chinese government confidently claims that a nationwidehigh-speed rail network will be in place by 2020. New airports, expressways, and container terminals willalso affect the logistics landscape in coming years.In addition, reforms such as the Fuel Tax Law have indicated a growing willingness for Beijing to considergreen solutions in its logistics industry policy. The coming years are likely to witness an increased emphasison environmentally-sound practices, a move that could lead to greater industry consolidation as smallerfirms struggle to compete in a rapidly changing landscape.Few observers expect the global economic slowdown to have reversed itself fully by the end of 2010, andcorrecting structural flaws in the logistics industry will require time, even by the standards of the Chinesegovernment. The industry showed impressive resiliency in the wake of natural disaster in 2008, overcomingboth the unseasonably cold weather in the winter and the tragic Sichuan earthquake in May.Betting against its ability to overcome an economic slowdown would similarly be unwise – even though theWorld Bank now forecasts that a recovery independent of stimulus spending is likely to require a broadstructural change in the composition of GDP growth drivers. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 13
  • 14. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com4 Executive SummaryGlobal Economic ReviewThe economic slowdown that began in 2008, as global GDP fell 2.2 percent through the year, had apronounced effect on the world’s developed economies, who registered a collective GDP decline of 3.3percent in 2009. On the other hand, developing economies grew by 1.2 percent, a figure greatly influencedby China and India’s persistently impressive growth. Aside from those two giants, developing world GDPfigures appear far worse. Without a doubt, 2009 was a trying economic year for the vast majority of theworld’s nations.The following chart illustrates China’s total GDP and its percentage growth rate over the previous yearfrom 2003 to 2009. China GDP 2003-2009 40 14 35 12 30 10 25 8 20 GDP (in CNY trillion) 6 15 Growth Rate (%) 4 10 5 2 0 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: National Economic and Social Development Report, National Bureau of Statistics of ChinaPrimary goods in the global energy markets experienced ups and downs in 2009. Overall, the average priceof oil throughout the year equalled USD 61.92. Coal prices finished 2009 on an upswing, a trend that onlycontinued through the beginning of 2010.Key statistical data The total value of social logistics increased by around 6 percent in 2009 to CNY 95 trillion, a reduction in the growth rate of almost 12 percent from 2008 figures indicating that the industry had largely recovered to pre-crash levels in terms of revenue, if not growth. The total value-added of logistics industry reached CNY 1.9965 trillion in 2008, an increase of 15.4 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 14
  • 15. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com percent from 2007 and a growth rate decline of 4.5 percent. The value-added of the logistics industry accounted for 16.5 percent of total value-added services and 6.6 percent of GDP. This figure reached 1.47 trillion in the first nine months of 2009 again indicating that the worst effects of the slowdown were largely behind the industry. Chinas total import and export value topped USD 2.21 trillion in 2009, down 13.9 percent year-on-year. Of this total, the value of goods exported was USD 1.2 trillion, down 16 percent year-on-year, while the value of goods imported was USD 1.01 trillion, decreasing by 11.2 percent from the previous year. Chinas Consumer Price Index (CPI), a main inflation gauge, dipped 0.7 percent in 2009 year-on-year, with food prices registering a 0.7-percent year-on-year rise. Chinas gross domestic product (GDP) rose 8.7 percent year-on-year in 2009 to reach CNY 33.53 trillion (USD 4.9 trillion).Global Trade ReviewThe economic slowdown that began in 2008, as global GDP fell 2.2 percent through the year, had apronounced effect on the world’s developed economies, who registered a collective GDP decline of 3.3percent in 2009. On the other hand, developing economies grew by 1.2 percent, a figure greatly influencedby China and India’s persistently impressive growth. Aside from those two giants, developing world GDPfigures appear far worse. Without a doubt, 2009 was a trying economic year for the vast majority of theworld’s nations.Global trade plummeted sharply in 2009, as World Trade Organisation estimates reported a 12 percentdecline in world trade flows during the year. Though as the year progressed the pace of worldwide tradequickened, the percentage decline still marked the worst year for global trade since World War Two. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 15
  • 16. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comThe following chart illustrates the total foreign trade volume, imports and exports in China 2003-2009. Total Volume of Foreign Trade in China 140 70 60 120 50 100 40 80 30 60 20 10 40 0 20 -10 0 -20 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 China TEU Total Foreign Trade TEU Total Domestic Trade TEU Total China TEU Growth%Source: National Bureau of Statistics of ChinaThe added value of China’s primary industries reached CNY 3.55 trillion in 2009 with an increase of 4.2percent, a growth rate down 1.3 percent from the year before. Added value in secondary industries reachedCNY 15.70 trillion, up 9.5 percent on 2008 with a growth increase of 0.2 percent, while tertiary industriesreached an added value of CNY 14.29 trillion, up 8.9 percent on 2008 with a growth decline of 0.6 percent.Primary industries were thus hit less hard than secondary and tertiary industries, a result from government-led intervention.Key areas of policy change Reducing market access barriers Tightening of supervision over the logistics market Further improving the Customs clearance environment Increased cooperation in the East Asian region 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 16
  • 17. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comChina’s Economic GeographyThe Chinese economy is better understood not as a single unit but rather a decentralised collection ofseveral regional economies that interact with one another less than one might expect. This arrangement—which differs from other large countries such as the United States—results from China’s transition from acommand to a market economy.Such fragmentation has resulted in the apparent lack of major, globally recognized companies emergingfrom China, particularly given the size of its economy. Larger Chinese firms have enormous difficultymanaging their parent-subsidiary networks; companies under the same corporate umbrella often fail tocooperate and even work at cross-purposes.Growth of Inter-Asian TradeWithin Asia, the PRC is the largest driver of regional exports, but its final demand accounts for only 6.4percent of total Asian trade, which was only half the contribution from Japan and slightly below a quarter ofthe US. The results show that the G3 economies are still the main ultimate export destinations for finishedgoods leaving Asia, when taking into account the share of intermediate goods trade that is for assembly andproduction within the region, but that is eventually shipped out of the region.Based on these data, CIO estimates that of the total volume of finished goods leaving Asian countries asexports, around 20 percent is destined for Asian markets with around 60 percent absorbed by G3 countriesand the remainder headed for the rest of the world (ROW).Air FreightWhile most carriers, as well as shippers, appear confident that 2010 will represent a general stabilisation ofoverall demand—a return to 2008 volumes—most believe that this demand is likely to take the shape ofmini-troughs and mini-peaks, due to the continued unpredictability of demand. This said however, given lastyear’s last minute scramble for capacity, it is unlikely that shippers will be prepared to run inventories as lowas last year. In general, while most predict that 2010 will prove to be a much more positive year for the airfreight market in China, it seems unlikely that carriers will be keen to reintroduce capacity back into themarket straight away. Instead preferring a much more gradual approach as demand develops helping to holdup freight rates and limit liability in what remain uncertain times.Future growth will however be dependent on several factors:  Macro-economy stabilized.  Foreign trade began to resume growth.  International transshipment centers of air express giants will play a great role.  Uncertainties caused by the economic crisis and legacy policies do remain.China’s investment in airport infrastructure development will be enormous. According to a plan formulatedin 2008, the country intends to spend more on airport infrastructure development over the next five years 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 17
  • 18. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comthan the entirety of its airport investment program since the start of the reform era, a figure likely toapproach USD 20bn by 2013.Road HaulageSome estimates indicating that up to 30-40 percent of China’s road haulage firms experiencing sever losseswith many forced to withdraw from the market altogether. Given the high levels of fragmentation and lackof standardization and national registration in the sector it is extremely difficult to accurately gauge the reallevel of loss or indeed the number of companies forced to withdraw from the sector over the period. It ishowever possible to say that the vast bulk were only marginally profitable and were – especially givenBeijing’s commitment to consolidate the sector – living on borrowed time.Perhaps the most significant trend—besides the global economic meltdown—facing road transport in Chinais the passage of a new fuel tax law, implemented on 1 January 2009.Express Delivery and E-CommercePostal business achieved a total income of CNY 109.5bn in 2009, up 14 percent. In particular, the expressdelivery sector grew by 17.3 percent in terms of revenue and reached CNY 47.9bn; total volume increased by22.8 percent to CNY 1.86bn pieces.Beijing’s new Postal Law has made waves in the express delivery industry. More dire predictions estimatethat up to 80 percent of private express delivery enterprises will be unable to compete and fold from theindustry. In the long term though the express delivery market in China promises only to expand, buoyed bythe phenomenal growth of the nascent e-commerce industry.In 2009, as part of an industry wide trend the two largest state-owned express companies - China Post EMSand China Post Logistics Company - completed integration and hence formed a new company, China Postal &Express Logistics.The number of Chinese netizens reached 383m in Q4 2009, including over 109m online buyers. The e-tradingturnover of SMEs amounted to almost CNY 2 trillion, accounting for 1.5 percent of the nation’s GDP. China E-Commerce shopping market is estimated to grow by over 50 percent in 2010, which means a total deliveryvolume of about 1bn or so.Looking ahead to the future, the MOT has highlighted tier-3 and tier-4 cities in the eastern region and tier-2and tier-3 cities in the central and western regions as becoming new growth areas for the industry in comingyears.Port SectorAs 2009 drew to a close, China had 413 ports with a total of 31,050 productive berths—of which 1,416berths were over 10,000 tons. Coastal ports registered 5,119 productive berths—1,157 over 10,000 tons—while inland ports had 25,931 productive berths, 259 over the 10,000-ton level.Of berths over 10,000 tons, 665 were between 10,000 and 30,000 tons, 252 between 30,000 and 50,000tons, 366 between 50,000 and 100,000 tons and 142 berths in excess of 100,000 tons. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 18
  • 19. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comThe global slowdown had an immeadiate impact on China international container trade sector with ports innumerous regions reporting disappointing figures for the Chinese New Year period.In general, the south of the country was hit hardest, with port further north faring much better. At least partof the reason for this is that ports further north depend less on the lower value exports that tend to be themainstay of certainly Guangdongs economy. Tianjin, for example, was boosted by the fact that much of itsexports originate in the Binhai Free-Trade Zone, which tend to produce higher-tech products and the factthat its portfolio of shipping routes is less dependant on China-Eurpoe or US routes.Due to a rebound in the second half of the year, volumes began to rise again. China registered a 2009throughput of 121m TEU, a 6 percent drop from the previous year. Of this figure, coastal ports handled109m TEU while inland ports handled the remaining 12m TEU. These two figures represented declines of 5.9percent and 7.4 percent, respectively. If not for a fourth quarter surge in throughput numbers, thesenumbers would be even gloomier. Cotainer Growth (% over previous year) 50 40 30 20 2007 2008 10 2009 0 -10 -20IWWUnderfunding caused infrastructure and floating equipment to deteriorate badly and the navigable networkfell from 172,000 km in 1960 to 123,300 km by 2004. However, as part of the country’s drive to open up thehinterland of China to foreign investment, IWW projects are once again back in vogue. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 19
  • 20. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comFor the Yangtze, the current Five Year Plan emphasis has shifted away from the original idea of generallyaccelerating construction and operation of inland river ports along the Yangtze to a more focused strategicdevelopment of Chongqing, Wuhan and Nanjing, with the new Shanghai Yangshan mega-port functioning asthe regions deep-water transhipment point.The new container rail network is planned to play a key role in the development of the IWW sector. Thiscombined with lower inland wages and growing domestic consumption will make the IWW sector in China amajor target for foreign investors.BulkDespite the overall slowing of growth in 2009, three new ports joined the 100m ton club. The new ports toreach the mark were Jiangyin in Jiangsu Province, Xiamen in Fujian Province, Zhanjiang in GuangdongProvince and Huzhou in Zhejiang Province. Jiangyin and Huzhou are both river ports.Over the course of 2009, coal imports increased by almost 211 percent to 125.83m tons. Over the sameperiod, China’s coal exports fell 50.7 percent year-on-year to 22.4m tons, with production up 12.7 percent to2.96 bn tons; making China a net importer of coal on an annualised basis (China’s net coal import reached103.43 m tons in 2009).Iron ore imports grew rapidly in 2009. Chinese imports of iron ore showed robust growth in 2009, increasing42 percent to 628m tonnes. Crude steel production within the country also increased, from 500m tonnes in2008 to 568m in 2009.However, uneven distribution iron ore terminals are unevenly distributed a cause of steel companydistribution patterns in China and network inefficiency. According to adjustments in the steel plantdistribution pattern, China will build 12 super-large iron ore vessels with a capacity of 400,000 tonnes, inturn triggering new changes in the ore terminal distribution pattern.OilBy 2009 there were 24 crude oil terminals with handling capacities in excess of 100,000 tons operating alongChina’s coastline.Dependence on imported crude oil continues to increase each year as Chinas crude oil imports rise to 51.29percent last year with demand buoyed by stimulus measures. 2009 marks the first year China’s dependencyon imported oil exceeded 50 percent, with figures from the General Administration of Customs showingimported oil in December hitting a record 21.3m tons, pushing the countrys total oil imports last year to204m tons. Domestic production reached 190 million tons of oil in 2009. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 20
  • 21. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com Total Crude Consumption Versus Crude Import Volume 450 400 350 300 250 200 2000 150 2009 100 50 0 Total Crude Oil Consumption (m Crude Oil Import (m tons) tons)Port DevelopmentThere a many projects on-going and planned in the port industry in every sector. A comprehensive list ofprojects is included in the masin body.Ship Building Export Share of China Ship Exports 2009 Bulk Cargo Ship Oil Tanker Other Container Ship 12% 32% 37% 19% Source: China Association of the National Shipbuilding IndustryIn spite of the global slowdown, main business revenues and profits within the shipbuilding industrymaintained a growth rate of over 30 percent in numerous provinces and municipalities including; Jiangsu, 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 21
  • 22. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comShandong, Fujian, Anhui, Hubei and Chongqing. In particular, Jiangsu Province’s performance was noticeablyimpressive, with a completed shipbuilding output of 15.46m DWT, a year-on-year growth rate of 73.9percent, accounting for 36.4 percent of China’s total, and 12.6 percent of the global output.Despite the industry’s impressive performance – in part due to measures such as the Chinas ShipbuildingIndustry Adjustment and Boosting Plan in 2009 - over the recent year, central policy makers in Beijing havebeen quick to warn that signs of global recovery are insipient at best and have urged the industry to becautious of risks resulting from overcapacity, and external shocks like order cancellations, inadequate ordersand difficulties with bank credit.Despite their great success, many differences in efficiency and resource utilisation still exist between thevarious advanced shipbuilding companies in China and elsewhere.Container ManufactureChina has led all countries in container manufacturing and sales since 1993. At present the country’s annualmanufacturing capacity exceeds 6m TEU with still-impressive year-on-year growth.China’s container manufacturing industry has struggled during the financial crisis, though there are recentsigns that the industry is emerging in 2010. The total value for the industry is well in excess of USD 9 bn.Freight ForwardingLooking at the full year in decomposition, during the first quarter, there was a serious shortage in demand ofdomestic and international freight forwarding market and rail freight. In the second quarter, with theimplementation of the policies on expanding domestic demand, rail, road and air cargo transport volumerecovered, domestic container traffic volume increased. During the third quarter, the national economyrecovered, domestic demand for commodities saw rapid growth, national port cargo throughput gained agrowth of 5 percent, and the foreign trade cargo throughput of coastal ports rose by 17.6 percent.Whilst the worst of the financial crisis may have passed, the world still has a long way to go on the road torecovery. The World Bank has determined that world trade volume experienced a 14.4 percent decline in2009; it is expected to achieve 4.3 percent and 6.2 percent increase in 2010 and 2011 respectively. Globalcontainer shipping volume in 2010 will see 2 percent growth and a 5 percent increase in air cargotransportation.RailChina’s rail sector continued to grow impressively in 2009, as massive government investment spurred alarge-scale expansion and improvement of China’s railway network. Capacity growth—operating in responseto the global financial crisis that struck late in the year—expanded so quickly that the government has nowreadjusted its capacity goal for 2020 upward to 120,000 km from 100,000 km.Total investment for 2008 equalled CNY 330 bn, an increase of 86 percent year-on-year. In 2009, Chinasfixed asset investment in the railway industry totaled round CNY 700bn and in 2010, that figure is expectedto hit CNY 823.5 bn, to include CNY 700bn in infrastructure construction and to fund 70 new projects. At the 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 22
  • 23. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comend of this year, the countrys operating mileage is predicted to exceed 90,000 km. According to the Ministryof Railways, China will inject more than CNY 700bn into the railway industry every year in the period from2010 to 2012.WarehousingAs in other aspects of the Chinese economy, the warehousing industry continues to grow rapidly. In a recentsurvey conducted by the China Materials Storage & Transportation Association (CMSTA) of largewarehousing enterprises scattered throughout China revealed an annual growth of 64 percent in businessincome and a 39 percent increase in profit. Given the marginal nature of profits in many other sectors, this inpart explains the incentive for many logistics providers to diversify services into the sector.However, the Chinese warehousing industry is still beset with problems. Several prominent warehouses lackIT technology, such as computerised stock supervision systems, that allow firms to track inventory. Inaddition, unsealed loading platforms at certain facilities have exposed perishable items to ambient air,leading to an increase in damaged stock. The World Bank estimates that nearly 30 percent of China’s annualfruit and vegetable harvests are damaged by substandard storage. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 23
  • 24. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com5 China Logistics Industry5.1 Overview 5.1.1 Global economic reviewThe economic slowdown that began in 2008, as global GDP fell 2.2 percent through the year, had apronounced effect on the world’s developed economies, who registered a collective GDP decline of 3.3percent in 2009. On the other hand, developing economies grew by 1.2 percent, a figure greatly influencedby China and India’s persistently impressive growth. Aside from those two giants, developing world GDPfigures appear far worse. Without a doubt, 2009 was a trying economic year for the vast majority of theworld’s nations.The United States economy struggled tremendously out of the gate in 2009, registering a Q1 GDP decline of6.4 percent year-on-year. As the year progressed quarterly economic figures in the US showedimprovement, reaching positive growth in Q3 and an estimated 5.9 percent growth in Q4. Economistspartially attribute this growth to a USD 787.2bn fiscal stimulus package implemented in February 2009. Thevalue of the US economy is projected to reach USD 14.9 trillion by the end of 2010.Japan also endured a trying year in 2009, experiencing a GDP decline of 5 percent to USD 5 trillion. Thesegrim numbers were mitigated somewhat by positive Q4 growth numbers, estimated at 1.1 percent. Duringthe year the Japanese government approved a stimulus package worth over USD 130 bn. Likewise, theEuropean Union GDP fell an estimated 4 percent in 2009, though its economic hardship was not sharedequally by all member states. The EU region has a projected GDP growth rate of 0.7 percent for 2010,indicating the persistence of the financial crisis.Within emerging and developing economies, declining external demand and insufficient internal demandcaused the economies of China, India, Russia, and others to slump in 2008. IMF data reveals that theeconomic growth rate of emerging and developing economies slowed to 6.3 percent, 2 percent lower than in2007. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 24
  • 25. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comThe following chart illustrates global GDP growth 2003-2011*. Global GDP Growth Rate 2003-2009 10 8 Global GDP 6 % GDP Growth 4 Advanced Economies 2 Emerging and Developing 0 Economies -2 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 -4Source: Database of the World Economic Outlook, IMF; *2010-11 figures are estimatesTable 4.1 Growth Rate of Global GDP (2003-2011*) Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Global GDP 4.1 5.3 4.9 5.4 5.2 3.4 -2.2 4.6 4.3 Advanced Economies 1.9 3.2 2.5 2.9 2.7 1.0 -3.3 2.6 2.4 Emerging and Developing Economies 6.7 7.7 7.5 8.1 8.3 6.3 1.2 6.8 6.4Source: Database of the World Economic Outlook, IMF; *2010-11 figures are estimatesPrimary goods in the global energy markets experienced ups and downs in 2009. Crude oil prices began theyear hovering around USD 40 per barrel and reached a low of USD 34 in February. By the end of the firstquarter prices had risen to nearly USD 70, and throughout the rest of the year fluctuated between USD 65and USD 80. Overall, the average price of oil throughout the year equalled USD 61.92.Coal prices finished 2009 on an upswing, a trend that only continued through the beginning of 2010. By theend of January, three major coal port indices: Newcastle, Australia; Port Richards, South Africa, and the ARAindex (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Antwerp) in Europe registered coal prices of USD 95.20, 86.02, and 85.99respectively. These figures represented a year-on-year increase of 16.31 percent, 18.91 percent, and 9.50percent respectively. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 25
  • 26. www.chinaintelligenceonline.com5.2 2009 Global Trade ReviewGlobal trade plummeted sharply in 2009, as World Trade Organisation estimates reported a 12 percentdecline in world trade flows during the year. Though as the year progressed the pace of worldwide tradequickened, the percentage decline still marked the worst year for global trade since World War Two.Observers are optimistic that trade will continue to grow in 2010 and beyond; current estimates are for a 4.3percent expansion in 2010 followed by a 6.2 percent growth the following year. Much of the quickturnaround in global trade can be attributed to the stimulus measures enacted worldwide, perhaps mostnotably in China.Despite the effects of the global financial crisis, the Chinese economy continued to expand rapidly in 2009,reaching CNY 33.53 trillion (USD 4.92 trillion). This figure represents an increase of 8.7 percent on 2008,remarkable considering the performance of most other countries around the world. Analysts believe Chinawas able to avoid the worst of the global financial crisis due to a CNY 4 trillion stimulus package pushedthrough government in March 2009 as well as continued access to easy credit. These two factors mitigatedthe drying up of China’s export markets during the year. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 26
  • 27. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comThe following figures show value of imports and exports to and from China with its top 10 trading partnersin 2009 (100 million dollar) and percentage growth over 2008. Chinas Top Ten Export Destinations by Volume 2009 2500 350 300 2000 250 1500 200 150 Export Volume (USD 100 m) 1000 100 50 Export Growth (% over 500 previous yearr) 0 0 -50 Top Ten Exporters to China by Volume 2009 1400 10 1200 5 0 1000 -5 800 -10 600 Import Volume (USD 100 m) -15 400 -20 Import Growth (% over 200 previous year) -25 0 -30Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 27
  • 28. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comThe following chart illustrates the total foreign trade volume, imports and exports in China 2003-2009. Total Volume of Foreign Trade in China 140 70 60 120 50 100 40 80 30 60 20 10 40 0 20 -10 0 -20 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 China TEU Total Foreign Trade TEU Total Domestic Trade TEU Total China TEU Growth%Source: National Bureau of Statistics of ChinaThe added value of China’s primary industries reached CNY 3.55 trillion in 2009 with an increase of 4.2percent, a growth rate down 1.3 percent from the year before. Added value in secondary industries reachedCNY 15.70 trillion, up 9.5 percent on 2008 with a growth increase of 0.2 percent, while tertiary industriesreached an added value of CNY 14.29 trillion, up 8.9 percent on 2008 with a growth decline of 0.6 percent.Primary industries were thus hit less hard than secondary and tertiary industries, a result from government-led intervention. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 28
  • 29. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comThe following figure shows the relative geographic distribution of GDP by region in 2009. Proportion of Total GDP (%) 26% Bohai Economic Rim 35% Yangtze River Delta Southeast Coastal Area Pearl River Delta Southwest coastal area 21% Rest of country 3% 12% 3% Proportion of Foreign Trade by Value 2009 (%) 1% 9% 24% Bohai Economic Rim Yangtze River Delta 27% Southeast Coastal Area Pearl River Delta Southwest coastal area Rest of country 36% 3%Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 29
  • 30. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comThe following figure illustrates the relative geographic distribution of national foreign trade by region byvalue in 2009. Proportion of Foreign Trade by Value 2009 (%) 1% 9% 24% Bohai Economic Rim Yangtze River Delta 27% Southeast Coastal Area Pearl River Delta Southwest coastal area Rest of country 36% 3%Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 30
  • 31. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comThe following chart illustrates China’s total GDP and its percentage growth rate over the previous yearfrom 2003 to 2009. China GDP 2003-2009 40 14 35 12 30 10 25 8 20 GDP (in CNY trillion) 6 15 Growth Rate (%) 4 10 5 2 0 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: National Economic and Social Development Report, National Bureau of Statistics of China 5.2.1 Foreign Trade Growth Slowed, Import Volume Surpassed Export VolumeSeveral years of breakneck foreign trade growth in China came to an abrupt end in 2009, as the globaleconomic slowdown battered the economies that comprise China’s major trade partners. Foreign trade inChina fell 13.9 percent to USD 2.21 trillion in 2009, a growth rate decline of a whopping 31.7 percent from2008 and a 37.4 percent decline in the growth rate reported for 2007.Exports, a critical component of China’s economy, fell 16 percent to USD 1.2 trillion in 2009 whilst importsfell 11.2 percent to USD 1.01 percent. Despite these gloomy numbers, China surpassed Germany during theyear to become the world’s largest exporter. At present, China is the world’s third-largest importer, trailingonly the United States and Germany. 5.2.2 Economic Development of China’s Coastal RegionsChina’s primary economic regions consist of three major economic hubs and two lesser economic regions;the Yangtze and Pearl River Deltas (YRD and PRD respectively), the Beijing-Tianjin Bohai Economic Region,and the south-west and south-east coastal regions accounting for roughly 65 percent of the nation’s GDP.In 2009 these three major economic regions grew on aggregate 10.9 percent over the previous year, 2.2percentage points higher than the national average. Of the three regions the Beijing-Tianjin Bohai Regioncontinued to lead the growth with a figure of 11.9 percent; more than 1.5 percentage points higher thaneither the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta growth rates. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 31
  • 32. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comIn 2009, YRD GDP rose above 1 trillion USD for the first time reaching a figure of CNY 7.1794 trillion up 10.4percent over 2008; in 2009 the PRD achieved an annual GDP of CNY 3.210588 trillion, exceeding the 3 trillionYuan mark for the first time, an increase of 9.4 percent over 2009.The following figure illustrates GDP of China’s five main coastal regions and the respective percentagegrowth rates 2009. GDP and Growth Rate of Five Largest Coastal Regions 2009 9,000 14 8,000 12 7,000 10 6,000 5,000 8 4,000 6 GDP (CNY bn) 3,000 Growth Rate (%) 4 2,000 2 1,000 0 0 Bohai Yangtze Southeast Pearl River Southwest Economic River Delta Coastal Area Delta Coastal Area RimSource: CIO 5.2.3 General economic overview; the policy stimulus resultsChinese economy generally in good shape as country enters 2010. Compared to the dismal results for Q42008, a disappointing 6.8 percent, by Q1 2010 most analysts agreed that the Chinese economy was in muchbetter shape. Data recently released by that average GDP growth in 2009 reached a very respectable 8.7percent – well above many more downbeat forcasts abounding in the summer of 2009. This improvedeconomic growth is largely agreed to be primarily the result of forceful policy stimulus measures thatboosted domestic investment.GDP continues to grow in 2009. According to preliminary estimates, gross domestic product (GDP) in thefirst three quarters of 2009 was CNY 21.782 trillion, a year-on-year increase of 7.7 percent, which was 0.6percentage points higher than that in the first half of 2009. In terms of growth by quarters, it was up 6.1percent for the first quarter, 7.9 percent for the second, and 8.9 percent for the third quarter. In terms ofgrowth by sectors, the value added of the primary industry was CNY 2.25 trillion, up by 4.0 percent; that ofthe secondary industry was CNY 10.65 trillion, up by 7.5 percent; and that of the tertiary industry was CNY8.88 trillion, up by 8.8 percent. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 32
  • 33. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comForeign trade hit hard by global slowdown. With foreign trade hit hard as the global crisis unravelled, netexports, which had previously contributed 2 percentage points to economic growth prior to 2008,contracted sharply, detracting almost 3 percentage points from net GDP growth. Faced with this freefall,Beijing acted quickly to to implement a wide scale fiscal stimulus package and loose monetary policy tobolster growth back to the traditionally mandated target of 8 percent. These measure it is now widelyaccepted, have provided significant support to domestic demand, with fixed-asset investment (FAI), forexample, surging since the end of 2008; contributing more than 7 percentage points to GDP growth over theperiod of 2009. This has offset some of the downward pressure generated by falling international demandfor exports.Over the course of 2009 foreign trade stabilised. In the first three quarters of 2009, the total value ofimports and exports was USD 1.56 trillion, down 20.9 percent year-on-year. Of this total, the value ofimports and exports in the first quarter down 24.9 percent, second quarter down 22.1 percent, and thirdquarter down by 16.5 clearly indicating that volumes were beginning to stabilise. In the first three quarters2009, the value of exports was USD 846.6 bn, down by 21.3 percent; the value of imports was UDS 711.2 bn,down by 20.4 percent. The trade surplus was USD 135.5 bn, down by USD 45.5bn year-on-year.Expansionary spending policy measures, are however, set to be withdrawn in the near future as Beijingconsiders the longer term implications for prolonged aggressive fiscal stimulus measures. Among theseissues are surging real estate markets and growing inflationary pressures. With the easing of monetarypolicy, house prices have soared across the country with the more developed western coastal citiesaggressively leading the way recording rises of around 50 percent in cities such as Shanghai and Beijing – onaverage 25 percent in most major cities. Added to this high levels of liquidity have increased inflationarypressures with both the consumer price index (CPI) and producer price index (PPI) growing 6 percent and 13percent in December 2009 year-on-year respectively. Although at present these indicators appear largelymanageable, they certainly add wait to the arguments for withdrawal of stimulus measures.Sales in the domestic markets continued to accelerate steadily with higher growth rates at or belowcounty level than in cities. In the first three quarters, the total retail sales of consumer goods reached CNY8.97 trillion, a year-on-year rise of 15.1 percent; the real growth was 17.0 percent (after accounting for pricefactors), which was 2.8 percentage points higher than that in the same period 2008. Retail sales in citiesreached CNY 6.10 trillion, up 14.8 percent, with retail sales at or below county level (i.e. outside major cities)at CNY 2.87 trillion, up 16 percent. Grouped by sector, sales by wholesale and retail businesses was up 15percent and lodging and catering industries rose 17.4 percent.Investment in fixed assets enjoyed fast growth with acceleration of growth in investment in real estate. Inthe first three quarters of 2009, investment in fixed assets reached CNY 15.51 trillion, a year-on-year growthof 33.4 percent, or a rise of 6.4 percentage points as compared with the growth in the same period of 2008.Investment in urban areas reached CNY 13.32 trillion, up by 33.3 percent, or 5.7 percentage points higherthan growth over the same period in 2008. Investment in rural areas reached CNY 2.19 trillion, up 33.6percent, a growth rate rise of 10.3 percentage points. Investment in primary industry, secondary industryand the tertiary industry in urban areas rose by 54.8 percent, 26.9 percent and 38.1 percent respectively. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 33
  • 34. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comBy region, investment in eastern, central and western regions grew by 28.1 percent, 38.3 percent and 38.9percent respectively. Investment in infrastructure also increased by a large amount. In the first threequarters, investment in infrastructure (excluding electricity) went up by 52.6 percent, of which that inrailway transport rose by 87.5 percent; road transport up by 50.7 percent; and health, social security andsocial welfare up by 72.9 percent. In the first three quarters, investment in real estate development was CNY2.51 trillion, up 17.7 percent year on year, a 7.8 percentage point growth rate rise over the first half of theyear.At present at least one government think tank is predicting that China’s GDP will grow 10 percent in 2010 –a figure that will likely push official inflation up to 3 percent. However, as China’s CPI is largely based arounda sample basket of goods weighted to reflect the largely rural economy of the mid-eighties, the real figurewould likely be considerably higher. 5.2.4 Logistics Industry Development over 2008-9 and outlook for 2010Whilst it is generally acknowledged by most observers that the industry made significant progress in terms ofoverall development toward the government’s stated objectives from 2008 to 2010, the period didnevertheless signify very troubling times for the logistics industry.By the end of 2009, total logistics market size reached CNY 95 trillion; a figure more than 4.2 times that of2000, and an annual growth rate of 23 percent. Added value realized by the logistics industry reached CNY 2trillion, 1.9 times that of 2000, and an annual growth rate of 14 percent.In terms of overall industry dynamics, manufacturers and trading companies increasingly moved towardsimplementing modern logistics practices and 3PL services, with the latter becoming one of the fastestgrowing sectors of the industry in recent years. Meanwhile, traditional logistics companies were quick toadopt and develop new, advanced practices. By the end of 2009, the total social logistics cost to GDP ratiorealised a reduction to 18 percent compared with 19.4 percent in 2000 – still well below the long termreduction targets set by the government.A significant proportion of the industry works in the so-called ‘grey market’. Tax evasion is common whichhas hindered the development of the industry. Training is also an issue. With little IT competence, manyoperators lack a computer, or knowledge of how to use one. In addition to this, industry standards varyaccording to region and sector.Much of the logistics industry remains dominated by State-owned enterprises (SOEs) such as COSCO andSinotrans. Large SOEs will seek major partnerships with foreign owned companies, whereas the privatelyheld operators are more likely to be seen as acquisition targets. Privately held Chinese domestic companieshave a reputation for agility, flexibility, entrepreneurial capabilities and IT know-how. This contrasts with theSOEs which are perceived as slow-moving and bureaucratic, albeit having huge resources at their disposal,good contacts in government and geographic reach.Despite it being no longer a regulatory necessity, it seems that many foreign and domestic logistics providersare looking to expand through joint ventures. The main drivers behind this requirement are quite differentfor the two groups. Whereas Chinese companies want to enter into a joint venture with a foreign company 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 34
  • 35. www.chinaintelligenceonline.comto gain access to its international network, management expertise and capital, non-Chinese companies aremore interested in customer relationships, operational skills, local knowledge and a domestic network.In terms of domestic logistics infrastructure, 2009 witnessed a series of major improvements. As ofDecember 2009, total railway length exceeded 80,000 km with much more high-speed rail lines underconstruction, total expressway length exceeded 61,000 km, more than 36,500 port berths were in operation,including more than 1,200 berths with 10,000+ DWT capacity, and the total number of regional andinternational airports reached 160. The country has also seen substantial growth in the development ofregional logistics centres and parks as well as bonded zones.Under the auspices of the Eleventh Five Year Plan, modern logistics has been classified as a key industry witha special emphasis on sustained development of the sector. 5.2.5 Growing importance of logistics industryAs part of the overall stimulus strategy announced in 2008 intending to help mediate the effects of the globalslowdown, the State Council acknowledged the critical role logistics will play in the overarching strategy tomaintain GDP growth levels at the 8 percent target deemed necessary to absorb an emergent labour forceand facilitate the structural changes deemed necessary to fully reform the economy.Indeed, whilst 8 percent has in fact been maintained for the bulk of this year thus far, it has been achievedthrough a substantial shift in the composition of GDP growth drivers as pertinently noted by the World BankChina Economy Update Q3 2009. The noted shift seems to indicate that expansionary policies enacted byBeijing have in fact taken up much of the slack drawn into the system by a reduction in export demand. TheBank further concedes that, as expansionary measures subside to make way for natural growth the resultingcomposition of GDP drivers will be structurally different from the pre-crash economy in that domesticdemand will likely mitigate to some extent the longer term reductions in spending power by the three mainglobal consumer blocks – namely Japan, the US and the EU25.Within this overall framework of structural change the State Council acknowledged the importance of thelogistics sector both as an engine of growth to facilitate an effective response to the financial crisis as well asthe need to streamline performance to enhance competitiveness to help the industry adapt to these longerterm structural shifts in global consumption; to help Chinese logistics providers compete in an increasinglyfierce global market environment; and create new jobs supporting the growth of domestic consumption. 5.2.6 Basic principles of developmentThe State Council are at present advocating a more hands-on approach to managing the allocation ofresources to ensure balanced development in: urban and rural areas, provinces and regions, domestic andinternational markets; and to oversee the fragmentation and dissolution of ingrained monopolies which theCouncil believes lead to inefficiencies within the industry; and regulate and promote standardisation acrossthe industry. 中国物流发展报告 China Logistics Development Report 20 10 35

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