History of Federal Child Care and Early Learning Efforts CARE Fellowship  Class 6 Child Care Works  Alicia Frosch  Child C...
Main Programs that Fund Child Care, Early Education and School-age Care in the United States <ul><li>Child Care and Develo...
Why are there so many different programs? <ul><li>Lanham Act dismantled after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive 1971 bi...
Head Start <ul><li>Created in 1965 as a comprehensive program for children living in poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent ...
Child Care in the 1980s <ul><li>Title XX: Social Services Block Grant used for child care </li></ul><ul><li>Small programs...
Family Support Act  <ul><li>Enacted in 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Created an entitlement to child care assistance for mothers ...
Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) <ul><li>Enacted in 1990 because of changing demographics and growing Congre...
Child Care and Adult Food Program <ul><li>Made healthy food available to children as an entitlement  </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Dependent Care Tax Credit <ul><li>Enacted in 1978 to make funds available to help defray some child care expenses </li></u...
TANF in 1996 <ul><li>1995: Extremely negative changes were proposed to child care </li></ul><ul><li>Child care entitlement...
Obama’s Early Childhood Agenda <ul><li>Invest $10 billion per year for 5 years in early childhood education. </li></ul><ul...
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Early Childhood Provisions <ul><li>$2 billion for the Child Care and Development B...
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Early Childhood Provisions <ul><li>$400 million for IDEA Preschool (section 619) G...
State Early Learning Challenge Fund <ul><li>Bill marked up by the House Education and Labor Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Pr...
State Early Learning Challenge Fund, cont. <ul><li>The Fund would establish two types of competitive grants: </li></ul><ul...
State Early Learning Challenge Fund, cont. <ul><li>Priority will be given to states that:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use CCDBG...
Unmet Needs <ul><li>Only one in seven children eligible for federal child care assistance receives help. </li></ul><ul><li...
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History of Federal Child Care and Early Learning Efforts

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History of Federal Child Care and Early Learning Efforts

  1. 1. History of Federal Child Care and Early Learning Efforts CARE Fellowship Class 6 Child Care Works Alicia Frosch Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  2. 2. Main Programs that Fund Child Care, Early Education and School-age Care in the United States <ul><li>Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) </li></ul><ul><li>TANF </li></ul><ul><li>Head Start </li></ul><ul><li>Early Head Start </li></ul><ul><li>Child and Adult Care Food Program </li></ul><ul><li>IDEA Section 619 </li></ul><ul><li>IDEA Part C </li></ul><ul><li>DCTC (Federal and State) </li></ul><ul><li>21 st Century Community Learning Centers </li></ul><ul><li>State Prekindergarten Initiatives </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  3. 3. Why are there so many different programs? <ul><li>Lanham Act dismantled after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive 1971 bill vetoed by President Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>Right wing opposition to child care after veto </li></ul><ul><li>Need to move piecemeal </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  4. 4. Head Start <ul><li>Created in 1965 as a comprehensive program for children living in poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent reauthorizations allowed for initiatives to improve quality, expand training and education, increase provider compensation, focus on more collaboration with states </li></ul><ul><li>Early Head Start created in 1993 </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  5. 5. Child Care in the 1980s <ul><li>Title XX: Social Services Block Grant used for child care </li></ul><ul><li>Small programs created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Care for Parents in School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent Care Block Grant (R&R and school-age) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Select Committee on Children considers child care as first issue </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  6. 6. Family Support Act <ul><li>Enacted in 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Created an entitlement to child care assistance for mothers receiving welfare and mothers transitioning off welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Required market rate for providers </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  7. 7. Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) <ul><li>Enacted in 1990 because of changing demographics and growing Congressional interest (i.e., child care was a campaign issue during the 1988 election) </li></ul><ul><li>Provided for child care assistance for low-income working families (discretionary funds) </li></ul><ul><li>Included a quality set-aside </li></ul><ul><li>Set eligibility at 85% of state median income for low-income </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed states to set eligibility, rates, and co-payments </li></ul><ul><li>At-Risk Child Care also created </li></ul><ul><li>Included an expansion of the EITC </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  8. 8. Child Care and Adult Food Program <ul><li>Made healthy food available to children as an entitlement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through Head Start programs, child care centers, family child care homes, prekindergarten programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Program includes an important quality component which is critical as many states do not have the resources to visit programs regularly or do not require training for child care providers </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  9. 9. Dependent Care Tax Credit <ul><li>Enacted in 1978 to make funds available to help defray some child care expenses </li></ul><ul><li>In 1981, a sliding scale was created </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001, the credit was further improved to increase allowable amounts for child care expenses </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  10. 10. TANF in 1996 <ul><li>1995: Extremely negative changes were proposed to child care </li></ul><ul><li>Child care entitlement lost </li></ul><ul><li>Advocates were able to make changes and convince policymakers of the need for new investments and for investments in quality </li></ul><ul><li>Four programs combined into one </li></ul><ul><li>Child care seen as critical to the success of welfare reform </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  11. 11. Obama’s Early Childhood Agenda <ul><li>Invest $10 billion per year for 5 years in early childhood education. </li></ul><ul><li>Create Early Learning Challenge Grants to help fund state Zero to Five efforts and move toward voluntary, universal preschool </li></ul><ul><li>Quadruple the number of eligible children participating in Early Head Start, increase Head Start funding, and improve quality for both programs </li></ul><ul><li>Expand the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit </li></ul><ul><li>Provide affordable and high-quality child care that will promote child development and ease the burden on working families. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a Presidential Early Learning Council to increase collaboration and program coordination across federal, state, and local levels. </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  12. 12. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Early Childhood Provisions <ul><li>$2 billion for the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$255,186,000 set aside for quality improvement (beyond the required 4 percent), $93,587,000 of which is targeted for improving infant and toddler care </li></ul></ul><ul><li>$2.1 billion for Head Start </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$1.1 billion for expansion of Early Head Start programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>$100 million is available for State Early Learning Advisory Councils </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  13. 13. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Early Childhood Provisions <ul><li>$400 million for IDEA Preschool (section 619) Grants and $500 million for formula grants under IDEA Part C to help states serve infants and toddlers with disabilities and special needs. </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  14. 14. State Early Learning Challenge Fund <ul><li>Bill marked up by the House Education and Labor Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Provides $1 billion a year for eight years using savings obtained through streamlining the federal student loan program </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive grants to states to build comprehensive, high-quality early learning programs </li></ul><ul><li>Increase disadvantaged children’s access to high-quality early learning settings </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  15. 15. State Early Learning Challenge Fund, cont. <ul><li>The Fund would establish two types of competitive grants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Pathways Grants would be available to states that already have made significant progress towards establishing systems for improving the quality of early learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development Grants would be available to states with some elements of an early learning system to support planning efforts </li></ul></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  16. 16. State Early Learning Challenge Fund, cont. <ul><li>Priority will be given to states that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use CCDBG Challenge Grant quality funds for activities; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commit to significantly increasing state early learning expenditures; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate efforts to build public-private partnerships. </li></ul></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011
  17. 17. Unmet Needs <ul><li>Only one in seven children eligible for federal child care assistance receives help. </li></ul><ul><li>Only eight states pay rates at the 75 th percentile of current market rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Less than half of eligible preschoolers participate in Head Start. </li></ul><ul><li>Only about 6 percent of infants and toddlers receive Early Head Start. </li></ul><ul><li>Many states have licensing laws that do not adequately protect children in child care. </li></ul><ul><li>State prekindergarten programs are part-day, part-year. </li></ul>Child Care Works / CARE Fellowship Class 6 - 2011

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