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Bovine Somathrophine in cow

Bovine Somathrophine in cow

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  • 1. HISTORY OF BST AS BIOTECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION IN INDONESIA These day, the improvement of technology are growing rapidly. Approximately since 1985, the Indonesian government has made biotechnology as a priority to the development of science and technology conducted by the Ministry for Research and Technology (RISTEK). Furthermore, since 1988, biotechnology has been entered in the REPELITA as well as a development priority, especially in science and technology (iptek). For the first thinking to use BST, Indonesia government start because of the needs of milk in Indonesia. The needs of the national milk increased proportionally with the increasing of the population in Indonesia. But this addition in demand can not be balance with the production in the number of nationwide dairy products. Each year, Indonesia need about 3.3 million tonnes of milk(2013). While domestic milk production in Indonesia is still very low, at 0.6 tons, or approximately 30.25% of the total national supply, so nearly 70-80% of milk supply come from imports. According to Professor of the Faculty of Animal Science UGM Prof Vishnu Murti Tridjoko, the government prefers milk imports. Though the price of imported milk always goes up. Data from November 2013 shows that milk prices outside Indonesia are around 6,500 U.S. dollars per ton. Indonesia still relies heavily on raw milk from Australia and New Zealand, no wonder the price of milk was an easy to increase under the influence of the world dairy prices (Eniza, 2004). One of the technologies that are currently being used widely to overcome this kind of problem is using genetic engineering. Genetic engineering can be used so that the milk produced by cows can be even more . The cows will be added to the body hormone called BST (bovine somatotropin) , a hormone that can increase milk production. Milk production is normally 5.3
  • 2. gallons or about 20 liters per day . With the bovine somatotropin hormone, production will increase at least 6 gallons , or the equivalent is 25 liters per day . By developing a genetic engineering experiment, the needs of milk in Indonesia can be met because the milk production will be increased ( Eniza , 2004) . The use of BST in some countries , especially America has been proven to increase milk production . However, many people, including practitioners , researchers and consumers still question the impact of the use of BST , both in animals , humans and the environment . So until now the use of BST in Indonesia may still wait some time longer to be approve . In fact, compared with imports of dairy cows at the moment which is very costly , the use of BST is proven to increase milk production up to 20 %. By using BST, we don’t have to increase the number of dairy cows as well as facilities such as stables and addition of the new land ( Sulhiyah , 2012). THE CHARACTERISTIC OF BST Bovine somatotropin is a growth hormone found in cattle. The word bovine refers to cattle, and the word somatotropin refers to the name of the hormone. Hormones are chemicals that are secreted by glands within the body. They are natural substances that affect the way the body operates. Bovine somatotropin, abbreviated as bST, is a protein hormone produced in cattle by the pituitary gland located at the base of the animals brain. A hormone similar to bST is produced in all species of animals. This hormone is important for growth, development, and other bodily functions of all animals. In the 1930s, it was discovered that injecting bST into lactating (milk-producing) cows significantly increased milk production. Composition of Milk from Cows Treated with BST There are no differences in milk composition from cows treated with BST and from cows which were not treated. All cows produce BST and all milk contains BST. Protein, butterfat, vitamins, calcium and other minerals remain the same. Natural variations occur between cows, but these cannot be related to which treatment the cow received. Flavor of the milk is also not affected.
  • 3. Consumers are not able to pick out the milk from cows treated with BST as compared to milk from control cows. The differences lays on the production of milk. Milk yields are significantly increased when cows are injected with bST. The blood carries an increased amount of nutrients available for milk production. More nutrients are extracted from the blood by the mammary gland, which improves efficiency of milk production. Feed efficiency (pounds of milk produced per pound of feed consumed) is improved because more milk is produced and the proportion of feed used for body maintenance is decreased. Milk production in bST-treated cows increases from 4.8 to 11.2 pounds per day, helping the cow meet the increased demands until about 20%. An average dairy cow begins her lactation with a moderate daily level of milk production. This daily output increases until, at about 70 days into the lactation, production peaks. From that time until the cow is dry, production slowly decreases. This increase and decrease in production is partially caused by the count of milk-producing cells in the udder. Cell counts begin at a moderate number, increase during the first part of the lactation, then decrease as the lactation proceeds. Once lost, these cells generally do not regrow until the next lactation.1 Figure 1.Typical Example of Lactation Production Curve 1 a b c D.E. Bauman Bovine somatotropin and lactation: from basic science to commercial application. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 17 (1999) 101–116
  • 4. THE WORK OF BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN (BST) IN CATTLE Sources of BST/BGH Early research efforts used crude extracts from bovine pituitary glands. Although the treated cows increased their milk production, the amount of available BST was too limited for commercial use. Biotechnology research received the impetus to produce hormones using genetically engineered bacteria because of our need for insulin. Insulin is also a protein hormone. The insulin isolated from the pancreas of animals is active in man when given by injection and was the source of insulin for diabetics for many years. In the early 1980s, biotechnology made it possible, through use of recombinant DNA gene splicing, to produce insulin from bacterial cells. Today almost all insulin used for human injection comes from this manufacturing technique. The procedure for production of BST is conceptually identical. Biotechnology is also used today to produce human growth hormone to control dwarfism and interferon to treat a form of adult leukemia. BST is the first product approved for use in food animals through this technology. The genes responsible for production of BST in cattle were identified in bovine tissue cells; they cause the pituitary cells to produce the biological product BST. These genes were isolated and inserted into a specific bacteria as part of a plasmid, with gene splicing. As these altered bacteria replicate, the new genes are also replicated and passed along to all new bacteria. The presence of these genes causes the bacterial cell to become a little “manufacturing plant” which produces BST in large quantities. Eventually the bacterial cells are killed and removed, leaving the purified BST. There are four different natural forms of the BST hormone, with just slightly different chemical structures. The synthetic form of BST cannot be distinguished in the milk from the natural form. All milk contains minuscule amounts of BST regardless of whether fromuntreated cows or cows treated with BST. It is not possible, through testing of the milk, to tell if the cow has been treated with BST. When a dairy cow gives birth to her calf, she gradually produces more milk each day until she reaches her peak milk production level at about 60 days, at which time her milk production declines over time. rbST supplementation is initiated between day 57 and 70 of the lactation cycle. rbST supplementation helps cows prolong an improved level of milk production. One cow
  • 5. produces enough milk in one day to provide milk for 125 kid’s school lunches. That same cow supplemented with rbST provides enough milk for about 145 children’s lunches. Hormone BST if injected into the animal's body will promote growth and increase milk production. Because BST can controled the lactation hormone (milk ejection) in cattle by increasing the number of cells in the mammary gland. If a hormone made by genetic engineering is injected in animals, then milk production will increase up to 20% (Anonymous, 2011). Bovine somatotropin has been synthesized using recombinant DNA technology, with a large volume of research around the world (more than 1,500 studies) had been established that during the flood biweekly injections can be believed that BST on dairy cow milk production will increase 10 to 15 percent and improve feed efficiency from 5 to 15 percent (Sari, 2009). Mechanism of the hormone bovine somatotropin Somatotropin Hormone in cow is a branched polypeptida which has 416 - amino acid . This hormones have effects on the cell membrane . The function of this hormone triggers to form and to increase the concentration of cAMP as a second messenger process followed by other biological processes such as to increase amino acids in muscle , kidney and fibroplast and also can cause lypolysis on fat tissue , assisted by other hormones such as thyroxine and glucocor ticoid ( Sari , 2009) . Mechanism of action of Somatotropin in improving lactation performance are with the distribution change of food absorption ( partitioning of absorbed nutrients ) , reducing fat accretion , increased fat mobilization and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues and the oxidation of glucose and amino acids is reduced . As a result, glucose and amino acids become available for the synthesis of milk components as well as fat reserves and being used as a source of energy ( Anonymous , 2011) .
  • 6. HOW TO USE BST Giving Hormone Bst ( Bovine somatotropin ) In Dairy Cattle Through Escherichia coli Bacteria Basically hormone is a product produced by a gland in the body that is distributed via the blood and give a certain effect on the target cells . Therefore , the hormone has a very important role in the regulation of growth han , body composition and milk production ( Kurnia , 2011) . Until now , the only source of BST is from the pituitary gland of cattle. There are only a small number of BST available , and it is very expensive . But now there is a new science of biotechnology makes it possible to work with DNA , part of the cell that contains genetic information for an animal or plant . Scientists have determined that the gene controls the production of livestock or code for BST ( Anonymous , 2010) . To affect a cows milk production, bST must be injected into the animal on a regular basis, similar to the way insulin must be regularly injected into people who have certain types of diabetes. Feeding bST to cows will not work. Amino acids and peptides are the building blocks of proteins. The hormone bST is a complex protein that is immediately broken down into small, inactive amino acids and peptides and rendered ineffective when it enters a cows digestive system. How often a cow must be injected with bST will depend on whether a bST product can be developed that releases the hormone gradually over a long period of time. The way to giving bovine somatotropin hormone by using the role of Escherichia coli bacteria are : 1 . Planting DNA somatotropin in a cow through Esherichia coli bacteria. Where these bacteria can be found in the intestinal tract of animals . 2 . Then after experiencing a complex process that makes Escherichia coli bacteria capable to duplicate the arrangement of amino acids that are exactly the same as on the hormone . The planting DNA then resulted in a row of hormone BST , OST , PST and HST depending on the hormone needed.
  • 7. 3 . After that, the BST hormone produced by the bacterium Escherichia coli will be purified and then injected in cows 4 . With the increasing concentrations of somatotropin that joined in the blood which contains similar hormones derived from the pituitary gland , then they together will lead to the target cells and in this target cells will give additional strength and stimulates the protein and increase milk production , this is seen by the indication of the high overall body protein synthesis and improving the efficiency of protein deposition . In addition , BST also has anti insulin or an anti- diabetogenic that cause the increasing of plasma concentrations of glucose in animals treated with BST . The increase was due to the increasement of gluconeogenesis and the decrease of glucose uptake by adipose tissue ( Kurnia , 2011) More detail can be seen from the picture below : Figure 2. bST Production Use of BST in the Lactation Cycle The milk production response to BST is generally smaller early in a cow's lactation than when administered after peak milk production is attained (Bauman, 1992; Muller, 1992). FDA has approved Monsanto's BST product (Posilac®) to be administered beginning the ninth week after calving (Monsanto, 1993). Parity (the number of lactations for a given cow) can also affect the
  • 8. magnitude of milk response to BST. Some studies have observed higher levels of milk response in multiparous cows as compared to primiparous (first-lactation) cows, but other investigations have reported similar increases for all parities. Differences probably relate to the extent to which first-lactation cows need to divert nutrients for growth in order to achieve mature size. Insulin-like Growth Factors Insulin-Like Growth Factors I and II are involved with growth hormones therefore they need to be considered. IGF-II does not increase when cows are treated with BST; there is a slight increase in IGF-I. It is higher in human milk than in milk from treated cows. If it were injected, IGF-I could be active in humans. IGF-I is not destroyed during pasteurization of milk, however the heat treatment used producing baby formula does destroy this hormone. It is also destroyed when milk or meat is cooked. Since it a protein, it is digested by both adults and infants, and therefore is not considered a problem. How Did Scientists Develop bST? Until recently, the only source of bST was from the pituitary glands of cattle. There were only small quantities of bST available, and it was very expensive. Now, the new science of biotechnology makes it possible to work with DNA, the part of a cell that contains the genetic information for an animal or a plant. Scientists have determined which gene in cattle controls or codes for the production of bST. They have removed this gene from cattle and inserted it into a bacterium called Escherichia coli. This bacterium, which is found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, acts like a tiny factory and produces large amounts of bST in controlled laboratory conditions. The bST produced by the bacteria is purified and then injected into cattle (see figure 2) The movement of a gene from one organism to another, in this case from the pituitary gland of a cow to a bacterial organism, is called recombinant DNA technology. Several Food and Drug Administration(FDA) approved drugs, including insulin for the treatment of diabetes and tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) for the treatment of heart attacks in people, are produced in a similar way.
  • 9. The circulatory systems of humans and animals are packed with chemical messengers called hormones. These hormones travel through the bloodstream in search of specific hormone receptors on distant cells. There they bind to these receptors and initiate a vital cascade of life-sustaining events inside each cell. Hormone receptors are extraordinarily selective in their ability to recognize and bind to hormones. This property confers great specificity in hormone action. The behavior of both humans and animals is governed by hormonal signals which are received, decoded and acted on by the appropriate cells that make up tissues and organs. A cell that can respond to a specific hormone is called a target cell for that particular hormone. There is great specificity in the endocrine system. Not all cells respond to all hormones-, thus, certain hormones may have very potent effects in some cells and no effect in others. THE RESULT OF USING BST Effects of BST on Milk Production Per Cow By 1993, scientists throughout the world had conducted and published in excess of 1,500 BST studies using more than 40,000 dairy cows (Muller, 1992; Bauman et. al., 1994). There is no question that BST use increases milk yield and production efficiency. However, there are many factors that affect the magnitude of the milk production response, and study results vary widely. A number of factors have been identified as influencing milk production response in BST research trials: the quality of herd management, including the availability and quality of feed; the dosage of BST; when BST is administered during a cow's lactation, with the largest increases in milk production occurring when BST is administered following the peak in the lactation cycle, 63-90 days following calving; the age of the cow, with first-lactation cows having a lower response than older cows; and the body condition of the cow prior to the start of treatment, and the cow's initial health before and during treatment.
  • 10. Numerous studies indicate that quality of herd management will be the major factor affecting a cow's milk production response to BST. Thus, projecting the milk production response on the average commercial dairy farm is somewhat speculative. Studies, under widely varying conditions, indicate that BST can boost milk production per cow 10 to 20 percent during the 245- day period (Muller, 1992; U.S. Congress, OTA, 1991). Under actual farming conditions, this study assumes that BST treatment will increase milk production per treated cow by 1,800 pounds per year (this covers the full lactation period of about 305 days). The 1,800 pound increase is equivalent to a 11.5 percent increase in milk production per cow, relative to the currently projected U.S. annual average output of 15,610 pounds per cow for 1993. Effects on Low- Versus High-Producing Cows Most study results indicate that BST treatment tends to increase milk production per cow by an absolute amount regardless of the cow's initial level of milk production. Thus, cows with low or medium production tend to show a higher proportional response than high-producing cows. However, response varies among herds and within herds, as is the case with untreated herds (Thomas et al., 1991). The Dairy Industry Income for individual farmers who adopt BST is likely to increase. Productivity and profit per cow should rise for both small and large farms. BST favors good herd management rather than small or large farms. BST is likely to reinforce productivity changes that have been occurring for decades in the U.S. dairy industry. BST use will increase U.S. milk production by about one percent, through FY 1999. This production will likely lead to slightly lower prices for milk, averaging about two percent lower over the next six years. These lower prices are expected to result in declines in aggregate farm income from dairy farming of about one percent over this same period. Lower milk prices from BST use are also expected to contribute to higher Federal Government dairy price-support costs, but decreased Federal costs for nutrition programs like Food Stamps and the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Federal dairy price-support program costs would increase by approximately $l50 million in the peak year, FY 1996, and decline in later years. This would represent a 1.8 percent increase
  • 11. in total projected Federal farm commodity subsidies for that peak year. Savings in the costs of Federal feeding programs would begin in FY 1997, and could completely offset the increased cumulative costs of the Federal dairy price-support program over 10 years. While there would be savings in the feeding programs before FY 1997, those savings would be used to either increase program participation rates or provide additional benefits to participants. Consumption of Dairy Products Consumers are expected to benefit over the next six years with BST use due to the availability of more milk at lower prices. Largely because of this increase, the net national economic impact of BST usage is expected to be positive. No significant reduction of demand for milk and dairy products is expected to result from BST use. While some surveys reveal strong consumer resistance to BST, others indicate confidence in the U.S. milk supply, and no substantial intent to forego use of BST milk. There appears to be a need for nutrition Outreach on BST's effects. How Does bST Affect Milk Production? To affect a cows milk production, bST must be injected into the animal on a regular basis, similar to the way insulin must be regularly injected into people who have certain types of diabetes. Feeding bST to cows will not work. Amino acids and peptides are the building blocks of proteins. The hormone bST is a complex protein that is immediately broken down into small, inactive amino acids and peptides and rendered ineffective when it enters a cows digestive system. How often a cow must be injected with bST will depend on whether a bST product can be developed that releases the hormone gradually over a long period of time. Milk yields are significantly increased when cows are injected with bST, although not as much as some reports in popular newspapers and magazines suggest. The exact details of how bST increases milk production are not known, but it is thought that blood flow to the cows mammary (milk-producing) gland is increased. The blood carries an increased amount of nutrients available for milk production. More nutrients are extracted from the blood by the mammary gland, which
  • 12. improves efficiency of milk production. Feed efficiency (pounds of milk produced per pound of feed consumed) is improved because more milk is produced and the proportion of feed used for body maintenance is decreased. The actual amount of feed consumed by bST-treated cows increases, helping the cow meet the increased nutrient demands. Milk production in bST-treated cows increases from 4.8 to 11.2 pounds per day. Feed efficiency improves from 2.7 to 9.3 percent (Peel, et al.). Information provided by some groups gives the impression that there is controversy about the biology of somatotropin. However, 800 reports on 20,000 treated cows have yielded remarkably consistent results worldwide (Bauman). Researchers have summarized several bST trials and found a milk production increase of 8.4 pounds per day (Bauman). They estimated that, depending on how the dairy operation is managed, average increased milk production is expected to range from 8.5 to 17.6 percent. It is difficult to predict how individual cows will respond to bST. A higher response is seen when treatment is started after the cow has been producing milk for 101 days, rather than when treatment is started on days 57-100 after calving. The response o f cows treated in early lactation is less (Bauman). Cows that have had more than one calf show a greater increase in milk production than do first lactation heifers (Peel, et al.). Milk yield gradually increases for the first few days after bST treatment begins. A maximum increase is seen in about six days. To meet the needs for this increased milk production, treated cows consume from 10 to 20 percent more grain and forage. Normally, cows reach their peak milk production 7-9 weeks after lactation begins. Milk quantity then slowly declines throughout the remainder of lactation. The ability of cows to maintain relatively high levels of milk production throughout lactation is called "persistency." The major response of cows treated with bST is a significant improvement in persistency. The normal decrease in milk yield as lactation progresses is markedly reduced. Quality of management, including health programs, milking pra ctices, nutrition, cow condition, and environmental conditions will be major factors in the response to bST.
  • 13. REFERENCE Utah State University is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Institution. Department of Agriculture, Robert L. Gilliland, Vice President and Director, Cooperative Extension Service, Utah State University, Logan, Utah. (EP/3-95/DF) Barbano, David M. and Joanna M. Lynch. "Milk from bST Treated Cows: Composition and Manufacturing Properties." Advanced Technologies Facing the Dairy Industry: bST. Cornell University. Nov. 10-11, 1989. Bauman, Dale E. "Biology of Bovine Somatotropin." Advanced Technologies Facing the Dairy Industry: bST. Cornell University. Nov. 10-11, 1989. p. 1-8. Ferguson, James D., and Andrew Skidmore. "Bovine Somatotropin -Reproduction and Health." Advanced Technologies Facing the Dairy Industry: bST. Cornell University. Nov. 10-11, 1989. p. 57-66. HHS News. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Nov. 5, 1993. McDermott, Keyron. Editorial, The Des Moines Register, Des Moines, Iowa, May 3, 1990. Milligan, Robert A. "Profitability of bST Technology." Advanced Technologies Facing the Dairy Industry: bST. Cornell University. Nov. 10-11, 1989. p. 36-48. Peel, C. J.; D. L. Hurd; K. S. Madsen; and G. de Kerchove. Monsanto Agricultural Company. In Proceedings, Monsanto Technical Symposium, Oct. 24, 1989. The Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri. Review of Bovine Somatotropin. FDA Veterinarian. March/April 1990, Vol. V, No. II. Stanton, B. jF., and A. M. Novalovic. "The Impact of bST Technologies: The Pros and Cons." Advanced Technologies Facing the Dairy Industry: bST. Cornell University. Nov. 10-11, 1989. p. 142-148. Written by Nolan R. Hartwig, D.V.M. Iowa State University Extension Veterinarian, and Gjlenda D. Webber, Office of Biotechnology, Iowa State University.

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