Indian print media is at a massive business in the media world and its newspapers are said to offer majority of national and international news. The history newspaper in India began in 1780, with the publication of the Bengal Gazette from Calcutta. The advent of the first newspaper in India occurred in the capital city of West Bengal, Calcutta (now Kolkata). James Augustus Hickey is considered the "father of Indian press" as he started the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the `Bengal Gazette` or `Calcutta General Advertise` in January, 1780. This first printed newspaper was a weekly publication. In 1789, the first newspaper from Bombay (now Mumbai), the `Bombay Herald` appeared, followed by the `Bombay Courier` in the following year. Later, this newspaper merged with the Times of India in 1861. These newspapers carried news of the areas under the British rule. The first newspaper published in an Indian language was the SamacharDarpan in Bengali. The first issue of this daily was published from the Serampore Mission Press on May 23, 1818. SamacharDarpan, the first vernacular paper was started during the period of Lord Hastings. In the same year, GangaKishore Bhattacharya started publishing another newspaper in Bengali, the `Bengal Gazetti`. On July 1, 1822 the first Gujarati newspaper, the Bombay Samachar, was published from Bombay, which is still in existence. The first Hindi newspaper, the SamacharSudhaVarshan started its circulation in 1854. Since then, the prominent Indian languages in which newspapers had been published over the years are Hindi, Marathi, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Urdu and Bengali. The Indian language newspapers eventually took over the English newspapers according to the NRS survey of newspapers. The main reason was the marketing strategy that was followed by the regional papers, commencing with Eenadu - a Telugu daily started by RamojiRao. The second reason was the growing literacy rate. Increase in the literacy rate had direct positive effect on the rise of circulation of the regional papers. The people were first educated in their mother tongue according to their state in which they live for and eventually, the first thing a literate person would try to do is read the vernacular papers and gain knowledge about his own locality. Moreover, localisation of news has also contributed to the growth of regional newspapers in India. Indian regional papers have several editions for a particular state to offer a complete scenario of local news for the reader to connect with the paper. MalayalaManorama features about 10 editions in Kerala itself and six others outside Kerala. Thus regional papers in India aim at providing localised news for their readers. Eventually, the advertisers also realised the huge potential of the regional paper market, partly due to their own research and more owing to the efforts of the regional papers to make the advertisers aware of the huge market. These advertisers paid revenues to the newspaper house and in return publicised their products throughout the locality. Thus, newspapers in India not only acted as news providers but also promoters of certain market products. Some of the prominent newspapers in India in the recent times are The Times of India, The Statesman, The Telegraph, The Economic Times, Indian Express and so on. The Economic Times is one of the India`s leading business newspapers; carrying news about the Economy, Companies, Infrastructure, Trends in the Economy, Finance, Stocks, Forex and Commodities, news from around the world and from the world of politics besides editorial and various other features. The MalayalaManorama releases daily, weekly, monthly and annual publications from Kerala. Started in 1988 in Tamil and Telegu languages, it is now published in other regional languages like Hindi, Bengali, as well as in English. Among the various publications, the MalayalaManorama Daily has the largest circulation, selling about 11 lakhs 50 thousand copies daily. The Times of India was founded in 1838 as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce by Bennett, Coleman and Company, a colonial enterprise now owned by an Indian conglomerate. The Times Group publishes The Economic Times (launched in 1961), Navbharat Times (Hindi language), and the Maharashtra Times (Marathi language). The newspapers collected their news from the news agencies. India has four news agencies namely, the Press Trust of India (PTI), United News of India (UNI), SamacharBharti and Hindustan Smachar. Newspapers and magazines in India are independent and usually privately owned. About 5,000 newspapers, 150 of them major publications, are published daily in nearly 100 languages. Over 40,000 periodicals are also published in India. The periodicals specialize in various subjects but the majority of them deal with subjects of general interest. During the 1950s, 214 daily newspapers were published in the country. Out of these, 44 were English language dailies while the rest were published in various regional languages. This number rose to 2,856 dailies in 1990 with 209 English dailies. The total number of newspapers published in the country reached 35,595 newspapers by 1993 (3,805 dailies). Newspaper sale in the country increased by 11.22% in 2007. By 2007, 62 of the world`s best selling newspaper dailies were published in countries like China, Japan, and India. India consumed 99 million newspaper copies as of 2007, making it the second largest market in the world for newspapers. Newspapers in India have almost created a huge industry in the nation. It publishes the largest number of `paid-for titles` in the world. In 1997, the total number of newspapers and periodicals published in India was around 41705, which include 4720 dailies and 14743 weeklies. However, in the last one decade the news media in India has changed rapidly. All the major news media outlets have an accompanying news website. A new class of newspapers in India is entirely Internet based.
* The newspaper sales involve distributing highly perishable products under severe time constraints.* The printed newspapers have to be dispatched to various distributors across the region. Transportation is normally through private contract carriers within local area, public transport in case of longer distances and through couriers in other cases.* The newspaper distributor has the rights to distribute the newspaper in his area. The revenue of the newspaper distributor is based on a commission on the sale of every newspaper. The circulation is normally through salesmen appointed and salaried by the distributors, who in turn pass it on to hawkers.* Hawkers, vendors and book stall owners are the last link of the supply chain before newspaper reaches readers. The hawkers' remuneration is also normally based on the commission system and is generally the highest in the entire supply chain.* Responsiveness and efficiency play an important role in newspaper distribution channel. Responsiveness includes supply chain's ability to respond to wide a range of quantity demanded (due to demand fluctuations) and meet short lead times. On the other hand efficiency is the cost of making and delivering the newspaper to the readers.
There has been a frenzy of activities in the Indian newspaper industry - some eye it with pleasure, some with anxiety, but this spur of fresh developments is continuing. New editions, new titles, all-colour pages, acquisitions and mergers, internal co-operation...these are just a few of the happenings that have transformed the entire scenario. Undoubtedly, the newspaper industry is in its full bloom, posing a win-win situation for everyone...newspaper publishers, readers, advertisers, web offset manufacturers, consumable suppliers, etc. Such is the potential of the Indian newspaper industry that come September and Ifra is set to organize IfraExpo for the first time in India. Newspapers shape the nation and it holds true for India as well. Even before India got independence, newspapers played a major role in spreading the issue of independence. Today, India has over 300 big newspapers, besides hundreds of medium and small-sized ones. And the number is increasing almost everyday as existing newspapers bring out new editions apart from new players joining the bandwagon. More recently, Metro International, Sweden is in talks with ABP group to launch their daily ‘Metro’ in India. The negotiations are on and very soon the deal would be done. Similarly, UK based Associated Newspapers and India Today Group have entered into a joint venture to launch the ‘Daily Mail’ in India. With such international newspapers foraying into the Indian market, the future of the newspaper industry at large, looks promising. Little doubt then that Ifra is set to hold its popular event IfraExpo for the first time in India (September 4- 6, 2007, Chennai). Till now, IfraExpo was held only in Europe. There was a time when select group of newspapers were ruling a particular region and they all were self-contained and did not wish to foray into other regions. For example, Hindustan Times was confined to Delhi region, The Hindu in Chennai region, while Tribune was dedicated to Ambala (later Chandigarh), AnandabazarPatrika was confined in West Bengal and Bhaskar in Gujarat and so on. But lately, the scenario has completely changed, probably marked with Times group spreading its wings across other territories; for example, the Times of India added a number of new editions and the recent one being their Nagpur edition. The Indian Express group launched its Marathi daily ‘Loksatta’ in Bangalore and Hyderabad. Deccan Chronicle Holdings Ltd launched the Chennai edition of Deccan Chronicle and they are now planning to bring out a Bangalore edition as well. HT Media Ltd launched a new edition in Kolkata and lately in Mumbai. They also relaunched HT Next, targeted at students of age group 12 to 16 years with its new campaign ‘I am next’. Regional newspapers like DainikJagran, DainikBhaskar, Rajasthan Patrika, AmarUjala, etc have also started spreading their hold over B class cities by bringing out regionspecific editions. Close on the heels of launching its Amritsar and Jalandhar editions, the Bhaskar group launched an edition in Sagar, Madhya Pradesh and more recently Gorakhpur, UP. After launching its Rajkot edition, DivyaBhaskar launched its Jamnagar edition, making it Jamnagar’s first ever Gujarati morninger. They also launched an edition in Anand. AmarUjala launched its Gorakhpur edition, which was followed by an edition in Aligarh. NaiDunia, the Hindi daily, launched its Bilaspur edition, which will soon be followed by Jabalpur and Bhopal editions. Rajasthan Patrika launched a Hindi paper ‘Daily News’ in Jaipur. Sahara Group launched its Urdu daily, RoznamaRashtriya Sahara in Bangalore, which will be followed by the launch of its Srinagar edition, besides specific editions for Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The Sahara group also launched the Kanpur and Dehradoon editions of their popular Hindi daily Rashtriya Sahara. More recently, the Hindi daily, Punjab Kesari forayed into Hisar. JagranPrakashan Limited launched I-next, the first bilingual newspaper in the country, targeting readers in the age group of 18-35 years. The paper was launched in Lucknow and Kanpur and the company has plans to launch the brand in 5 more mini metros of North India. More recently, The Tribune launched its Himachal Pradesh edition; it is notable that it is their fourth edition after Chandigarh, Delhi and Jalandhar. Business newspapers have also branched into new editions in newer territories. Financial Express, the business daily, launched its Pune edition while Business Standard launched its Bhubaneshwar edition. Another business newspaper (20 pages colour and 4 pages black-andwhite) launched was ‘Mint’ from the Hindustan Times group in Delhi and Mumbai. After these two cities, HT Media plans to launch Mint in Kolkata and Chandigarh, giving competition to Economic Times from Times of India group. DNA Money launched its Ahmedabad edition for the Gujarati businessmen and also a stand-alone Mumbai edition, even though it continues to be available as a supplement along with the main paper ‘DNA’ in Mumbai. DNA Money is planning to bring out its Jaipur edition as well. The Times Group has launched a Gujarati language edition of The Economic Times. Another popular way seen to enter into other territories quickly has been by acquisitions, like Times of India group acquired Bangalore-based publishing house, Vijayanand Printers to tap the southern market. The Vijay Times group was comparatively a newcomer to the industry, with its promoters coming from the transport business, but with good political background. Soon, Times of India group launched its Kannada daily ‘The Times of India Kannada’ in Bangalore. It’s really surprising that how fierce competitors join hands to form new strategies - first it was in collective marketing campaigns and now a joint newspaper as well. As a new marketing alliance, Business Standard has tied up with DeshPardes Ni AajKaal, a Gujarati evening newspaper, for advertising combination. This step has been taken to grow the circulation of Business Standard in Saurashtra and Kutch regions. Hindustan Times and Times of India jointly launched a newspaper ‘Metro Now,’ a morning tabloid targeted at the age group of 18-30 years. Metro Now is published by Metropolitan Media; a 50:50 joint venture between HT Media and The Times of India group. Even though the tabloids have not been very successful in the past, specially in Delhi, but this market is now set to experience world-class changes as three major tabloids are lined up for Delhi region alone - first it was Metro Now and recently Mid Day group has relaunched its afternoon tabloid ‘Mid Day Delhi’ on the same content lines as ‘Mid Day Mumbai.’ Both the newspapers are targeted at the young readers who are regularly on the move. Besides, the Times of India group is set to launch Bangalore Mirror, another tabloid for the IT city Bangalore. In terms of adopting new technologies, the newspapers have realized that customer is the king and amidst so many choices, readers would go for newspapers that are more reader-specific, content-rich and give value for money. The blackand- white technology is becoming passé whether it is a mobile phone or a newspaper. Today, readers prefer all-colour editions and more and more newspapers have come out with all-colour editions. This has necessitated the newspaper publishers to opt for CtP technology, which by default has improved the print quality and reduced the waste percentage. Besides, the newspapers are also going in for makeover of their publications, in terms of layout, font and sometimes even masthead. For this, they are spending substantial money and are even taking help of international designers. The cut-off size 546 mm is preferred over 578 mm, which has resulted in savings in newsprint cost. The price of the newspapers also dwindled and some newspapers even went to the extent of offering their newspaper at Re 1 only. The newly launched Metro Now newspaper is also offered for a cover price of Re 1 only and provides 40 pages in colour and 8 in black-and-white. All these trends have facilitated a lot of business potential to press manufacturers and consumable suppliers like that of ink, plates and newsprint. The web press manufacturers in India have been keeping themselves busy round-theclock. Infact, a few of these manufacturers gained presence in international markets as well. The largest Indian web press manufacturer Manugraph went a step further by acquiring US-based Dauphin Graphic Machines (DGM), which is a leading manufacturer of single-width web offset presses in the 4-page segment. Top newspapers in India are now opting for high-speed web presses like that of Goss, MAN Roland, Mitsubishi and mailroom systems from Ferag and Muller Martini. However, the majority of newspapers are continuing their production on indigenously produced equipment. With this impressive growth in the industry, it is high time that the highend manufacturers from developed countries may enter into India either in collaboration with local manufacturers or independently to tap the growing demand. Infact, a little bird has informed that a leading foreign manufacturer is in talks with a local web press manufacturer to jointly set up a new manufacturing facility in India. It would indeed be a major step in this industry and the effect would be for all of us to see. Quality has become an important factor in the industry and Indian newspapers are continuously investing in quality control equipments. The demand for automatic registration control systems has increased to the extent that leading manufacturer QI Press Controls is planning to come up with manufacturing activities in India. The newspaper sales are mostly done through paper stands and stalls, which needs consumer to buy the paper daily. In India, the sales are largely done through door to door.The reputation enjoyed by newspapers is far more trustworthy and reliable than that of any other mass communication medium. Newspapers are still the primary and at times the only source of news available. People have a certain sense of loyalty towards the paper they read.
The Times of India, The Statesman, The Telegraph, The Economic Times, Indian Express and so on. The Economic Times is one of the India`s leading business newspapers; carrying news about the Economy, Companies, Infrastructure, Trends in the Economy, Finance, Stocks, Forex and Commodities, news from around the world and from the world of politics besides editorial and various other features.The Times of India : The Times of India was founded in 1838 as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce by Bennett, Coleman and Company, a colonial enterprise now owned by an Indian conglomerate. The Times Group publishes The Economic Times (launched in 1961), Navbharat Times (Hindi language), and the Maharashtra Times (Marathi language). TOI total revenue is about 700 million dollars'The Statesman : The Telegraph :Indian Express :The MalayalaManorama : Started in 1988 in Tamil and Telegu languages, it is now published in other regional languages like Hindi, Bengali, as well as in English. It has the largest circulation in Kerala, selling about 11 lakhs 50 thousand copies daily.
MissionThe mission of Tribune is , to provide best and fast forward news to the people. to generate sustained surpluses, always striving for excellence, within the framework of law, and in nothing but the truth in which we base every action.Marketing objectivesnewspapers are generally bought by all segments of the population. Even though the newspaper no longer enjoys its former role as the almost exclusive source of news, they still remain a strong factor in their specific sphere of influence.They want to increase their circulation , for that they are charging high prices for advertisements and increasing their distribution channels.Financial objectives The Tribune, want to increase their market share by extending its circulation in other parts of India too. It expects to grow at 9-10% in next five years by satisfying customer needs through its offerings. Also they aim to make considerable profits and achieve economies through backend and front end integration. Target market(s)Their main target market is North India It has established its chain all over Punjab and himachal Pradesh supplying quality and reliable news to the people at right time.they also cover their target groups through its online services.SegmentationTribune has targeted its market on the basis if people belonging to different religions. For people who are well learned , they prefer reading its English editions. people believing in Hindu religion or those who don know English prefer reading its hindi publication dainik tribune and those belonging to sikh religion prefer reading Punjabi Tribune. PositioningThe company will position itself on the basis of price and quality. It has established its reputation since 128 years , so it has positioned a good image in the minds of the people. It has good market value because of it is charging high price for their newspaper @ Rs3 and also through its advertisements. Classified advertisements (Matrimonial, property, jobs, etc.) are published in the print edition of The Tribune @ Rs 600.00 per insertion upto50 words and Rs. 1200.00 from 51 to 100 words
Mumbai city consumes just 75 per cent of the English newspaper copies that Delhi does and not many households are 2-3 paper homes. "I think the Mumbai print market can easily support this level and more
http://www.rediff.com/money/2005/aug/24media.htm If you thought biological warfare was waged only by Saddam Hussein & company, you were dead wrong. Mumbai is the Ground Zero in a fierce battle fought over the building block of life, DNA. For Times of India, which has successfully taken the newspaper wars to enemy fortresses, the battle has finally come home. Get me some oxygen kits please!Suddenly, within the span of a couple of days, there appeared a new series of DNA ads, this time in print form in the Times of India. These ads had 5 people very similar to those featured in the previous ads but with two differences. The people were seen removing the grey tapes from their mouths and the slogan said "Speak up. It's in your DNA - Maharashtra Times". To many unsuspecting people, this was the logical conclusion of the DNA campaign - Bennett Coleman was celebrating the "victory" of its group newspaper Maharashtra Times, for attaining the top slot among Marathi dailies in Mumba
History of Print Media
The history newspaper in India began in 1780, with the publication of the Bengal Gazette from
James Augustus is considered the "father of Indian press" as he started the first Indian newspaper
from Calcutta, the `Bengal Gazette` or `Calcutta General Advertise` in January, 1780 which was a
In 1789, the first newspaper from Bombay (now Mumbai), the `Bombay Herald` appeared, followed
by the `Bombay Courier` in the following year. Later, this newspaper merged with the Times of India
The first newspaper published in an Indian language was the Samachar Darpan in Bengali on May 23,
The first Hindi newspaper, the Smachar Sudha Varshan started its circulation in 1854. Since then, the
prominent Indian languages in which newspapers had been published over the years are Hindi,
Marathi, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Urdu and Bengali.
In 2005, the total number of newspapers and periodicals published in India was around 41705,
which include 4720 dailies and 14743 weeklies.
India consumed 99 million newspaper copies as of 2008, making it the second largest market in the
world for newspapers.
Distribution Process of Newspaper Industry
• The newspaper sales involve distributing highly perishable
products under severe time constraints.
• The printed newspapers have to be dispatched to various
distributors across the region.
• The revenue of the newspaper distributor is based on a
commission on the sale of every newspaper.
• The circulation is normally through salesmen appointed
and salaried by the distributors, who in turn pass it on to
• Hawkers, vendors and book stall owners are the last link of
the supply chain before newspaper reaches readers.
• Responsiveness and efficiency play an important role in
newspaper distribution channel.
• Indian newspaper industry is slated to grow manifold, with growth rate
circling around 6%.
• Market share is projected to grow from Rs 56,300 crore to Rs 92,900
crore by the end of 2013, as per the research done by the Pricewater
• Indian readership survey 2009 says that almost all of the English dailies
are losing readership at a rate much faster than the rate of their growth
including the biggies such as Times of India and HT.
Aren't these news feeds about the Indian newspaper
industry paradoxical w.r.t what has been predicted ??
Daily Circulations Of Prominent players
Hindustan Times -1.14 m
Times of India -3.14 m
Don – 138k
Telegraph : 484971
Anand Bazar Patrika : 1.27 m
Syandhan Dhyan Patrika : 60k
Denuik Jagran : 55.5 m
Hindu : 1.45m
Statesman - 180k
Economics - 620K
The mission of Tribune is , to provide best and fast forward news to the people. to
generate sustained surpluses, always striving for excellence, within the framework
of law, and in nothing but the truth in which we base every action.
Product- The tribune, Dainik tribune and Punjabi Tribune
Pricing• Price if tribune is @ Rs 3 and Classified advertisements (Matrimonial, property, jobs,
etc.) are published in the print edition of The Tribune @ Rs 600.00 per insertion upto
50 words and Rs. 1200.00 from 51 to 100 words. If an advt. matter exceeds 100
words limit, it will be chargeable @ Rs. 355 per sq. cm.
• Advertisements to be published in our language papers — Dainik Tribune (Hindi) and
Punjabi Tribune (Punjabi) along with The Tribune will be charged @ Rs 125.00 (for
one language paper) and Rs 200.00 (for both language papers).
• An additional sum of Rs 150 is to be paid if an advertisement is to be put on the
Online Edition along with the print edition.
• Advertisements required to be carried only in Online edition are charged @ Rs 375
per insertion which is higher than its competitors
Promotion-Its promotion is widespread as it has good distribution channels and good
recognition among the people.
Channels - The Company would offer its product to consumers in 450 cities through 33
branch offices, 250 distributors, 3000 authorized dealers
Mumbai's media war: Who's the winner?
Rs 1300-1400 sq
Rs 800-840 sq
Rs 800-840 sq
The Times of India virtual monopoly in India's
Entry Hindustan Times and Daily News &
TOI share 80 % in Mumbai's Rs 1,500 crore.
Both HT and DNA are trying to capture the
Mumbai market through line sales, the
subscription route and news stand
sales.HT offers a year-long subscription for Rs
Executives in the DNA camp claim that TOI's
news stand sale has dropped by 35,000 copies as
a casual buyer prefers to pick up the Rs 2 paper
DNA Any vendor who can locate a potential
subscriber gets Rs 6.
TOI "it actually takes back unsold copies now".
So, is Mumbai's print media market
overcrowded? "Confusing -- yes. Overcrowded -no,“
DNA warfare rocks Mumbai
The campaign, in its first leg, consisted of hoardings
featuring people from various walks of life with grey tapes
covering their mouths
In the second phase of the campaign, the line "Speak up.
It's in your DNA" was added. Simultaneously, DNA
strands appeared in Mid-Day group-owned private radio
channel GO 92.5 FM, fuelling public curiosity
"Speak up. It's in your DNA - Maharashtra Times".
Advertisement threw up questions like
"What's BMC digging for? Gold? Oil? Fun?
Speak up. It's in your DNA“
"Why can't pubs be open all night? Speak up.
It's in you DNA"
• THE two big dailies are slugging it out once again.
Both Times of India ToI and Hindustan Times (HT)
have slashed the masthead prices to Rs 1.50 on
weekdays between Monday and Saturday for
Delhi. And the price reduction was also extended
to the Sunday edition. HT brought down the
cover price of its Sunday edition to Rs 2.75 from
the earlier Rs 3.50, while TOI cut the price from
Rs 2.90 to Rs 2.
• -- The Hindu Jul 14, 2002
Online Advertisement V/s Print Media
1. Print media is not very good to represent a product comparison to flash.
2. Charged are for lacks of people but only hundred of people generally see an advertisement.
3. Circular of the newspaper are not fixed. Lots of newspaper company gives the wrong figure about the
circular for which nothing thing can be done.
4. No way have you to produce more things.
5. There are only few areas on Print media where advertisements can be seen.
1. Advertisement are in the Graphical form or in the form of flash which is very good to represent.
2. Advertisement on hundred of websites can be viewed by lacks of people and charged for only 100 of
3. List of the sites where ads will be displayed can checked at any time. So that we can not give the fake
figure against you.
4. advertisement can be placed on any home page of website, people can open the site through the single
click of mouse and they are connected with the website.
5. People from all over the world can see.
Lots of more benefits to give the advertisement on website comparison to newspaper or any others print
Prominent newspapers in India in the recent times
Current Publishing Scenario
• The Association of Indian Magazines has 85 magazines with a
• Magazines like Cosmopolitan, Femina were meant for people at the top of
• Women’s era , Savvy targeted upper middle class women.
• Grihshobha and Manorama were intended for women in tier-2/3 cities.
• Storybooks like Tinkle, Chandamama and Champak were intended for kids.
• “Science reporter” was meant for students who had scientific bent of
• Magazine like Men’s health was intended for the urban english speaking
• Businesstoday , businessworld etc. are targeted for business savvy reader.
• Magazines like CSR,Manorama Year book is aimed at students preparing
for competitive exams.
Readership of magazines by type
Major market players
•India Today Group has got 67%of the total market share
•India Today Group which has got magazines like
IndiaToday, Reader’s Digest, Business Today etc.
•ITG has got very strong distribution network across India.
•key competitors-outlook, bussinessworld & the week.
Marketing Strategy w.r.t Price
Prices were kept low so as to tap the customer from the bottom of the
Pyramid and middle class and lo.wer middle class are their target audience
Strong distribution network, emphasis was laid on tier 2 and tier 3 cities .
Outlook,The week started the price war in this space as their unit copy was sold at
Rs.10 against Rs 15 of India Today.
Due to fierce competition from its competitor like outlook,The week India Today
Group had to offer supplements for its various magazines.
Segmented pricing i.e different offerings for different target audience.
Femina, Men’s Health, Good house keeping, Travel Plus etc.
Mastering the pricing “game” by targeting the “right” target audience.
Managing resources for competitive advantage i.e strengthening its distribution
Manage pricing proactively to influence expectations not in reaction to them.
Justify your prices in terms of customer economics not your economics.