Biodiversity Conservation, Sustainability, and Equity: Outcomes of India's NBSAP Process 2000-2003

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India's National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan process in 2000-2003 was possibly the world's largest such exercise, involving over 50,000 people from all walks of life. It resulted in over 70 action plans at local, state, thematic, ecoregional, and national levels. Several methods were used to elicit participation and get inputs, including from local communities. This presentation describes the process used, and the end results.

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Biodiversity Conservation, Sustainability, and Equity: Outcomes of India's NBSAP Process 2000-2003

  1. 1. UNDPMoEFNational BiodiversityNational BiodiversityStrategy and Action PlanStrategy and Action Plan(NBSAP) - India(NBSAP) - India
  2. 2. Produce an implementable action plan to: Conserve Indias biodiversity; Use biological resources sustainably; Achieve equity in access to and benefitsfrom biodiversityMAIN OBJECTIVE
  3. 3. SCOPE and PROCESS Full range of biodiversity: natural andagricultural ecosystems, wild plants, animals,micro-organisms, crops, livestockFull range of values and issues:biological/ecological, economic,ethical, cultural, political
  4. 4. MAIN OUTPUTS33 STATE / U.T. ACTION PLANS18 LOCAL (SUBSTATE) ACTION PLANS10 ECOREGIONAL (INTER-STATE) ACTION PLANS13 THEMATIC ACTION PLANS33 SUB-THEMATIC REVIEW PAPERSNATIONAL ACTION PLAN built on above,and on lessons from several hundred public hearings,workshops, yatras, festivals, and other events
  5. 5. Outputs:Outputs: 61 action plans61 action plans at State,at State,Substate, and Inter-stateSubstate, and Inter-state(Ecoregional) levels(Ecoregional) levels
  6. 6. OUTPUTS: 13 THEMATICACTION PLANS   Natural ecosystems and wild species Domesticated ecosystems and species Livelihoods, lifestyles, and biodiversity Culture, Health, Education Economics and valuation of biodiversity Policies, laws, and institutions Access, benefit-sharing, and IPRs
  7. 7. SUB-THEMATIC REVIEW PAPERS Mining and Biodiversity Community Conserved Areas in Gujarat Tree Plantations and Biodiversity Biodiversity in the Media Biodiversity in EIAs Natural Dyes and Biodiversity Nomadic Pastoralism and Biodiversity Urban biodiversity Home Gardens and Biodiversity Thermal Power and Biodiversity Tourism and Biodiversity Dams andBiodiversity
  8. 8. SUB-THEMATIC REVIEW PAPERS (contd…) Pesticides/ Toxics and Biodiversity Remote Sensing Non-pastoral Nomads Community Based Monitoring Important Bird Areas Customary Laws and Biodiversity Conventional Technologies Agricultural Biotechnology and Globalisation Eco-friendly and Alternative Technologies Integrated Biodiversity Information Systems Conventional Technologies Wildlife Human Conflicts
  9. 9. SUB-THEMATIC REVIEW PAPERS (contd…) Non-Timber Forest Products Indigenous Knowledge Public Distribution System Exotics and Indigenous Biodiversity Research on Agricultural Biodiversity Paper Industry and Biodiversity Humanized Natural Landscapes Climate Change Ecological Impacts of NTFP Collection in WestBengal Environmental Education and Persons WithDisabilities
  10. 10. Ecological Security: integrity ofecosystems and species, protection ofcritical ecosystem values and servicesLivelihood Security: sustaining thesurvival and livelihoods of those directlydependent on biodiversity andbioresourcesTWIN FOCUS
  11. 11.  Elaborate planning phaseElaborate planning phase , with about 30, with about 30guiding papers and methodological notesguiding papers and methodological notes Building onBuilding on past/existing planspast/existing plans andandinformationinformation Use ofUse of local languageslocal languages Participation ofParticipation of all relevant sectorsall relevant sectors Transparent processTransparent process , all documents public, all documents public Open platformOpen platform for people to usefor people to useTHE PROCESS
  12. 12. Public hearings
  13. 13. Mass participation events- boat and cycle rallies, footmarches, street theatre
  14. 14. Festivals- mobile seed display on bullock cart
  15. 15. Technical workshops
  16. 16. OUTREACH IN PRINT
  17. 17. Special outreach- for children, youth, women
  18. 18. KEY STRATEGIES of NATIONAL ACTIONPLANOverall framework:1. Local to national land & water use planning,earmarking areas critical for ecological and livelihoodsecurity, keeping these off-limits to large-scale‘developmental’ and commercial processes2. Ecosystem approach, integrating conservation andlivelihoods across large landscapes and seascapes3. Governance model, starting at smallest decision-making unit and moving upwards at larger levels keepingecological boundaries in mind
  19. 19. STRATEGY CLUSTERS of NATIONAL ACTION PLAN1. Understanding biodiversity: research, databases2. Biodiversity conservation: in situ and ex situ3. Sustainable use and livelihoods4. Equity in access, use, and benefits, esp. of mostdisprivileged groups5. Building capacity: education, training, awareness6. Inter-sectoral integration7. Legal and policy measures8. Financial and economic measures9. Technological measures10. International initiatives
  20. 20. Key strategies on poverty,livelihoods, and biodiversity• Diagnosis–Poverty = resource deprivation (notnecessarily financial…redefine “poor” people)–Key factors: alienation from resourcebase, lack of access to decision-making–Key forces: Ecologically insensitive‘development’ model, and livelihoodinsensitive conservation policies
  21. 21. Key strategies on poverty,livelihoods, and biodiversity• Fully evaluate and recognise contributionof biodiversity to local communities–ecosystem values/services, esp. water–survival, livelihood, health resource fornature-dependent communities
  22. 22. Key strategies on poverty, livelihoods, andbiodiversity (contd)• Review and modify macro-economic anddevelopment policies and programmes:–trade and import-export–taxation and tax breaks–poverty–employment–liberalisation–investment/disinvestment–‘single-window’ clearances
  23. 23. Key strategies on poverty, livelihoods, andbiodiversity (contd)• Integrate biodiversity into poverty eradicationand employment schemes and programmes• Integrate livelihoods into biodiversityconservation schemes and programmes, e.g.protected areas– continuing livelihoods that arewithin conservation values– providing alternatives forunsustainable livelihoods
  24. 24. Key strategies on poverty, livelihoods, andbiodiversity (contd)• Introduce biodiversity into food securityschemes and strategies, e.g. local grains in–Public Distribution System–Food for Work–Mid-day MealsWhy only wheat and rice? Why not millets?Why only one variety of rice?
  25. 25. Key strategies on poverty, livelihoods, andbiodiversity (contd)• Link health, food/nutrition, and biodiversity– Strengthen traditional health systems and access tomedicinal plants– Encourage nutrition from traditional foods as preventivehealth measure, esp. for children and women (linkagriculture, health, and food programmes)– Promote home and roof-top gardens for health and foodsecurity
  26. 26. Key strategies on poverty, livelihoods, andbiodiversity (contd)• Provide incentives to communities, forconservation across the land/waterscape:– Community conserved areas and species– Biodiversity-friendly cropping, pastoral, andfisheries systems– Home gardens (rural and urban)– Urban parks and roof-top gardensIncentives: social, financial, tenurial (CPRs)…is state ready to give over control?
  27. 27. Key strategies on poverty, livelihoods, andbiodiversity (contd)• Support sustainable livelihoods based onbiodiversity and bioresources– Non-timber forest produce– Herbal produce– Aquatic produce– Organic, biodiverse agricultural produce– Undervalued foods– Community managed, ecologically sensitive tourism– Special focus on nomadic peoples, shifting cultivators
  28. 28. Key strategies on poverty, livelihoods, andbiodiversity (contd)• Move towards greater equity in natural resourcemanagement– Tenurial security, common property rights– Empowerment of disprivileged (within and outsidecommunities) in NRM decision-making– Women’s empowerment at all levels– Challenge consumerism of the rich
  29. 29. Key strategies on poverty, livelihoods, andbiodiversity (contd)• Empower local governance bodies to raiseand control funds:–fees for bioresource and knowledge use byoutsiders–grants from central/state budgets–savings by user groups,self-help groups
  30. 30. TOWARDS IMPLEMENTATION• Government commitment•Committee under National Biodiversity Act•State Biodiversity Boards and Acts• Citizens’ commitment and empowerment•Empowering village institutions• Policy changes• Capacity building• Resources
  31. 31. PROPOSED UNDP CCF2 PROJECTCommunity Based Initiatives forLivelihood Security andBiodiversity ConservationObjectiveLinking biodiversity conservation with livelihood security of thepoor, particularly women, through strengthened institutions oflocal self governance, and initiating or strengthening advocacyprocesses for appropriate state and national policy changes
  32. 32. Local level activities 10-15 field sites, demonstrating sustainable livelihoodsbased on biological resources, and enhancing conservationstatus of ecosystems and species•Sustainable use of wild resources (NTFP, med. plants, fish, ecotourism)•Sustainable agriculture (agrobiodiversity)•Sustainable pastoralism (indigenous livestock diversity) Local documentation, monitoring, policy analysis Multi-sectoral dialogues, working groups, activitiesPROPOSED UNDP CCF2PROJECT:Key Elements
  33. 33. National level activities•Policy analysis and advocacy•Inter-sectoral coordination•Community and other stakeholder exchanges•Participatory monitoring and evaluation•Process documentation
  34. 34. National level activities (contd.)•Public outreach including information dissemination, media•Participatory mapping (folk and GIS/RS)•Biodiversity festivals•Capacity building•International representation•National biodiversity network
  35. 35. Note: This presentation was prepared in 2003ContactAshish Kothari, Coordinator, TPCG, NBSAP processashishkothari@vsnl.com

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