Final building service (assignment)

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Final building service (assignment)

  1. 1. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN Bachelor of Quantity Surveying (Honours) - Building Service 1 Group Assignment Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings Student Name Student ID Sia Yiik En 0315253 Teoh Tze Yoong 0314756 Sim Wen Yi 0308610 Lim Fang Shiuan 0310399 Lee Chee Ming 0308958 Wong Ha Shiong 0309640 Lecturer: Ms. Mariatul Liza Meor Gheda Date of Submission: 18th November, 2013
  2. 2. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. Abstract The need to utilize natural ventilation to establish a healthy indoor environment and satisfy users’ comfort has becomes growingly important in the building industry as it is energy efficient and cost saving (Architectus, 2013), thus leading to the development of this paper. This report consists of the details of the characteristics of natural ventilation, its significance to high-rise buildings in general as well as discussions about its boon and bane, and some of the possible positive changes that could be done to further enhance its performance in ventilating buildings. A case study about Ridzuan Condominium is carried out to provide an extensive analysis and reveal more information about natural ventilation. Several pictures obtained from the internet are used as reference and to illustrate how certain natural ventilation strategies work. The results of this paper suggest that despite its disadvantages, natural ventilation should be used in more future projects to ventilate a building as the benefits it could bring are impressive.
  3. 3. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. Table of content Chapter 1: Introduction………………………………………………………………….……….1-3 1.1. History of Natural Ventilation……………………………………………………………………3 Chapter 2: Theory …………………………………………………………………..…..……….. 4-8 2.1 The Principles of Natural Ventilation in a High-Rise Building……………………..…….…...4 2.2 Natural Ventilation Strategies………………………………………………………..………….5 2.3 The Purpose of Natural Ventilation………………………………………………...………….. 6 2.4 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Ventilation………………………………….7 2.5 Design Consideration in General………………………………………………………….…….8 Chapter 3: Case Study ………………………………………………………………….………9-18 3.1 Climate……………………………………………………………………………………………..9 3.2 Background……………………………………………………………………………………......9 3.3 Natural Ventilation Strategy……………………………………………………….………..10-16 3.3.1. Overall Ventilation in the Building …………………………………………......10-12 3.3.2. Ventilation in Residential Units………………………………………………....12-14 3.4 Analysis – Strengths………………………………………………………………………...14-15 3.5 Analysis – Considerations………………………………………..………………………...15-16 3.6 Recommendation and Possible Solutions……………………………………………......16-18 Chapter 4: Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….19 Chapter 5: Learning Outcomes……………………………………………………………...20-22 Bibliography…………………………………………………….…….......................................23-24 Appendix……………………………………………………………………………………………...25
  4. 4. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 1.0 Introduction Ventilation (mechanical or natural) is a process of changing air in an enclosed space. Its general purpose is to maintain the air purify and prevent heat concentration. This report will focus on the aspects of natural ventilation. Figure 1: Natural Ventilation Generally, mechanical ventilation is operated by using different devices white at the other extreme, natural ventilation (passive ventilation) uses the flow of natural air and pressure differences to cool and ventilate the building (Sustainability Workshop, 2011). It is classified into stack ventilation and wind ventilation and its importance can be seen as it provides more fresh air and removes excessive carbon dioxide to the building (Sustainability Workshop, 2011). It requires almost zero installation and maintainenance costs. Figure 2: Stack Ventilation 1
  5. 5. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. Stack ventilation is a type of natural ventilation. According to Nick Baker (2013), stack ventilation is where the air is driven through the building by vertical pressure differences developed by the thermal buoyancy.When the outdoor temperature is lower than indoor, the density difference between the warm air and the cold air causes the pressure difference within the building as stated by Stabat, Caciolo & Marchio (2012). The hot air inside the building will move to the top of the building and out through the openings (windows or openings) while the cold air from outside will flow into the building from the bottom. Figure 3: Wind Ventilation Wind ventilation is a type of natural ventilation that uses the force of wind to pull air into the building (Sustainability Workshop, 2011). It is easy and cheap as a form of passive ventilation because windows (which is normally cheap) are commonly used for this type of ventilation. 2
  6. 6. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 1.1 History of Natural Ventilation In ancient time, natural elements bring many benefits to human being, for example human uses fire to heat or cook, water as drink and earth as the sources of food. Wind is also utilized to its full potential as well. In ancient culture, wind is known as a bad thing as it is would cause the diseases to spread (West, 2000). In the year of Roman Empire, the wind has been discussed in the first tome of architecture, called “The Ten Books on Architecture”. Figure 4: The Ten Books on Architecture. (Vitruvius, 1960) The creator of “The Ten Books” is an architect named Marcus Vitruvius Pollio. According to Vitruvius (1960), there are four different types of wind direction - north, south, east, and west. Wind blowing in between two directions like North and East is called secondary wind. With the knowledge of this, Vitruvius is able to plan the lay out of the city. The first element considered by him is the importance of being able to control the cold, hot or humid air. Vitruvius thought of a great method for the lay out of the cities, which is to lay the building oriental and slightly off the axis to block the wind path and install an opening on the opposite side to increase the air change. (West, 2000) From his research, it is revealed that wind will flow through any path and increase in speed while travelling from a smaller space to a larger space. However, obstructions on the wind path will result in the decreasing of the speed of the wind (Vitruvius, 1960). Because of his finding, all the houses had a cut down hole for the breezes air to flow it. In order to achieve optimum indoor temperature, they would cover up the openings if desired. These method are used to make the indoor cooler, which are the early methods for natural ventilation before it is further developed and utilized in Figure 5: Marcus Vitruvius Pollio. (Vitruve, 1547) the daily lives. 3
  7. 7. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 2.0 Theory 2.1 The Principles of Natural Ventilation in a High-Rise Building The pressure difference across the openings of a building is a major influence on the physical mechanisms for natural ventilation (Wood & Salib, 2013). It is affected by the flowing of air, the differences of indoor and outdoor temperature, or a combination of both. Hence, natural ventilation can be grouped into ‘wind-induced’ and ‘buoyancy-induced’ ventilations. Roulet (2008) stated that wind-induced ventilation happens when a pressure distribution is created around a building by wind as affected by the atmospheric pressure. The differences of pressure drive air into and out of the building from the positive pressure zone (along-wing direction) and the negative zone (opposite wind direction). He also stated that the wind’s pressure is largely affected by wind direction, air velocity and building’s shape. According to Civoni (1994), buoyancy-induced ventilation, which commonly known as ‘stack effect’ happens due to the differences of density caused by fluctuation in height and temperature within a building. The pressure differences created by buoyancy are affected by the stack height (between air intake and extract openings) and the air density difference as a result of humidity and temperature of air. It is vital for the outdoor temperature to be lower than the indoor temperature to make sure there is inflow of wind even in the absence of wind to achieve buoyancy-induced ventilation. When the outdoor air pressure is lower than the indoor pressure, air in the lower part of a building will be pulled inwards through the openings by the under-pressure. The air is later heated by the building occupants and directed out from the building’s over-pressured zone (different pressure gradient in the building caused by the temperature difference). However, it should be noted that there is a ‘neutral plane’, where the indoor and outdoor pressure are equal at a certain height of building. To achieve effective buoyancy-induced ventilation, the temperature difference between indoor and outdoor has to be large enough, and the resistance to internal air movement has to be as small as possible. Lastly, it should be noted that wind-induced and buoyancy-induced ventilation will occur both separately or together. Thermal buoyancy will normally be a larger driving force on a calm day with no wind, whereas the pressure difference created by wind will be the larger one on a windy day. 4
  8. 8. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 2.2 Natural Ventilation Strategies The strategies of how air flows in and out of a building are discussed below. According to Wood, A. & Salib, R. (2013), the different strategies used to ventilate high-rise buildings can be categorized into three main groups: single-sided, cross- and stackventilation. Single-sided ventilation is where fresh air from the outside enters the room through the opening on the same side it is extracted from (Architectus, 2013). This is effective in ventilating a space if the depth is a maximum 2.5 times of its height. For single-sided ventilation, the driving force is wind coinciding with the Figure 6: Single-sided ventilation. temperature difference between the inflow air at ground level and the outflow air at high level. If the ventilation openings are placed at different elevations, buoyancy effect is able to aid single-sided ventilation. Cross-ventilation relies on the air movement across two sides of a building (from the windward to the leeward side) due to the differences of pressure between openings in the two sides (Givoni, 1994). In order to make crossventilation more effective, the depth of the room Figure 7: Cross-ventilation. must not be more than 5 times of its height. Similar with single-sided ventilation, the buoyancy effect can also aid cross-ventilation when the spaces are facing tall open space (atrium). Jalayerian (2012) stated that stack-ventilation is the inflow of fresh air into the building and outflow at an elevated level as a result of the occurrence of density, pressure and temperature differences within a building. It is often used in buildings with chimney, central atrium or elevated part. Figure 8: Stack ventilation. 5
  9. 9. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 2.3 The Purpose of Natural Ventilation As mentioned before, natural ventilation is the process of air changing caused by pressure differences between the enclosed space and the surrounding (Nick Baker, 2013). The inflow and outflow of air through the openings in a building is an excellent alternative to mechanical ventilation as it would provide several notable advantages, such as improving energy performance of a building and establish hazard-free air quality. Furthermore, the use of natural ventilation is also proving a boon for people with raising concerns about the cost effectiveness and environmental consequences as the almost zero energy consumption of natural ventilation is able to reduce the initial cost, operational and maintenance cost of a building. (Green Building Tech, 2007) Natural ventilation is also vital in improving human comfort. According to Wood & Salib (2013), there are 3 ways in which it is able to do so, such as by cooling the building fabric, indoor air, and building occupants (through evaporation and convection – also known as physiological cooling). The physiological cooling effect of natural ventilation can be achieved with fast air movement over the skin (1 to 2 m/s) which increases the sweat evaporation rate and significantly reduces the occupant when the skin perspires. In addition, natural ventilation is able to lessen noise and health problems, thus creating an environment with much healthier and more comfortable standards (Kukadia, V. & Hall, D., 2011). 6
  10. 10. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 2.4 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings Natural ventilation occurs when there are pressure or temperature differences between the building and its surrounding to provide ventilation and space cooling (Royal Institute of British Architects, 2013). The process of changing air in a high-rise building using natural ventilation doesn’t rely on any mechanical system, but it is influenced by the number and characteristics of opening in the building. Generally, a high-rise building with good natural ventilation system is able to save significant costs and energy compared to one which uses mechanical ventilation system as more operating costs, maintenance cost or repair costs are required to ensure the system is functional. In addition, less energy is consumed for natural ventilation, hence it is environmental-friendly as well (Heaters Wholesale Limited, 2013). However, natural ventilation brings some disadvantages as well. As mentioned above, since the ventilation occurs naturally when there are temperature differences between the interior and exterior of the building, it is relatively difficult to anticipate or even manipulate the rate of ventilation in a building to desired level that could provide a comfortable environment for the occupants (Royal Institute of British Architects, 2013). This means the building might face the risks of under-ventilation on hot summer days or over-ventilation on cold days. 7
  11. 11. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 2.5 Design Consideration in General Natural ventilation occurs due to the unbalance pressure in the building and the airflow around the building (Medhi, 2012). Ventilation effect is influenced by the building design, and is minimized even if there is just a small blockage in the path of the air flow. A good ventilation system can be identified if it meets the requirements below: It is energy efficient, cost effective and able to establish hazard free air quality while satisfying user comfort. To ensure maximum air flow, more opening should be installed on the lower floors and the top few floors of the building. Besides that, there should be a space big enough for the air flow to reach the top of the building from the lower levels, such as stairwell and ductwork. Etherige (2012) stated that natural ventilation system in high-rise building is concerned with changeable and unreliable factors such as the behavior of occupant and weather so these two factors must be taken into account to improve the performance of natural ventilation as well. According to Etherige (2012), the design of the natural ventilation system in high-rise building should be divided into 5 stages, the first stage is assess the feasibility of the plan. This involves considering about the technical difficulties that are related to the system. Stage 2 is to choose a suitable strategy to drive fresh air into the high-rise building. Stage 3 if the process is envelope design. Designer or engineer must work together to allow the interior space to have the optimum air velocity between 0.15m/s and 0.5 m/s. The size of the openings and the location of the openings must be considered as well. Stage 4 is to make sure the airflow rates and temperatures are appropriate to make sure the conditions of the environment is safe and comfortable to the occupants. Stage 5 involves evaluating and instructing the controls of the system. Some of the factors that will affect the natural ventilation in high-rise building are partition walls, humans are furniture (Baird, 2004). As a result, obstacles must be removed to achieve maximum air flow. Small openings on the partition walls near the ceiling will improve the movement of air as air with higher temperature will rises and exits through the small openings. The stairwell of the building must be as wide as possible so more vertical airflow to the top of the building can be induced. Windows should be used for more effective crossventilation as well. It is advisable to have windows of equal or suitable sizes installed along the perimeter of the high-rise building so that the air ventilation can be more efficient. 8
  12. 12. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 3.0 Case study 3.1 Climate The tropical climate of Malaysia is always hot and humid, with temperature consistently hovering around 31 degree Celcius and heavy rains occurring at any time of year (Climate Zone, 2004). In addition, the copious rainfall is always brief and quick. Throughout the year, the humidity level is relatively high albeit the warm climate of the country. 3.2 Background Figure 9: Ridzuan Condominium. Ridzuan Condominium is a 27-storeys high residential building located in Bandar Sunway, Selangor. The building is rectangular in plan and its long axis is drawn on the northwest-southeast direction. In the building, the service core, consists of staircases and elevators, is used to enhance its natural ventilation features and help maintaining good air quality within the building; The staircases are placed at the southwest façade of the building, with large openings right beside them, while 4 elevators are placed at the northeast side. Several balconies can be found on each floor of the building as well. Besides that, the center of the building comprises of 4 atria, with 2 of each on the northwest side and another 2 on the southeast, forming a huge central void for natural ventilation by stack effect. 9
  13. 13. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 3.3 Natural Ventilation Strategy The rate of air flow in and out of a naturally ventilated building like Ridzuan Condominium and the distribution of pressure difference throughout the structure are dependent on the building design, which is affected by both wind forces and stack effect (Givoni, 1994). This section examines and analyzes the natural ventilation strategy of the building. 3.3.1 Overall Ventilation in the Building Ventilation of air in the building is driven by cross-ventilation through the accessible windows along the perimeter of the building. Furthermore, wind at the top of the building is able to create suction to assist the filtration of air. Figure 10: Picture from Japan Sustainable Building Database (2008) used to show the section view of Ridzuan Condominium. i) Openings for Ventilation As mentioned earlier, Malaysia has a hot humid climate throughout the year. Natural ventilation is still one of the most effective ways to keep a high-rise building like Ridzuan Condominium comfortably cool and dry, meeting all users’ needs and expectations. Figure 11: Left – Balconies ; Middle – Porches ; Right – Openings beside staircases. 10
  14. 14. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. Along the perimeter of the building, there are large openings on the southwest side and accessible windows on the northeast façade of the building for the inflow and outflow of air. Wind-driven forces are utilized to drive air across each floor plate by crossventilation on a floor-by-floor basis. The openings (mainly consist of windows and balconies) located on northeast and southwest elevations, cause crossventilation in the upwind direction. They are accessible (balcony doors for balconies) and can be manipulated by the occupants to control the exchange rate of air and distribution of natural ventilation within the space (Roulet, 2008). These ventilation openings are used to reduce noise from Figure 12 : Openings besides the staircases. outdoor, as well as providing a pathway for the ventilation needed to maintain adequate air quality. ii) Central Void for Stack Effect Figure 13: Natural Ventilation (stack effect) in high-rise buildings (termite model) used to illustrate the stack effect in Ridzuan Condominium (Baird, 2004). 11
  15. 15. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. The central void of Ridzuan Condominium consists of 4 similar size ‘atria’. Clean air is brought in through the open area at the ground floor’s lobby and the mid-height of the building with the aid of cross-ventilation and stack effect. The air is exhausted to the atria due to the lower pressure region in the center. The air is drawn towards the negatively pressurized corridors within the building, and finally driven upwards when air velocity induces negative pressure at the top of the building. 3.3.2 Ventilation in Residential Units i) Placement of Openings with Reference to Winds and Wing Wall The relationship between air velocities at different spots in the building is not distinctive (Givoni, 1994). In Ridzuan Condominium, the air movement concentrates in a flow from windward to the leeward openings, with the rest of the room’s space left minimally affected and flowing at a much lower velocity. This is good for natural ventilation to maintain good indoor air quality. According to Wood & Salib (2013), this occurs when the wind perpendicular to the inlet opening is moving at maximized velocity while the outlet is bigger and placed in the line of air flow. In addition, according Givoni (1994), the perpendicular placing of opening to the prevailing wind direction also creates the biggest pressure differential between the walls located at the leeward and the windward sides. Nonetheless, it is different in reality as the most ideal angles for the building exposed to the winds are actually ranged from 30 to 60o from the normal. Figure 14: Effects of different angle on indoor air speed. Data from Givoni (1994). This could provide superior ventilation efficiency in separate rooms and in the residence, hence the addition of wing walls to the building. However, when the inlet and outlet are not in line with each other, the direction of air movement will be altered and that causes a turbulent flow in the whole room, reducing the general airflow but improves the average distribution of air velocities. 12
  16. 16. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. A wing wall is a structural projection (usually a smaller wall) built on a building’s exterior that is joined to a larger structure or wall, extending to the eaves as described by Electro Industries (2013). As shown in figure, a wing wall is added windward of the first window, which creates a relatively higher pressure to drive air into the building while the one placed leeward of the second window to create suction in front of it to Figure 15: Wing walls. draw air out. This is because a pressure gradient is formed along the walls (windward higher while leeward lower). Air moves through the upwind window into the building and is withdrawn from it through the downwind openings. This will not be the same if the oblique wind is exactly perpendicular to the exposed building since there will be no pressure differential at all, thus decreasing the ventilation rate of the indoor space. Figure 16: Top - Indoor Speed without Wing Wall. Bottom - Effect of wing wall on indoor air speed.(Givoni, 1994) ii) Geometrical Arrangement of the Building Geometrical arrangement, including the balconies extended outward or set inward has significant impact on the spreading of pressure along the different sides of the building as well as the choices for providing openings that would greatly affect the efficiency of cross ventilation in the building (Givoni, 1994). In general term, building like Ridzuan Condominium that is more ‘spread out’ and has an irregular shape will increase the possibility for cross ventilation in an indoor space. 13
  17. 17. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. Figure 17: Balcony for natural ventilation. There’s one balcony in every separate unit in the building. This expands the ratio of external walls (with openings) to floor area and provides more chances to draw wind in from various directions and increases the efficiency of both direct and independent ventilation to the rooms in the particular unit (Wood & Salib, 2013). In this regard, the open areas are mostly equipped with accessible windows or screen doors as well. According to Kukadia & Hall (2011), this opens up options to either reducing heat loss or improving ventilation for the adjoining rooms; Opened screen door or windows would supply fresh air from outside for ventilation while closed ones would result in less heat loss from the indoor space seeing that the façade is more ‘even’ (shape is less irregular). iii) Fly Screen As previously mentioned, fly screens are used in the building. In fact, they are very commonly used in hot region like Malaysia despite its potential to decrease the airflow rate. However, their function as a protection from insects is extraordinarily useful. Besides that, if it is positioned in front of the balconies, such interference could be greatly minimized while allowing it to function without fault (Givoni, 1994). 3.4 Analysis - Strengths: 1. The building is naturally ventilated all the time without any aid from mechanical ventilators such as fan or air-conditioner. This is rather rare and needs zero energy to keep the building well ventilated and establish hazard-free indoor air quality. 14
  18. 18. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 2, The stack effect in the central atria drives air in and out of the building through crossventilation and decreases the need to rely on wind-induced ventilation. This is because the 4 atria will help to pull air from the perimeter of the building upwards and outwards (through the top). 3. The atria provide daylight at the center of the building. 4. According to the design of the building, vertical ventilation elements and facilities like staircases are places along the edge at the southwest direction, right beside large openings as shown in figure. This provides pliability for the flow of air inside the building, thus improving internal air ventilation. 5. Occupants are able to access the windows placed at the northeast side of the building. This allows a higher degree of control over the ventilation rate in the building, as well as satisfying every user’s comfort. 6. Wing walls along the upwind axes are used to channel air inside the building. It is one of the most important elements of the natural ventilation building as it allows fresh air to move into the interior at a relatively higher velocity and ventilate the building. 3.5 Analysis – Considerations: In this section, the concern for in different cases or high-rise buildings if similar strategies are adopted are explored and discussed. 1. As mentioned earlier, the ventilation concept of Ridzuan Condominium relies heavily on the wind forces. If windows are closed, low air change rate at about 1 ac/h would result in minimal temperature difference. The ceiling height of each floor is too low for the stack effect alone to achieve cooling effect. At the other end, in the situation where the airflow rates are too high (between 6.3 and 28 ac/h), it would create a mess within the building, such as papers or rubbish moving or flying around. The key to resolve this problem is to leave the windows partially opened, establishing a space of moderate airflow rates. However, the absence of a central computer-controlled BMS system would greatly defer the related design to achieve its target efficiency. Although the windows are accessible, it is improbable to anticipate that all occupants to manipulate such openings to their optimum usefulness, for example, closing windows and switching on fans instead of using those windows for natural ventilation. 15
  19. 19. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 2. Monsoon’s excess rainfall under tropical conditions is likely to have a major negative impact. 3. The atria in the center of the building, as well as the balconies that project outwards of the building provide break-out spaces for natural ventilation (space for the air to escape to). 3.6 Recommendation and Possible Solutions With reference to the case study presented in the previous pages, some of the recommendations for the natural ventilation of such high-rise building are developed and elaborated in this section. 1. Local Climate: Figure 18: Reserach about local climate must be carried out. Local Climate should be studied thoroughly and analyzed from different perspectives, without much reliant on the published data, which could be too general and not accurate enough for the study. The impacts of the collected data on wind velocities, humidity and temperatures should be explored and supported with field observations. In hot humid climate like Malaysia, the uncertainties caused by condensation should be considered and taken into account whenever relevant. The disruption of air-borne particles, such as sand and dust should be noted as well because they can be a huge problem for the natural ventilation in high-rise building, lowering the efficiency of the said system and reducing air change rate within the building. In lower levels, pest management is important, especially in Malaysia so natural ventilation must be utilized to keep the air well ventilated and free of pests. 16
  20. 20. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 2. Planning and Geographical Configuration: Figure 19: Geographical configuration of building is important. Tall buildings should be designed with narrow plan depths to aid the movement of air across the interior part and improving the ventilation rate in the building. For better ventilation, open-plan spaces (balconies) should be located on the periphery of the building while service rooms such as pipe rooms or rubbish disposal rooms should be located towards the center. Alternatively, the location of the spaces could be devised in a way to allow for more crossventilation to keep the airflow rates high enough for good air quality. The position of service facilities, such as water pipes should be refrained from blocking the movement of air across the interior. In addition, the stack effect in vertical circulation elements such as staircases and escalator voids should be used to their full potential. The arrangement of the interior design is vital to the ventilation strategy as well because the partition walls and furniture will affect the efficiency of ventilation. 3. Related Sustainable Strategies: Figure 20: Good natural ventilation improves energy efficiency. It is important to consider the reduction of overall heat loads, which could be the key to good natural ventilation effect. Before any action towards a strategy is carried out, issues 17
  21. 21. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. connected to less energy consumption and quicker response to climate should be studies as well, for example, daylighting, shading and thermal mass. 18
  22. 22. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 4.0 Conclusion The main objective of this paper was to form a better understanding on natural ventilation and explore the possibilities of how it could enhance the ventilation of a high-rise building. In order to achieve the targeted goal of this thesis, Ridzuan Condominium was chosen as the subject of the case study. The building design and its relation to the different features of natural ventilation of this building were carefully examined and investigated. Further analysis suggests that natural ventilation is able to benefit the specific building in numerous ways. Two of the apparent examples are shown on the air exchange rate in the building, as constant clean air is obtained from outside to establish healthy and natural indoor environment with reduced capital, maintenance and operating costs. Besides that, the influence of openings, wing walls, central voids and geometrical configuration of the building on the performance of natural ventilation were scrutinized. It was also the intention of this paper to consider the possibility to improve natural ventilation of the building by suggesting few recommendations. Every target set forth at the start of this report was achieved and it is to the hope of the group that this could serve as a good presentation on the knowledge related to natural ventilation as well as our findings of its enhancement to high-rise building. 19
  23. 23. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. 5.0 Learning Outcomes Sia Yiik En 0315253 The report was the results of an extensive research about natural ventilation and its impacts or benefits it could bring to a high-rise building. After finishing this report, I have learnt about the general knowledge of natural ventilation- that it’s either wind-induced or affected by thermal buoyancy- and also how a high-rise building is able to utilize its characteristics to maintain a healthy interior air quality. I have also learnt about the importance of teamwork as. It enables our group to share ideas and responsibilities to complete the paper efficiently. Sim Wen Yi 0308610 For building services 1, our lecturer have assigned a research project for us so that we will have a better understanding of the topics involve in building services. In a group of 5~6 people, we were required to carry out our own research study based on the given topic such as ventilation system, telecommunication, storm water system, cold water supply and hot water supply supported by at least one case study. For our group, we were given the topic ‘Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-rise Building.’ Throughout this research project, I have a better understanding in natural ventilation. There is more than one natural ventilation system that can be use in a building and it has to be included as an important factor that will affect the comfortableness of occupants in the building. Besides, although nowadays human are more rely on mechanical ventilation to achieve high standard of air quality, but natural ventilation in a building cannot be replace. Natural ventilation in a building cannot be avoided whether we design it or not. Natural ventilation system brings a lot of benefits for us, but also some disadvantages than cannot be avoided. After doing this assignment, I am able to identify the application, system, installation, process, benefits and problems of such topic. We are also able to explain the relevant information that related to the selected case study which is the Ridzuan Condominium in Bandar Sunway, Selangor. Teoh Tze Yoong 0314756 Throughout this assignment, I learned how to do work as a team, we have to separate our work enable us to finish it in time. Besides that, I also learned that there is a different between citing a website and a book, I never know that last time. I am impress with all the physic and calculation that involve in this topic which is natural ventilation in high-rise building and also amaze to know how natural ventilation 20
  24. 24. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. improve from time to time, from ancient until now. I also understand the theory on how the natural ventilation works in high-rise building. In addition, I have the knowledge on how the design affect the services and also the things we need to consider when applying natural ventilation like the position of the window. By finishing this group assignment I appreciate every single thing about natural ventilation and the person who invented it. Lim Fang Shiuan 0310399 This project is a study on building services system with the selected topic such as ventilation system, telecommunication, storm water system, cold water supply and hot water supply. We are required to carry out own research study based on given topic supported by at least one case study. In a group of 5 students, we have chosen a topic which is ‘Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Residential Buildings Using Stack System.’ After completing this project, I have extended and refined knowledge relating to the building services technology and the management system. I also developed an understanding of course materials and the current application in construction industry. While doing my research study, I have obtained higher-order intellectual skills including evaluating skills and critical thinking skills. I am now able to understand and explain relevant information related to the selected case study. In order to support the documentation, I have learned to identify the application, system, installation, process, benefits, problems and anything relevant to stack system. Lee Chee Ming 0308958 In this assignment, we are required to from a group of 5 people to do a further research on a selected topic given by our lecturer. We are given ‘Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Residential Building’ as our research topic. After through this assignment, it has improved my knowledge and information about ventilation. After through the research, I realize that there are few types of ventilation such as natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation, stack ventilation and wind ventilation. I can now easily describe the theory of different types of ventilation and how the types of ventilation work in the high-rise building. In addition, I also understand how the design may affect the ventilation inside the building and some of the services may also affect the ventilation. Wong Ha Shiong 0309640 In this project, we are supposed to form a group and write a report on enhancement of natural ventilation in high rise building. We are required to do research on the topic along with a case study. 21
  25. 25. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. With this assignment, I learned more about natural ventilation and how natural ventilation has evolved to the current stage from ancient times. I also learned more on how to achieve natural ventilation such as the design of a building which can affect ventilation. I also learned how it benefits our environment such as it cut down the usage of energy which is very critical in the modern construction environment where sustainability plays a significant role. I also learned how to better research and acquire the information that I need for the assignment and back up my report with real and factual information acquired from a case study. 22
  26. 26. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. Bibliography Architectus (2013) Natural Ventilation – Sustainability Articles – Architectus, http://www.architectus.com.au/sustainability/articles/natural-ventilation [13 Oct 2013]. Baird, G. (2004) Ant Hill, The Architectural Expression of Environmental Control Systems, Taylor & Francis, UK. Climate Zone (2004) Climate - Malaysia, http://www.climate-zone.com/climate/malaysia/ [17 Oct 2013] Givoni, B. (1994) Passive and Low Energy Cooling of Buildings, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Canada. Green Building Tech HK (2007) Green Building Tech - Natural Ventilation, http://gbtech.emsd.gov.hk/english/utilize/natural.html [25 Oct 2013]. Heaters Wholesale Limited, England (2013) Advantages of Natural Ventilation Systems, http://www.heaterswholesale.co.uk/news/ventilation/advantages-natural-ventilationsystems.html [20 October 2013] Jalayerian, M. (2012) ESD. In Understanding High-Rise Building Stack, http://www.esdcurrent.com/2012/07/20/understanding-high-rise-building-stack-effect/ [6 Oct 2013] Japan Sustainable Building Database (2008) Natural Ventilation System of High-Rise Building with Central Void, Nissan Global Headquarters, http://www.ibec.or.jp/jsbd/AS/tech.htm [Accessed 6 Nov 2013] Kukadia, V. & Hall, D. (2011) Ventilation for Healthy Buildings: Reducing the Impact of Urban Air Pollution, IHS BRE Press, Watford. Nick Baker (2013) In Natural ventilation: stack ventilation, RIBA http://www.architecture.com/SustainabilityHub/Designstrategies/Air/1-2-1-2Naturalventilation-stackventilation.aspx [October 17,2013 ] Pollio, V. & Morgan, M.H. (1960) Vitruvius: The Ten Books on Architecture, Dover Publications, New York. 23
  27. 27. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. Royal Institute of British Architects (2013) Natural ventilation: stack ventilation, http://www.architecture.com/SustainabilityHub/Designstrategies/Air/1-2-1-2Naturalventilation-stackventilation.aspx [16 October 2013] Roulet, C.A. (2008) Ventilation and Airflow in Buildings, Earthscan, UK. Stabat,P.P, Caciolo,M.M, & Marchio, D.D. (2012) Progress on single-sided ventilation techniques for buildings. Advances In Building Energy Research, 6(2), 212-241. http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.taylors.edu.my/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=01ec2f966394-4752-87e2-daf17003d82d%40sessionmgr198&vid=2&hid=121 [November 6, 2013] Sustainability Workshop Autodesk (2011). Natural Ventilation, http://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/natural-ventilation [November 6, 2011] Vitruve & Martin, J. (1547) Architecture, Ou Art De Bien Bastir De Marc Vitruve Pollion: ,... Mis De Latin En Françoys Par Jan Martin,... Pour Le Roy Très Chrestien Henry I. Paris: J. Gazeau. West, A. W. (2000) An Exploration of the Natural Ventilation Strategies at the World Trade Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Amsterdam. Wood, A. & Salib, R. (2013) Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Office Buildings, Routledge, Oxon. 24
  28. 28. Enhancement of Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Buildings. Appendix 8 August 2013 To Whom It May Concern: RE: REQUEST FOR PERMISSION TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION This is to certify that the following students are enrolled in the Bachelor of Quantity Surveying (Honours) programme at the School of Architecture, Building and Design, Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus: No. Student Name Student ID No. 1 Sia Yiik En 0315253 2 Teoh Tze Yoong 0314756 3 Sim Wen Yi 0308610 4 Lim Fang Shiuan 0310399 5 Lee Chee Ming 0308958 5 Wong Ha Shiong 0309640 The students are gathering information for the subject Building Services 1 (QSB1714). In order for the students to have in-depth understanding of the subject, they are given assignments and projects that require them to do case studies/research. We would be very grateful if you could provide them your guidance, assistance and necessary permission in acquiring the information as required for their case studies/research. We ensure you that the information gathered is strictly for academic purpose only. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact the undersigned. Thank you. 25

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